What's new

Guarding the sky

The Ronin

SENIOR MEMBER
Mar 24, 2017
3,141
0
7,492
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Japan
“If we ever get to the point where it’s completely on automatic pilot and we’re all spectators, then it’s no longer serving a political purpose. And conflict is a social problem that needs social solutions, people – human solution.” — General Mattis speaking at a conference in Europe, about the implementation of the artificially intelligent (AI) equipment and how he is not yet so sure about its impact on the fundamentals of war. James Norman Mattis is a retired United States Marine Corps General, who is the 26th and current United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the Cabinet of President Donald Trump.

In Bangladesh, implementation of artificially intelligent equipment is still nothing more than a fictional character from popular novels. As Bangladesh is still trying to lift itself from the index of poverty ridden country to a developing country, it continues to hit by yearly disaster, both man-made — such as Rana Plaza incident and natural — such as cyclone, flood, and on-top-of everything we are being flooded with refugees in an artificial war fueled by sectarian violence, against which no nation is willing to stand, due to their vested interest in the country in question. So, it is for better that some concepts remain fictional to us.

In recent days the procurement of MMRCA (Medium Multirole Combat Aircraft) of Bangladesh Air Force (BAF) has been a very hot topic in almost all online defense forum specially the ones from South Asia. And, many of our ‘social media’ warriors are taking the platform to literally questioning the performance of our very pilots who fly our fighter jets, and questioning the very integrity of the top brass of BAF; it is very disheartening.

Before we go further into the discussion, we must understand that we are a very poor country, which constantly face economic challenges to meet the very basic needs of its people. We are also in binding with the geopolitics in any kind of procurement concerns with sophisticated technology, let alone defense.


The Craft

Air crafts are sophisticated technology. Defense air crafts, especially fighter jets are the front line of that sophistication. At basics, it has the airframe, jet engine, avionics, weapons and stealth.

Airframe

The airframe is the exoskeleton that we generally see flying. The airframe of the combat aircraft of World War I used to be made with plywood and metal skin. Germans are the first to use all metal combat aircraft during WW I. By the time of WW II, the nations continued to use different kind of wood particles glued with wooden frame with aluminum or other metal finishing. So, we can see that world wars were fought with fighter planes made just with wooden frame. Then again, there were no jet engines in those fighter planes, either.

After the WW II, jet engines were being installed into airplanes, and first aluminum alloy was introduced as its frame. In the early ‘80s carbon fiber was introduced in the frame of these machines and at the beginning of the millennium aluminum-lithium alloy, and most recently titanium alloy has been used in fighter jets. These composite materials are being constantly upgraded for most efficient performance.

And, I am sure that for the combat aircrafts, nothing less than the most advanced materials are being used. But, there are a few objectives we must take under consideration, such as the use of the aircrafts — that is — who are we intend to use it against. For a country like Lesotho, which is small and surrounded by South Africa, may not have any need for a super fighter jet, that is — one could barely fly within its territory. Or, say Maldives, an ocean islet country, which probably have no need other than pursuing some pirate boats. So, before fantasizing the most sophisticated fighter jet for a country like Bangladesh we must consider the purpose that we may use it for. Given the periphery and geopolitics of Bangladesh, we must consider the usage of such crafts as they are extremely expensive.

If we look at the airframes of current war birds available in the market, the renaissance was in the early ‘90s. That is the time when most of all current available frames for the fighter jets were introduced — F 15 Silent Eagle, F 16 Fighting Falcon, Rafale, MIG 29 Fulcrum and SU 27 Flanker. At the turn of the millennia Eurofighter Typhoon and F 22 Raptor were introduced. Though all those jets unveiled newer version with fancy numbers such as ‘BLOCK 70’ of F 16s or 30/35 for SU Flankers or 35 for MIG Fulcrums, the airframe has not been changed. The MIG 35 is exactly the same airframe as MIG 29 with some advanced avionics and same goes for F 15 or F16 ‘BLOCK’s, SU variants and variants of Eurofighter Typhoons.

While all the combat aircraft building nations were busy with ‘air superiority’, Sweden stressed on stealth, aerodynamics and electronic warfare, which they coined – ‘Smart Fighter Jet’; they recently introduced Gripen. As for the Chinese fighter aircraft, they are the copy of either Russian or American fighter jets.

Jet Engines

Jet engines were first introduced in the aircraft toward the end of the WW II. In the ‘60s the engine was upgraded to be able to break the speed of sound. After further maturation, the engine was tested with ‘Vertical/Short Take Off and Landing’ capabilities by ‘thrust vectoring’. With the application of aerodynamics to its frame, the jet engine began to take shape in the early ‘80s, when we see the major developments in the combat aircrafts.

Just to have an idea of the complexity of building fighter jet engines — though China has developed many advanced technologies, they have yet to develop one that can be used for fighter jet. There are only a handful of companies actually builds jet engine. So, all the variety of fighter jets we see, many uses exact same or very similar engines. Manufacturing a fighter jet from scratch is a very difficult task.

Avionics

Avionics are all and every gadgets and electronic devices that boards on a fighter jets to help communicate, navigate, display and manage other hundreds of individual functions like from starting the fighter jet engine, run the runways, lift itself into the air, fly, complete the mission and land safely. They are composed of — from simple search light to sophisticated radars to special communicating radios to anti-electronic jamming devices and all the things that make a fighter jet, a fighter jet.

Without the avionics, just a superb airframe and the engine, the fighter jet will go nowhere. Important to notice that Western fighter jets put more priorities on avionics than the Russian or Chinese counterpart, which makes them less vulnerable in any kind of confrontation. As they are more capable in detecting the adversaries before it gets close enough for ‘dogfight’. Beside, Russian fighter jets are known for their most competence in ‘dogfighting’.

Weapons

There are a lot of weapons that can be used for fighter jet which are already in use for ground based attack platforms. But, there are many weapons systems which are built for airborne only. Again, there are not many countries which are capable of building such systems. And not all weapons or weapon systems are compatible with all fighter jets. Some weapon systems are even made for a particular fighter plane only.

Stealth

Stealth is basically to outmaneuver the enemy detection system. This seems to be the most complex part of a fighter jet. The concept first came into being almost with the creation of the fighter plane itself. But, then it was very simple, like using special coating to make it invisible in the naked-eye or using an extra lining to suppress the sound of the engine, especially for reconnaissance use.

First use of sophisticated stealth on fighter jet was used by the Germans toward the very end of the WW II. Where, they developed something that was able to absorb the radar and carry out its mission. Fast forwarding today, it is THE MOST COMPLEX SYSTEM in a fighter jet that composed all other components – airframe, jet engines, avionics and weapon systems. All combined, a fighter jet becomes capable of entering enemy sky without detection and carry out its mission.


Area of Interest

When it comes to weapon systems, in general, we are more of a leaning toward East — that is Russia and China. Approximately ninety to ninety-five percent of our defense procurements are from these two countries. Not that we do not have any interest in the Western weapon systems or we cannot afford them, but a lot of it, is to do with our history of coming into being and a lot of it has to do with our geopolitical dependence.

The Russian Venture

Historically Russia has been one of the best partners we have ever had. Whether economic, infrastructure or defense, we have had their support. Thus our most advanced Air Force equipment MIG 29 Fulcrums are from them.

MIG has earned its reputation on the best ‘dog fighting’ fighter jet at the turn of the century. But, considering the advancement in design and avionics it made, from the MIG 21 to MIG 29 is drastic, which overshadowed others of that time. But, if we look carefully to its current endeavor to MIG 35, is composed with only a few upgrades that are not really worth changing the designation. It is basically MIG 29KUB with little more upgrades.

SU 35 of the Sukhoi derivatives is very similar to SU 27, which took its first flight in 1985, with an improved version SU 27PU entered in 1989. After much success with the SU 27PU, they gave it the designation — SU 30. After launching SU 30 MKI, specially made for India, they pursued for an upgraded version with the same airframe — SU 35. It is very important to note that all of these fighter planes with different numeric symbol derivatives have same ‘outer-shell’ with upgraded avionics.

We also must note that it is not very easy to upgrade these machines. That is — it is not like you can buy SU 27 and, upgrade it to SU 35 at your own workshop. It is not impossible but doable, if you have such technician and an industrial setup that can support this kind of venture. Ukraine has, and they are constantly bidding for all Russian military hardware upgrade programs. While we look to purchase certain equipment, we should train our technician so we may do maintenance, overhaul and upgrade, if necessary, inside our own territory. And by that, definitely not suggesting buying SU 27 and upgrade it to SU 35 by ourselves, but we should be able to buy SU 30 and upgrade it to SU 30SM or more advanced category. The transfer of basic maintenance knowledge is crucial to have an air force on the air.

It is important to notice that the Russian Air Frame for most of the recent fighter jets have little to absolutely no difference in regards their given numerical symbols.

Chinese Proposition

Since 1975, as it began with the recognition of Bangladesh as an independent country, the Chinese hardware has been our foundation of defense. Not that we have a lot of things in common or share any strong value, but mere in line with ‘doing good business’ concept.

At the moment, our line of defense lies with the J/F 7 Air Guard fighter jet, which has been giving its best of the service. Though, in current geopolitical scenario, it is more of a vintage collection than actual fighter jet. It definitely is a good machine and doing what it can do best.

Unlike Russian fighter jets, Chinese planes have been set with not only a numerical symbol but also with noticeable differences in the airframe — such as J 10, J 16 Red Eagle, J 20 Black Eagle and FC 31. There had been several upgrades to each these planes, like for J 10 there were J 10A, J 10B and J 10C. Though they all have same airframe, the avionics and performances are quite different from the earlier version.

Though they are somewhat a replica, they supersede many of its contemporaries in means of cost and fuel-efficiency. Russian machines dominate the Eastern skies in dogfighting and air-superiority.

An Alternative

With all being said, we must understand that the age of ‘dogfighting’ is actually coming to an end. Therefore, we must prepare ourselves on more technologically advanced aircraft. As I have mentioned that the European quarter is preparing itself for ‘artificial intelligence’ capable machines. So, if not to that point, we must try to keep up with so called ‘smart fighter’ concept, introduced by Swedish company, Saab.

Saab has been pioneering in fuel-efficiency and electronic-warfare. Its most advanced system has recently hit the international market with JAS 39E Gripen. Though not quite able as the Boing’s F – 35, it is extraordinary when it comes to guarding the air space. Entirely composite built airframe makes it look like nothing more than a large bird in the radar, making it very difficult to detect, even with the most advanced radar system. And, it is capable of encountering fighter jets that are much more advanced and higher in ranks, due its stealth. Though not suitable for long range, it gives perfect proposition for ‘area-denial’.

Caution

There are other nations which have been trying to maintain an industry for fighter jets, which unfortunately is not an easy task. Very recently, Japan has completed a fighter jet which proved too costly to continue to maintain a production line. South Africa also had its venture with Atlas Cheetah and its variants. They even sold to some countries, and finally they are going for the much more advanced European fighter jets. Though much pride is taken for Tejas, the Indian fighter pilots are very reluctant to fly these jets, due to which they are going back to Russia and Europe.

So, before we initiate an industry for fighter jet, we must take into the experiences of others. If we have a good team of engineers who can maintain and upgrade fighter plane, we are quite better off. At least we are not facing a threat of complete annihilation from any state, for now. And, if we do decide to develop an industry for fighter jet, we must consider the sustainability and take steps to protect such investments from any internal or external harm. A defense industry is not very easy to maintain.


The Choices

It is very difficult to choose from the available fighter jets, which are currently in the market. Because, there are really not many different options.

First of all, one must lean toward either — the West or NATO based fighter plane, or — East, which are Russian or Chinese fighter plane. And, on top of that, our giant neighbor already maintains a good amount of relation with both sides, enough for those countries to take this neighbor into their consideration, in selling defense equipment to our country. So, before picking the appropriate machine, we kind of have to maneuver through this unseen geopolitics. And, there is no stealth mode in these procurements. So far, only China is the only nation that would not take this neighbor in their consideration but they may take other elements, such as our current crisis of ‘Rohingya’ with the other neighbor. So, it is quite next to impossible to penetrate these barriers even we have the capacity to operate certain fighter jets.

And, even inside our country, we have become, willingly or unwillingly very much biased toward Russian air crafts. As if there are nothing can be better than them. If we look at different battle skies in the last two to three decades, we would see how NATO fighter planes have dominated the skies of Europe and elsewhere. But, since we have never used other plane than Russian or Chinese, we cannot even imagine of a Western squadron in our air force. We must not forget that, before acquiring the MIG 29s, we have approached the US for the F 16s. And, we acquired the MIGs, only when we were denied the access of the latter.

So, now as we are looking to shop for some fighter jets again, we must consider all the objectives, which can only be understood by the insider, who are in the middle of the procurement process.

It is also important to take into the consideration that we must try to softening, thinning and breaking the geopolitical barriers when we can. Just like we have purchased two submarines against a massive odd, we should be able take similar steps toward acquiring fighter jets as well.

Second, we must consider the long term expenses in maintaining these machines other than their performance and cost effectiveness. And, we must pin-point exact purpose and usages for these machines as well. They are not a machine just for test flying or to perform aerobatics activity in the Victory Day parade. They must serve specific functions, which can justify their expenses.

Third, a plan for future capabilities, which would allow Bangladesh to reach its goal and implement its desired policies. The defense procurements should not set off some kind of arms race which makes it more expensive to maintain a reliable armed force that in turn may hamper over-all growth of a nation, thus an entire region. The procurements should neither set alarms to the neighbors where we have a lot more to achieve than some flavored air-space, when we actually need some secured air-space.

So, in procurement of new fighter jets, Bangladesh must get the most its money can buy, while maintaining a good face with its neighbors, friends, friends with benefits, allies and everyone else. While it maintains all, it should not hesitate to push the boundaries and test the relationships at times. At the end, it must acquire what it needs to protect its basic developments, if not the respect or dignity it deserves.



The Machines

Myanmar has acquired SU 30SMs and will upgrade MIG 29s to MIG 29SMT in near future. In no way they are our enemy, and for certain incident does not justify even to consider them as an enemy state. Though, they can be intimidating. So, in any kind of procurement, we must consider their fighter jets as the benchmark.

SU 30SMs can be intercepted by other SU 30SMs or Su 35s, Daussalt Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon or F 22 Raptor. MIG 35s are not capable of chasing a SU 30SM out. They can intercept and dogfight, but effective defeat cannot be delivered by a MIG 35. We do not hope for such scenario, but this nation has a history of aggressive behavior.

At the bidding we chose SU 30SMs to guard our sky. Whatever situation may rise, we should not settle for any less as the next country already announced its acquisition for SU 30SMs. We can get SU 35s or Typhoon, if we can afford. Though Eurofighter Typhoon is very close to stopping its production, they are still capable of guarding the sky of Bangladesh for another decade. There are many fighter jets are still serving in nations, which stopped their production long before.

Whichever machine we do choose, must carry most advanced avionics. The future would depend more on avionics than ‘dogfighting’, as the time changes. All fighter jet producing countries including China is stressing on avionics as well. In some cases their Russian ‘replica’ fighters carry more advanced avionics than the actual Russia’s own fighter jet. So, any equipment we get it must have the most advanced technologies.

As for the replacement of F 7s, any of the following can do: Gripen Es, J 10Cs, MIG 35s, even the retired Tornados of British Royal Air Force can outperform JF 17 or Tejas. MIG 35s are good as work horse but not for air superiority. All these fighter planes cost considerably less for Bangladesh to maintain a certain number in the long run.

Gripen E series comes with the most advanced avionics. What it lacks in air superiority, it makes up with its avionics and in stealth. It also costs extremely less to maintain, in comparison to J 10Cs or MIG 35s. The only draw-back is some of its policies on support and spare parts. All nations that sell defense equipment have such policies; some are just more explicit than the other. But, we must keep it in our mind that we are not going into a war with these machines. We want machines that will keep us alive and give us some level of edge on defending our territory. And, Gripen Es are just the fighter to do that. On top of it, it can do things only an F 35 is capable of doing, in terms of avionics, stealth and ‘electronic warfare’, which no nation in the subcontinent has.

So if the geopolitics allows us, we can operate 16 – 20 units of SU 35 and 48 – 52 units of Gripen Es. They should be able to take Bangladesh to the next decade.

As of now, no nation is offering to transfer the technology to build a fighter jet. Nor offering to set up a workshop to maintain and upgrade these sophisticated systems. Thus, any planning beyond 10 to 15 years period is waste of money. We should buy machines that will help us guard our growth for next 10 to 15 years, while allow us to save enough to buy sophisticated fighter jets of that time, when that time comes.


The Big Picture

It is important to have a clear conception on what we want and how it would affect us, our surroundings, our present and our future. We should have a defense force that is dynamic and natural to our behavior that represents who we are. Historically we never quite had sophisticated standing army. What we had throughout the time, were concerned and responsible citizens. Most often it is this sense of intelligence that brought us here today. There were times we have lost, but it was due to our own faults instead of the advantages of the opponents.

So, while we think of a sophisticated standing defense force, we must maintain an able, concerned and responsible citizen, that Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibar Rahman depended when he called for independence. While we spend money on advanced war machines, we need to invest on the very basics — drinkable water, breathable air, poverty alleviation, curbing corruption and a healthy population — physically and emotionally.

We also must not set off an arms race which becomes more expensive to maintain than fighting an actual war. And, defense expenditure must not overshadow the national growth by any means.

https://kartooze.wordpress.com/?fbclid=IwAR1qQ2zzNVGyjlVv8cBK_ae24buif7KL9QR4qV1wvBZ9kCPNGrczDNYd0ag
 

mb444

SENIOR MEMBER
Apr 18, 2012
3,805
1
6,137
Country
United Kingdom
Location
United Kingdom
Who is the author of this gibberish? Absolute nonsense.....does not see the monkeys or the dot heads as our enemies..... if we are living in utopia why do we need an airforce....

Self contradictory nonsensical writeup devoid of insight or any semblance of understanding of BD geo politics.
 

Michael Corleone

ELITE MEMBER
Oct 27, 2014
9,490
-5
9,389
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Ukraine
So, it is for better that some concepts remain fictional to us.
yeah AI would actually be better at helping a developing country out of poverty but you do you... whoever the author is
The MIG 35 is exactly the same airframe as MIG 29
okay lmao

MIG has earned its reputation on the best ‘dog fighting’ fighter jet at the turn of the century. But, considering the advancement in design and avionics it made, from the MIG 21 to MIG 29 is drastic, which overshadowed others of that time. But, if we look carefully to its current endeavor to MIG 35, is composed with only a few upgrades that are not really worth changing the designation. It is basically MIG 29KUB with little more upgrades.
eh, when was mig 29 ever the best dogfighting machine? sure it's good on paper but it's success has been poor thanks to inexperienced pilots of third world countries
and nah... much of the changes are actually airframe related... namely structural changes and dimensions

J 10 there were J 10A, J 10B and J 10C. Though they all have same airframe,
lmao shoot me right now
With all being said, we must understand that the age of ‘dogfighting’ is actually coming to an end.
okay, i'm not reading any further than that xD
 

bluesky

ELITE MEMBER
Jun 14, 2016
10,665
0
12,003
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Japan
So if the geopolitics allows us, we can operate 16 – 20 units of SU 35 and 48 – 52 units of Gripen Es. They should be able to take Bangladesh to the next decade.
This assertion on purchasing Sukhoi 35 and Gripen E is logical. However, F-16, if not F-22 Raptor, would be a better choice considering its airpower and the geopolitics in our neighborhood. Buy American.
 
Last edited:

bluesky

ELITE MEMBER
Jun 14, 2016
10,665
0
12,003
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Japan
Yup BD must immediately start a F-22 acquisition program with the 10 million dollars allotted to it by US military aid.

@Imran Khan @Game.Invade
Do not wear out your thick brain. Do not please forget that BD sells $6 billion worth of best quality textile goods to Uncle Sam. Do we need any US donation to buy planes? Even F-22 Raptor is not too expensive for us only if the USA agrees to it. Hasina, the big talker, speaks so many things but does not use the brain to make the best use of Rohingya issue to supersede any Indian objection to buy American. Even F-16 will be good for us. Why not American?
 

Nilgiri

BANNED
Aug 4, 2015
24,865
81
46,879
Country
India
Location
Canada
Do not wear out your thick brain. Do not please forget that BD sells $6 billion worth of best quality textile goods to Uncle Sam. Do we need any US donation to buy planes? Even F-22 Raptor is not too expensive for us only if the USA agrees to it. Hasina, the big talker, speaks so many things but does not use the brain to make the best use of Rohingya issue to supersede any Indian objection to buy American. Even F-16 will be good for us. Why not American?
If you don't need donation, why first thing BD ppl do is complain and whine how little they got?

That too they blame Trump all of a sudden. Any of you looked at the obama admin money thrown ur way for military aid? Pretty much the same.

Or its too much of an ego check how irrelevant you are?

If you sell 6 billion somewhere, it means nothing when you look at total export minus import situation...to see how much buffer you got to actually play (and only small % of that can start to be used for any big boy kind of stuff).

BD forex reserves are stagnant at already low level. Your external investment is 2 dollars per person. Money talks you guys say....so where is it in BD case? Put your money where your mouth is if you have it....but looks like you don't.

There is no Indian objection to buy american lol. US is big supplier for us. The big obstacle in your case is your weak puny fiscal stature and huge corruption in your military.....and you simply have next to no guts to try take on even Burma. So with all that, 100 more BAF fighter threads will start as usual....lot of effeminate aunty gossip, no result like the previous 1000 of them.
 

Bilal9

ELITE MEMBER
Feb 4, 2014
15,877
1
24,847
Country
Bangladesh
Location
United States
I have to agree with @mb444 and @Michael Corleone bhais. The technical grasp of the article writer is pretty weak. Especially in aviation-related matters.

What I find baffling is that he skims topics on the surface, but never discusses important maneuverability topics related to dogfights like Thrust Vector Control or TVC. That is a recent development which enhanced the Su-27 Cobra Maneuver etc.

These maneuvers are almost solely for close-quarter dogfights. If dogfights are history then who needs a cobra maneuver?
 

bluesky

ELITE MEMBER
Jun 14, 2016
10,665
0
12,003
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Japan
BD forex reserves are stagnant at already low level. Your external investment is 2 dollars per person. Money talks you guys say....so where is it in BD case? Put your money where your mouth is if you have it....but looks like you don't.
I know you are worried about your age increasing every day. But, FE reserve is not somebody's age. BD has a healthy $33 billion reserve. It is enough to pay import bills for six months.
 

Arthur

FULL MEMBER
Dec 16, 2014
1,898
0
3,585
Country
Bangladesh
Location
Germany
After reading the article, it feels like the writer was reading thorough this sub forum for last few years & compiled posts from members.

Funny.
 

Nilgiri

BANNED
Aug 4, 2015
24,865
81
46,879
Country
India
Location
Canada
I know you are worried about your age increasing every day. But, FE reserve is not somebody's age. BD has a healthy $33 billion reserve. It is enough to pay import bills for six months.
OK good, you again show you dont understand the purpose of forex reserve or how its accumulated and why it has limited bearing on fiscal space of the govt.
 

Avicenna

SENIOR MEMBER
Oct 18, 2016
4,912
3
7,862
Country
United States
Location
Bangladesh
I have to agree with @mb444 and @Michael Corleone bhais. The technical grasp of the article writer is pretty weak. Especially in aviation-related matters.

What I find baffling is that he skims topics on the surface, but never discusses important maneuverability topics related to dogfights like Thrust Vector Control or TVC. That is a recent development which enhanced the Su-27 Cobra Maneuver etc.

These maneuvers are almost solely for close-quarter dogfights. If dogfights are history then who needs a cobra maneuver?
Cobra is essentially useless, if not detrimental for WVR engagements.
 

Bilal9

ELITE MEMBER
Feb 4, 2014
15,877
1
24,847
Country
Bangladesh
Location
United States
Cobra is essentially useless, if not detrimental for WVR engagements.
Well do tell us more....I have thought all along that thrust vectoring and front cunards helping maneuverability was good for dogfights and WVR engagements. In fact I thought that was the supposed objective for airforces who don't have BVR capability.
 

Avicenna

SENIOR MEMBER
Oct 18, 2016
4,912
3
7,862
Country
United States
Location
Bangladesh
Well do tell us more....I have thought all along that thrust vectoring and front cunards helping maneuverability was good for dogfights and WVR engagements. In fact I thought that was the supposed objective for airforces who don't have BVR capability.
I’m a doctor, not a fighter pilot, so take all this with copious grains of salt.

However, according to my understanding, energy management is key in WVR engagement.

The Cobra maneuver specifically kills energy.

Essentially making the fighter a sitting duck in almost all scenarios.

As for TVC and canards, that’s another story.

Canards have been used since the 60’s in the Viggen to confer superior short field performance.

The utility of TVC, I’m not sure about.

Going by the USAF, the F-22 has it but the later F-35 does not.

Not sure what to say there.

And in 2019 BVR has likely matured to where its nearly essential for an air arm to have competence in this realm.
 

Users Who Are Viewing This Thread (Total: 1, Members: 0, Guests: 1)


Top Bottom