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History of Pakistan Army.

ghazi52

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Circa 1944


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Mortar crew from the 2/1ˢᵗ Punjab, during the Burma Campaign.

Four years later, the unit would fight in Kashmir, where it's SigO would immortalize himself while leading an attack on Tilpatra, 7 miles south-west of Uri, winning the PA's first Nishan-e-Haider.
 

ghazi52

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Razmak Brigade Gate, Circa 1927.

After the tribal uprising of 1919-1920, it was decided during the spring of 1922 to locate the main garrison of Waziristan at Razmak. The self-contained cantonment, capable of holding 10,000 men, was established in January 1923.

New roads linking the garrisons and camps in the area were constructed to permit speedier troop movements.



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ghazi52

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2/3rd Gurkha Huts Kila Drosh Chitral Campaign, C.1895 - 1896.

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The Chitral Campaign 1896 Photograph Album an original album of photographs featuring Officers and Goorkha soldiers involved in relieving the siege in this small campaign in Chitral on the North West Frontier. See Less
 

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Maxim Gun Detachment Of The 1st Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps, Chitral, 1895.

The men are posing with a .303 in. Maxim machine gun and .303 in. Lee-Metford Magazine Rifles. The 1st Battalion were then serving with Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Low's Chitral Relief Force.



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ghazi52

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Royal Corps of Signals, Waziristan, Circa 1930.

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The NCO is operating a 5 inch heliograph with Alexandra piquet in the background. It was captured by 3 Gorkha Regiment (Princess Alexandra’s Own) in 1922. The piquet is named after Alexandra.
 

ghazi52

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An Armoured Car On Patrol Near Jamrud Fort Circa 1919.


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Armoured cars greatly increased the firepower of the British on the frontier. They were used to patrol areas and harry retreating tribesmen. However, the lack of roads on the frontier limited their operational use. There was also a problem, never fully resolved, about how they would work alongside the traditional cavalry.

Note - Rainy season flash flood stream in front of Jamrud Fort. The mountain behind Jamrud Fort is Mountain of Village Gundai of Kuki Khel Sher Khan Khel Sub Tribe. In the foothills runs a canal bringing water from River.

Photograph by Randolph Bezzant Holmes (1888-1973), Peshawar Based Photographer.
 

ghazi52

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This house was built by British Army in 1925 in Karachi. Later the house remained abandoned for years but finally in 2020, a passionate person got a hold of it and renovated it in best possible way. Looks beautiful now especially at night.


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An British Indian Army Cavalry Regiment Crossing a Bridge In Waziristan, Circa 1936. From The Photo Album Of William John Oliver Royal Tank Corps.
 

ghazi52

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The Great Legend, A Great Human Being, A Great Soul, A Devoted Educationist Mr. Hugh Catchpole (26th May, 1907 - 01 February, 1997) - Founder Principal - Cadet College Hasan Abdal


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Mr Hugh Catchpole was one of the most distinguished educationists who taught generations and left an indelible mark on his students. Born in England, he joined Prince of Wales' Royal Indian Military College, Dehradun (now Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC) in 1928 and went on to become its Principal in 1948.

The first Pakistani Air Chief, Air Marshal Asghar Khan and his successor Air Marshal Nur Khan had been his students at RIMC. They requested him to come to Pakistan and become the founder Principal of Cadet College Hasan Abdal. He was still at Hasan Abdal when Air Marshal Asghar Khan handpicked him to join PAF Public School Sargodha as Principal, in 1958. He stayed there till 1967 and then joined Abbottabad Public School as Head of English Department, a post he held till his very last. He died at the age of 90, on 01 February, 1997, at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi.

Mr Catchpole was buried with such honours as would be the envy of many. Besides being an extraordinary educationist, Mr Catchpole was a humanist and philanthropist, who remained a bachelor throughout his life and financed many students' education with his scholarship funds in England, India and Pakistan. In his will he wished to donate all balances of his account to the institutions he had been associated with.

Mr Hugh Catchpole was honoured twice by Her Majesty the Queen Elizabeth. In 1971, he was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE). In 1980, the Queen awarded him Commander's Badge of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) also called the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. In 1979, the President of Pakistan General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq conferred upon Mr Catchpole the award of "Sitara-i-Imtiaz" for his meritorious services in the field of education.

On 15 June, 2007, the President of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraf conferred upon Mr Catchpole the highest civil award of Pakistan "Hilal-i-Imtiaz" posthumous for his incomparable, selfless and single minded dedication to the cause of quality education in Pakistan.

Mr. Hugh Catchpole breathed his last on 1st February 1997, and in accordance with his will, he was buried on the soil of Cadet College Hasan Abdal.
Thank You Mr Hugh Catchpole
 

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Maj Sher Ali Kiani as a Battery commander in 1945 in Royal Indian Artillery.
 

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Regimental Sergeant Major Leonard Drinkwater painting the Middlesex badge in the Khyber Pass, Circa 1925.
Between 1849, when the British first annexed the lands that became the North West Frontier, and 1947 when they left India, almost every Army regiment served in the Khyber Pass. While manning this outpost of empire many soldiers carved and painted their regimental insignia on to the rock faces there to mark their service on the frontier.
 

ghazi52

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The Tirah Expedition, Peshawar, Circa 1897.

The Tirah Field Force Preparing To Attack The Afridi And Orakzai Tribes Near The Khyber Pass (Tirah).

Photographer Unknown.




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ghazi52

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A detachment of Indian Army soldiers on camels, Waziristan, North-West Frontier, Circa 1919.

The men depicted probably belonged to the 2nd Battalion, 61st King George's Own Pioneers. Because they were so well adapted to desert conditions, were strong and could walk for miles a day, camels were ideal for patrolling the dry terrain of Waziristan. The one-hump Arabian camel or dromedary was used as a pack animal by the British and Indian Armies for many years.

From album of 96 photographs compiled by Lieutenant Frank Allen Hanson, 2nd Battalion 61st King George's Own Pioneers, 1918-1919.

© National Army Museum


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Armoured Corps


History

Journey of Armoured Corps centre from Ahmednagar to Nowshera commenced with the announcement of independence of Pakistan as made by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. On the same day, the Pakistan Armoured Corps was born. At that time, there was no Armoured Corps training institution in any area. All such training institutions were located at four different places in India. These were:-

  • Armoured Corps Officers Training School at Ahmednagar
  • Armoured Corps Training Centre No. 1 at Lucknow
  • Armoured Corps Training Centre No. 2 at Ferozepur
  • Armoured Corps Training Centre No. 3 at Babina


Under the Independence Act, it was decided that the Indian Army, including the Armoured Corps, will be divided at the ratio of 2:1 between India and Pakistan. The Armoured Corps School at Ahmednagar had to stay with India, and the Muslim instructors were allowed to opt for the newly born state of Pakistan. In addition, the training equipment at the school was also to be distributed as per the decided ratio. To carry out this colossal task of distribution, a board composed of British, Muslim, Sikh and Hindu officers was constituted under the chairmanship of Brigadier Gimson, who was the Commandant of the Armour School at that time. On similar lines, other boards were constituted, for all other training centres.






After the arrival of Mountbatten, as Viceroy of India, the partition date was announced. Time was precariously short. The C-in-C, Field Marshall Sir Claude Auchinleck and his staff produced the plan for the division of the Army. The division of the Indian Armoured Corps was based upon the principle that regiments with ethnic majorities would be allotted to their respective ethnicities. Pakistan's share was 6 regiments, (5 H, 6 L, 11 C, 13 L, 19 Land Scinde Horse). Since Guides had one Dogra and one Sikh squadron, it was allotted to India. Scinde Horse with one KK (Khaim Khani) and one Pathan squadron was earmarked for Pakistan. Because of the Guide's association of over 90 years with Mardan, the CO requested for it to be allocated to Pakistan. The C- in- C refused, however, a miraculous freak changed our fate. The KK squadron of Scinde Horse decided to remain in India as their homes in Rajputana were now part of India. This happy decision of the KK squadron brought the Guides to Pakistan. It received the Pathan squadron from Scinde Horse and the PM squadron from Hodson's Horse, giving its Sikh squadron to Hodson's Horse and its Dogra squadron to Scinde Horse.







"On Partition, the Indian Army retained what was the Centre and School of the Indian Armoured Corps along with a majority of the officer cadre, most of whom were non-Muslims, in accordance with the British policy. Consequently, with very few officers in Armoured Corps, all below the rank of lieutenant colonel, and with the GHQ placing emphasis mostly on the Corps of Infantry, the organization of the Armoured Corps was adversely affected in the initial period preceding Partition. The overall situation was so pathetic that there was no existence of even a Directorate for the Armoured Corps, which is so vital for regulating the affairs and solving the evolutionary problems of the Corps, there being just a Grade-2 staff officer who was a British officer named Major Ritter.

The Armoured Corps Directorate was established at a much later stage when Brigadier Idrees, Commander 3rd Armoured Brigade was appointed Director Armoured Corps and was later replaced with the rank of a Major General. The Armourtd Corps Centre and School were established at Nowshera. Matters at these institutions progressed slowly till Colonel Ihsanullah Babar took over as Commandant, after which things began to improve considerably at a quicker pace as procedures, drills and training policies were streamlined.




1947-1948






After taking over some share of stores, equipment and funds,assets were moved to Pakistan. Nowshera was selected for the Armoured Corps Centre and School. The advance party arrived at Nowshera in November 1947 and the main body followed a month later. The Sikh Regimental Training Centre and British Military Hospital lines were taken over. Considerable difficulties were experienced both in India and on arrival here, but due to the sheer hard work, initiative and dedication displayed by the officers, junior commissioned officers and soldiers, all difficulties were overcome and the Armoured Corps Centre and School was established at Nowshera Cantonment. In April 1948, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah visited this establishment and addressed a Durbar which is an honour for the Armoured Corps. In April 1948, the first attestation parade was held for the first batch of recruits to pass out and since then a steady flow has been maintained.

War Performance 1965 War

13 Lancers
The regiment acted as the spearhead of the advance in Akhnur Sector of occupied Kashmir and penetrated 23 miles into enemy territory. Fourteen soldiers were martyred, including three officers, while twenty eight were wounded. For these actions the regiment was awarded the battle honour Dewa – Chumb and Jaurian 1965 and was also awarded the title of The



Spearhead Regiment
.


Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force)

The regiment, as part of 6 Armoured Division, fought the Battle of Chawinda along Charwa axis. It was ordered to hold and repulse the advancing elements of the Indian 1st Armoured Division on approach Charwa-Phillaura-Chawinda. Later the unit put in a regimental attack on 8 September. As a result, the Indian 16 Cavalry lost 16 tanks and 8 tanks were captured, while the unit lost 4 tanks. In this attack 3 officers of the unit embraced Shahadat. These officers were awarded Sitara-i-Jurat for their gallantry.



06 Lancers


During this war the regiment operated in the Khem Karan Sector under command 11 Division. It was 6 Lancers that stepped first into Indian territory and under its brave Commanding Officer, Lt Col Sahib Zad Gul, captured Khem Karan, amongst the first Indian towns to be captured by Pakistan. During this war, 2 officers, 11 Non-Commissioned Officers and 7 sowars of the regiment embraced Shahadat, including the Commanding Officer.




20 Lancers

During this war, the regiment was under 15 Division in the Sialkot sector. The regiment took part in the defence of Sialkot Cantonment and Dallowali Railway Station. Numerous enemy tanks, and other munition were destroyed. Fifteen soldiers of the regiment embraced Shahadat.

4 Cavalry


The regiment less reconnaissance troop participated in Indo-Pak War as part of 6 Armoured Brigade ex 1 Armoured Division in Khem Karan Sector. After suffering heavy casualties the regiment captured its objective. The regiment also celebrates 10 September to recall those memories and rejuvenate the sprit that is FOURTH CAVALRY. The reconnaissance troop of the regiment was placed under command 8 Baloch Regiment, and went into action in Chhamb Sector. During this war, 2 Junior ommissioned Officers, 4 Non-Commissioned Officerss and 11 sowars embraced Shahdat. Two officers of the regiment were awarded Sitara-i-Jurats along with Tamgha-i-Jurats to other soldiers of the regiment.

22 Cavalry
The regiment saw active field service in Sialkot Sector. It was given the mission of holding the railway line from Gunna Khurd to Rakh Baba Bhureshah, and preventing enemy penetration across the “Black Line” as it was operationally called. The regiment, along with affiliated forces successfully repelled repeated enemy attacks.
23 Cavalry (Frontier Force)


The regiment was in the Lahore Sector. On 8-9 September 1965, it took part in the 22 Brigade counter attack across BRBL Canal, from over the North Syphon so as to destroy the enemy and secure the area up to the Grand Trunk Road at Mile 13-14. During the counter attack near Pul Kanjri Distributry, a jeep along with pennon, briefcase and diary of Major General Naranjan Purshad, GOC 15 Indian Division was also captured. During this action, 2 officers, 1 Junior Commissioned Officer and 5 sowars of the regiment embraced Shahadat.

24 Cavalry (Frontier Force)
Rann of Kutch April 1965 While stationed at Lahore under Headquarters 10 Division, the regiment detached A Squadron for deployment under Headquarters 8 Division in Chhor Sector. Later, A Squadron along with 2 FF, under command 6 Brigade, attacked and captured Biar Bet. Khem Karan September 1965 The unit was under command 1 Armoured Division at Raiwind. As part of 5 Armoured Brigade, it took part in operations across Rohi Nullah in Kasur Sector. In this operation by significant personal gallantry, Major Khadim Hussain destroyed three enemy tanks with an abandoned recoilless rifle.
25 Cavalry





The regiment under command 6 Armoured Division in Chawinda Sector remained in action throughout the 17 days of the war. 8 September was the most crucial day when four Indian divisions spear headed by their First Armoured Division (Fakhar-e-Hind) broke out of village Charwa on three axis. With total disregard to enemy strength, 25 Cavalry repulsed enemy advance by inflicting heavy casualties. The day’s action culminated in capture of the vital ground of Gadgor.

The badly mauled enemy leaving his destroyed equipment withdrew towards Chobara. On the next day, the enemy made desperate efforts to dislodge the unit from Gadgor, but the regiment held on till 10 September. The C-in-C Pakistan Army General Muhammad Musa came specially to address the regiment at Pasrur, during which he praised the deeds of the regiment and announced the title of “MEN OF STEEL”, which was later approved by General Headquarter in 1976. The regiment was awarded 5 Sitara-i-Jur'at, 10 Tamgha-i-Jur'at. During this action 2 Junior Commissioned Officerss, 5 Non-Commissioned Officers and 9 soldiers of the regiment embraced shahadat.

 

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