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History of Pakistan Army.

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Fort Sandeman , Zhob, Balochistan, Circa 1930.

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Zhob Fort (In Natives Known As The Castel) Is A Fortress And A Military Garrison Built By The British For Their Strategic Use. The Fort Is Also Known As Sandeman Fort.

In 1889 the Zhob Valley and Gomal Pass were taken under the control of the British Government. The Zhob Valley was the scene of number of British expeditions in 1884 and 1890. In 1890 Zhob was formed into a district or political agency, with its headquarters at Fort Sandeman.

In 1890 the district of Zhob was formed with Fort Sandeman, as the capital. The population according to the 1901 census of India was 3,552, the garrison included a Native cavalry and a Native infantry regiment and was also the headquarters of the Zhob Levy Corps.
 

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11ᵗʰ Cavalry (Frontier Force), pyaar se PAVO Cavalry - named after Victoria's shady grandson, Prince Albert Victor.



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The 11th Cavalry (Frontier Force), is an armoured regiment of the Pakistan Army. It was previously known as the 11th Prince Albert Victor's Own Cavalry and was a regular cavalry regiment of the old British Indian Army. It was formed in 1921 by the amalgamation of the 21st Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry (Frontier Force) and the 23rd Cavalry.


After the First World War, the number of Indian cavalry regiments was reduced from thirty-nine to twenty-one. However, instead of disbanding the surplus units, it was decided to amalgamate them in pairs. This resulted in renumbering and renaming of the entire cavalry line. The 21st and 23rd Cavalry were amalgamated in 1921 to form 11th Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry (Frontier Force). The uniform of PAVO Cavalry was blue with scarlet facings. The new regiment's badge consisted of the Kandahar Star representing the five rivers of the Punjab. Its class composition was one squadron each of Punjabi Muslims, Sikhs and Dogras. The regiment was mechanised in 1940. During the Second World War, it initially served in Syria and Iran, and then went on to North Africa, where it fought in the Battle of Gazala. It then moved to Burma, where it greatly distinguished itself against the Japanese. In 1946, the regiment was sent to the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) to pacify the country after the surrender of the Japanese.[1][3]

On Partition of India in 1947, PAVO Cavalry was allotted to Pakistan. The regiment was soon engaged in fighting the Indians in Kashmir. In 1956, Pakistan became a republic and all titles pertaining to British royalty were dropped. The regiment's new designation was 11th Cavalry (Frontier Force). During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, 11th Cavalry took part in Pakistan Army's advance towards Akhnur in Kashmir. It then fought in the Battle of Chawinda. In 1971, the regiment again served in the Chhamb Sector of Kashmir. It is the only armoured regiment of Pakistan Army to carry Battle Honours on its Regimental Colours for all three wars fought with India.

1921 ..........21st/23rd Cavalry (amalgamation)
1922 ..........11th Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry (Frontier Force)
1927.......... Prince Albert Victor’s Own Cavalry (11th Frontier Force)
1956.......... 11th Cavalry (Frontier Force)
 
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ghazi52

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Greetings From Peshawar, 1905 (c).


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This early and rare double-view "Greetings from" postcard was made for the Royal Sussex Regiment, then stationed in both Peshawar and (presumably during the winter) in Cherat hillstation. The frames around both images are embossed. K.C. Mehra was a photographer who worked for the British Indian army in both Peshawar and Cherat.
 

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The ropeway transit system at Landi Kotal, Khyber Pass, Photograph by Randolph Bezzant Holmes (1888-1973), 3rd Afghan War, 1919 (c).


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Landi Kotal was a British post at the western mouth of the Khyber Pass. In May 1919 it witnessed one of the first engagements of the 3rd Afghan War (1919) when the water supply to the post from nearby Bagh was cut and several labourers working for the British were killed by armed tribesmen under the command of Zar Shah, a notorious raider who claimed to be acting on the orders of the Afghan Commander-in-Chief.

The Afghan regular army then advanced across the frontier in support. Following this, the British garrison at Landi Kotal was expanded to brigade-size and on 11 May they captured Bagh, restoring the water supply and driving the enemy back across the border in the process.

Supplies for the troops at Landi Kotal had to pass through the Khyber by mule, bullock, camel and motor vehicle. In addition, a ropeway system for transporting supplies in carriers was built.

As it was impossible to guard the entire line much of the material transported on the ropeway was stolen by the local Afridi tribesmen.

From an album of 43 photographs, 1920 (c)-1925. Compiled by Major G A Clarke, 12th Pioneers (The Kelat-i-Ghilzie Regiment).
 

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The Battle of Khyber Pass November 26, 1738 was an engagement fought in the mid-eighteenth century between the Persian empire of Nader Shah and the Mughal vassal state of Peshawar.

The result was an overwhelming victory for the Persians opening up the path ahead to invade the crown-lands of the Mughal empire of Muhammad Shah. The Khyber Pass is a mountain pass in the northwest of Pakistan, on the border with Afghanistan. It connects the town of Landi Kotal to the Valley of Peshawar at Jamrud by traversing part of the Spin Ghar mountains. An integral part of the ancient Silk Road, it has long had substantial cultural, economic, and geopolitical significance for Eurasian trade.

Throughout history, it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the pass is 5 km (3.1 mi) inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal, while the lowest point is at Jamrud in the Valley of Peshawar. The Khyber Pass is part of Asian Highway 1.

Map - A map of the Khyber campaign, illustrating Nader's incredible 80 kilometer flank-march. Invasion route into the Punjab valley & northern India opened.



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Colonel Sir Robert Warburton, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Aslam Khan Sadozai, Officers And Sowars Of Khyber Rifles, Circa 1890's.

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The First Commandant Of The Khyber Rifles Was Sir Robert Warburton, Son Of An Anglo-Irish Soldier Robert Warburton Of The Bengal Artillery And His Wife Shah Jehan Begum, An Afghan Princess. Sir Robert Remained The Commandant Until His Retirement In 1899. His Deputy, Colonel Sir Aslam Khan Sadozai, The First Muslim Commandant, Succeeded Him.

Source - Eighteen Years In The Khyber 1879-1898 "With Portraits, Map, And Illustrations".
Author - By Colonel Sir Robert Warburton.
Publisher - Jhon Murray, London, 1900.
 

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Those who don't know, the rank of jemadar in British army is equivalent to naib subedar in infantry units, and naib risaldar in cavalry and armoured corps units.
The battle of Chajja Hill was the turning point of AJK war of liberation.
 

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The Prince Of Wales With Officers Of His Own Regiment "Skinner Horse" At Rawalpindi, 1906 (c).
Source - The Graphic, January 6, 1906.


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Fort Gulistan, Tirah Valley, North-West Frontier, 1897-98 (c).

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The Battle of Saragarhi was fought before the Tirah Campaign on 12 September 1897 between Sikh soldiers of the British Indian Army and Pashtun Orakzai tribesmen. It occurred in the North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan).

The British Indian contingent comprised 21 Sikhs of the 36th Sikhs (now the 4th Battalion of the Sikh Regiment), who were stationed at an army post attacked by tribesmen. The Sikhs, led by Havildar Ishar Singh, chose to fight to the death, in what is considered by some military historians as one of history's greatest last-stands. The post was recaptured two days later by another British Indian contingent.

Sikh military personnel commemorate the battle every year on 12 September, as Saragarhi Day.

Note - The Tirah Campaign proved the most difficult and protracted military operation during the rising costing the Army in India 287 dead and 853 wounded, despite initial expectations in many quarters that British and Indian troops would only be opposed by lashkars still reliant on hand-to-hand combat supported by limited jezail or occasional rifle fire.

3 In his final report dated 24th February 1898 Major-General Sir William Lockhart summed up the difficulties encountered by imperial troops, "No campaign on the frontiers of India has been conducted under more trying and arduous circumstances than those encountered by the Tirah Expeditionary Force"
 

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Continuing from







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Jan 13, 2021
Pakistan Army.


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Commandant HL Lloyd, MC, OEB, RE briefing Liaqat Ali Khan, Prime Minister during his visit to SME (School of Military Engineering) Sialkot.
After independence in April 1948, School of Military Engineering (SME) was established at Sialkot, Pakistan. In 1952, SME was shifted from Sialkot to Risalpur and later developed and renamed as Military College of Engineering (MCE).

Date: 1950



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Troops movement by train.

Men of the 2nd Battalion The Durham Light Infantry start their epic 300 mile journey from Ambala to Sialkot.
Date: 1926




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Omer Khan
Thanks for drawing my attention to this Waiz. Yes, the 2nd Btn , Durham LI, were actually just only returning to India. From July 1920 to November/December 1926, they were on duty in Turkey and the Middle East. They returned to India in December 1926, and traveled up from Bombay (now Mumbai) to Delhi, and then via Delhi-Ambala-Amritsar-Lahore, to Sialkot cantonment, by train.
But they didn't get much rest, in February 1927 they were sent to guard the International Settlement, at Shanghai, China. And finally returned to India in August 1927, and they stayed there for a longish stay, until November 1937, when they finally returned home to England.




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British Army Carabiniers.
Sialkot.
Date: 1882
 

ghazi52

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@WebMaster

Please shift this thread to Army section.
and merge with
Pakistan Army History..

Thanks
 

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