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History of Pakistan Army.

ghazi52

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Pakistan Army.


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Commandant HL Lloyd, MC, OEB, RE briefing Liaqat Ali Khan, Prime Minister during his visit to SME (School of Military Engineering) Sialkot.
After independence in April 1948, School of Military Engineering (SME) was established at Sialkot, Pakistan. In 1952, SME was shifted from Sialkot to Risalpur and later developed and renamed as Military College of Engineering (MCE).

Date: 1950


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ghazi52

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Troops movement by train.

Men of the 2nd Battalion The Durham Light Infantry start their epic 300 mile journey from Ambala to Sialkot.
Date: 1926



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Omer Khan
Thanks for drawing my attention to this Waiz. Yes, the 2nd Btn , Durham LI, were actually just only returning to India. From July 1920 to November/December 1926, they were on duty in Turkey and the Middle East. They returned to India in December 1926, and traveled up from Bombay (now Mumbai) to Delhi, and then via Delhi-Ambala-Amritsar-Lahore, to Sialkot cantonment, by train.
But they didn't get much rest, in February 1927 they were sent to guard the International Settlement, at Shanghai, China. And finally returned to India in August 1927, and they stayed there for a longish stay, until November 1937, when they finally returned home to England.



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British Army Carabiniers.
Sialkot.
Date: 1882
 

ghazi52

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A Watch Tower In Khyber Pass, Circa 1924.

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Khyber Pass, sung by Kipling and famed in the history since the hordes of Alexander marched through it, is once again heavily guarded by British troops. An armed camp at the mouth of the famous defile into Afghanistan is maintained against the double threats of Indian unrest and a possible Bolshevik invasion from eastern Russia.
Pictured above is the block house or watch tower of an Afridi Khan. Each house in the Afridi country is a small fort. India's loyal sepoys guard the Afghan-Indo border and keep peace among the many independent tribes.
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Photograph Of The Shagai Fort In The Khyber Pass, Circa 1920's.

The Fort, Built In The 1920's, Is At The Middle Of The Khyber Pass And is The Headquarters Of The Khyber Rifles, This Building, Ten Miles From Jamrud.



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ghazi52

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British Vickers Light Tank Mark IIB Indian Pattern On Patrol Near Besai Hill At Khyber Pass, January 1940.

During The World War II, The British Were Increasingly Worried About The German Advance Towards The Caucasus. If Germans Had Broken Through Central Asia Would Have Been Theirs Attack Through Khyber Pass Was Expected. So Accordingly The Khyber Pass Received Extra Defences Like This British Light Tank.




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A Native Outpost On The Frontier Of Afghanistan, Khyber Pass, Circa 1921-1922.


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ghazi52

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An Armoured Car On Patrol, Near Jamrud Fort Circa 1919.

Photograph by Randolph Bezzant Holmes ,


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Additional Note - Rainy season flash flood stream in front of Jamrud Fort. The mountain behind Jamrud Fort is Mountain of Village Gundai of Kuki Khel Sher Khan Khel Sub Tribe. In the foothills runs a canal bringing water from River.

Armoured cars greatly increased the firepower of the British on the frontier. They were used to patrol areas and harry retreating tribesmen. However, the lack of roads on the frontier limited their operational use. There was also a problem, never fully resolved, about how they would work alongside the traditional cavalry.
 

ghazi52

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Indian Mountain Battery in action in the Khyber Agency, C.1930s.

This could possibly be the 21st Kohat Mountain Battery (Frontier Force). The road from Landi Kotal to Torkham can be seen in the right of the picture. Some soldiers of the 1st Battalion, The King's Regiment (Liverpool) can also be seen near the gunners.
 

ghazi52

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A Gatling Gun Detachment In The Kurram Valley 2nd Anglo-Afghan War, 1879.


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The Weapons Are Equipped With The 1872 Broadwell Ammunition Drum, The Dust Of Afghanistan And The Gatling Gun Did Not Mix Well.
 

ghazi52

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Peshawar Mountain Battery In Action, Bilandkhel Hangu, Circa 1890 - 1895.


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The 23rd Peshawar Mountain Battery (Frontier Force) Was An Artillery Unit Of The British Indian Army. It Was Raised In 1853 As The Peshawar Mountain Train. It Became The 23rd Peshawar Mountain Battery (Frontier Force) In 1903.

In 1947, It Was Transferred To The Pakistan Army, Where It Exists As The 3rd Peshawar Battery (Frontier Force) Of The First (SP) Medium Regiment Artillery (Frontier Force).
 

ghazi52

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The 1st Battalion 90th Punjabis at Thal, C.1919.


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During the First World War, the 90th Punjabis served in Mesopotamia, where they arrived in January 1915, as part of the 12th Indian Brigade. After serving in the Persian Arabistan with the 12th Indian Division, the regiment moved to the Euphrates Front in July.

For the rest of the war, it operated on the Euphrates Line with 15th Indian Division and fought with great distinction in the Battle of Nasiriyah, the Action of As Sahilan, the Second Battle of Ramadi and the Action of Khan Baghdadi.

During the war, the 90th Punjabis suffered 452 casualties including 158 killed and were awarded a number of gallantry awards. Soon after returning home, the regiment was again called out to serve in the Third Afghan War in 1919.

In 1918, 90th Punjabis raised a second battalion, which saw service in the Third Afghan War and took part in operations in Waziristan in 1920-21.

The 2nd Battalion was disbanded in 1922.
 

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Colonel Sir Robert Warburton, Lieutenant Colonel Sir Aslam Khan Sadozai, Officers And Sowars Of Khyber Rifles, Circa 1890's.

The First Commandant Of The Khyber Rifles Was Sir Robert Warburton, Son Of An Anglo-Irish Soldier Robert Warburton Of The Bengal Artillery And His Wife Shah Jehan Begum, An Afghan Princess. Sir Robert Remained The Commandant Until His Retirement In 1899. His Deputy, Colonel Sir Aslam Khan Sadozai, The First Muslim Commandant, Succeeded Him.
 

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The British Army in India


Another legacy of the Indian Mutiny was the deployment of a large number of British Army units (mainly infantry) in India. These units were not part of the Indian Army, but came under operational command of the Indian Army. With the partition of British India on 15 August 1947, the British maintained a military presence in the two new countries for a short period. The last British Army unit to leave independent India was the 1 Bn. The Somerset Light Infantry, which left Bombay on 28 February 1948, with the British Headquarters, The Army in India closing on the same date. The last unit to leave Pakistan was the 2 Bn The Black Watch, which sailed from Karachi on 26 February 1948.


Structure of the Army in India


Pre-war, India Command was divided into four commands, each headed by a General or Lieutenant General, namely:
  • Northern Command;
  • Southern Command;
  • Eastern Command;
  • Western Command.


In late 1938, Western Command was downgraded to become the Western Independent District. Each command had a number of Districts under command, each being a Major General’s command. In April 1942, with the threat of Japanese invasion, Eastern Command and Southern Command were given a more operational focus and were redesignated as Eastern Army and Southern Army respectively. Also in April 1942, the Western Independent District was absorbed by Northern Command, which itself was redesignated as the North Western Army. In May 1942, a new command was established to control the central part of India. This meant that the higher level formations from May 1942 until the end of the war were:


  • North Western Army;
  • Southern Army;
  • Eastern Army;
  • Central Command.


With the end of the war, in 1946 the Armies reverted to being Commands, and British India moved back onto a peacetime setting with Central Command being disbanded. However, India quickly moved towards partition, with Northern Command becoming the Army Headquarters of the new Pakistan Army, and the other commands passing to the new Indian Army.
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Western Command was one of the four pre-war commands in the Army in India. In 1938, this command was downgraded to become an independent district.

This district had its headquarters based in Quetta. It had four brigades under command namely:

Quetta Brigade: HQ Quetta
Khojak Brigade: HQ Quetta
Zhob Brigade: HQ Loralai
Sind Brigade Area: HQ Karachi


In April 1942, it was redesignated as the Baluchistan District under command of the North Western Army.
 

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Headquarters, The Army in India

The Headquarters The Army in India (A.H.Q. India), was based at Delhi. During the summer months, some elements of the headquarters moved to Simla in Himachal Pradesh state in order to be alongside the government which moved there due to the stifling heat in Delhi. The name, ‘The Army in India’ was used as the headquarters had operational control over British Army and Indian Army units serving in the sub-continent.


Headquarters of the Army in India was a pre-war command covering the entire country of British India. The headquarters consisted of six branches:

Military Secretary’s Branch;
General Staff Branch;
Adjutant General’s Branch;
Quarter-Master-General’s Branch;
Master-General of the Ordnance Branch;
Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch.



The Commander-in-Chief was a General’s appointment. This was usually a four year posting. It usually alternated between an officer of the British Army and one of the British Indian Army.

At the beginning of the Second World War, the headquarters was redesignated as the General Headquarters (G.H.Q.), India Command. The initial focus was to raise divisions for deployment overseas, in particular in the Middle East. The entry of Japan into the war on 8 December 1941, and the subsequent capture of Burma, moved the focus of G.H.Q. India very firmly back to the defence of India. This was the period of most significant growth in G.H.Q. India, until by the end of the Second World War, just over two and a half thousand service personnel were based there.

Principal Administrative Officer’s Office

In October 1943, with the growth of the Indian Army and the growth of the G.H.Q. India, it was decided to appoint a Principal Administrative Officer whose main function was to coordinate and audit the administrative arrangements in G.H.Q. The post continued to exist until abolished in the run up to partition.

Post-war Contraction and Partition

In November 1945 the number of officers based at G.H.Q. India was:

Lieutenant Generals = 8
Major Generals = 30
Brigadiers = 83
Colonels = 102
Others = 2,375



With the end of hostilities, the political pressure increased to reduce the number of personnel at G.H.Q.. There were already some vacancies as with the introduction of ‘Python’ leave for British Army personnel, there was a shortage of suitably trained and experienced staff officers. In the period from August 1945 to November 1945, three Brigadier’s posts had already been abolished, and by the end of the year, further reductions planned were:

Major Generals = 2
Brigadiers = 15
Colonels = 20
Others = 729


G.H.Q. India remained in existence until 15 August 1947, when it was disbanded upon the partition of India and Pakistan. A new Headquarters, Pakistan Army was formed by Northern Command, and a new Headquarters of the Indian Army took over the headquarters in Delhi. Field Marshal AUCHINLECK was appointed the Supreme Commander of the Army in India and Pakistan to transfer responsibilities to the new armies, and to organise the withdrawal of British Army units and British former officers and men of the British Indian Army.

The office of Supreme Commander closed on 1 December 1947 upon the formal retirement of Field Marshal AUCHINLECK. Major General L. G. WHISTLER had been appointed the General Officer Commanding British Troops in India in 1947, and remained in command until the last British unit, the 1 Bn. The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert’s) left on 28 February 1948. The 2 Bn. The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) had been the last British Army unit to leave Pakistan on 26 February 1948. Some British officers remained in senior positions in both the Indian and Pakistani Armies until well into the 1950’s.
 

ghazi52

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Cherat, located in the Nowshera District, was a hill cantonment and sanatorium for British troops stationed in the hot and malaria-ridden Peshawar Valley. Many of the troops sent there carved and painted their regimental insignia on to nearby rock faces to mark their service on the frontier.
From an album of 116 photographs compiled by Lieutenant Hugh Stephenson Turnbull, 57th Wilde's Rifles (Frontier Force) in India and Egypt, 1903-1906.


1904

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Ist B Royal Sussex Regiment At Cherat, C.1913.


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Queen Birthday Parade At Cherat, C.1890.


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