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Future of PAF Pakistan is Saab JAS and J11B.

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Khaqan Humayun

Jun 30, 2013
This is our need Pakistan can buy more Gripen then F16 F16 is not for Us.
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JAS 39 Gripen

Swedish Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
Role Fighter/Ground attack/Reconnaissance
Manufacturer Saab AB/Saab Group
First flight 9 December 1988
Introduction 1 November 1997
Status In service
Primary users Swedish Air Force
South African Air Force
Czech Air Force
Hungarian Air Force
Produced 1987–present
Number built 235[1]
Unit cost
US$40–60 million[2][3]
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (griffin) is a lightweight single-engine multirole fighter manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. It was designed to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen in the Swedish Air Force (Flygvapnet). The Gripen has a delta wing and canard configuration with relaxed stability design and fly-by-wire technology. It is powered by the Volvo-Flygmotor RM12 engine, a derivative of the General Electric F404, and has a top speed of Mach 2. Later aircraft are equipped for in-flight refuelling; most of the export aircraft have been designed to be compatible with NATO interoperability standards.

In 1979, the Swedish government began development studies for an aircraft capable of fighter, attack and reconnaissance missions to replace the Saab 35 Draken and 37 Viggen. A new design from Saab was selected and developed as the JAS 39, first flying in 1988. Following two crashes during flight development and subsequent alterations to the aircraft's flight control software, the Gripen entered service with the Swedish Air Force in 1997. Upgraded variants, featuring more advanced avionics and adaptations for longer mission times, began entering service from 2003 onwards.

In order to market the aircraft to export customers, Saab has formed several partnerships and collaborative efforts with multiple overseas aerospace companies; examples of such efforts include Gripen International, a joint partnership between Saab and BAE Systems formed in 2001. Gripen International was responsible for marketing the aircraft, and was heavily involved the successful export of the type to South Africa; the organization was later dissolved amidst allegations of bribery being employed to secure foreign interest and sales. On the export market, the Gripen has achieved moderate success in sales to nations in Central Europe, South Africa and Southeast Asia. As of 2012, more than 240 Gripens have been delivered or ordered.[4]

A further development of the Gripen, often referred to as Gripen NG or Super Gripen, is in development as of 2013. Amongst the changes includes the adoption of a new powerplant, the General Electric F414G, an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, and significantly increased onboard fuel capacity. Other derivatives, including a navalised Sea Gripen for carrier operations and an optionally-manned aircraft capable of unmanned operations, have also been proposed by Saab. The Gripen NG has been ordered by Sweden and selected for procurement by Brazil, while Switzerland is considering ordering it.

Teaming agreements
During the 1995 Paris Air Show, Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace (BAe, now BAE Systems) formed the joint-venture company, Saab-BAe Gripen AB with the goal of adapting, manufacturing, marketing and supporting Gripen worldwide.[18][23] The deal involved the conversion of the A and B series aircraft to the "export" C and D series, which developed the Gripen for compatibility with NATO standards.[24] This cooperation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International to promote export sales.[25] In December 2004, Saab and BAE Systems announced that BAE was to sell a large portion of its stake in Saab, and that Saab would take full responsibility for marketing and export orders of the Gripen.[26] In June 2011, Saab announced that an internal investigation had revealed evidence of acts of corruption, including money laundering, that had been performed by former partner BAE Systems in South Africa, a customer of the Gripen.[27]

On 26 April 2007, Norway signed a NOK 150 million joint-development agreement with Saab to cooperate in the development programme of the Gripen, including the integration of Norwegian industries in the development of future versions of the aircraft.[28] In June of the same year, Saab also entered an agreement with Thales Norway A/S concerning the development of communications systems for the Gripen fighter; this order was the first to be awarded under the provisions of the Letter of Agreement signed by the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and Gripen International in April 2007.[28] As a result of the United States diplomatic cables leak in 2010, it was revealed that US diplomats had become concerned by cooperation between Norway and Sweden on the topic of the Gripen, and had sought to exert pressure against a Norwegian purchase of the aircraft.[29]

In December 2007, as part of Gripen International's marketing efforts in Denmark, a deal was signed with Danish technology supplier Terma A/S which allows them to participate in an industrial cooperation programme over the next 10–15 years. The total value of the programme is estimated at over 10 billion Danish krone, and is partly dependent on a procurement of the Gripen by Denmark.[30]

Further developments

Saab Gripen NG demonstrator at RIAT 2010
In 2007, a two-seat "New Technology Demonstrator" or "Gripen Demo" aircraft was ordered; it was presented on 23 April 2008.[47] It has increased fuel capacity, a more powerful powerplant, increased payload capacity, upgraded avionics and other improvements. The demonstrator serves as the testbed for numerous upgrades[48] for the new Gripen NG (Next Generation) variant, also referred to as Gripen E/F, and MS 21.[49][50] This version is powered by the General Electric F414G, a development of the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet's engine. The engine produces 20 per cent more thrust at 98 kN (22,000 lbf), enabling a supercruise speed of Mach 1.1 with air-to-air missiles (AAM).[51]

Compared to the Gripen D, the Gripen NG's maximum take off weight has increased from 14,000 to 16,000 kg (30,900–35,300 lb) with an increase in empty weight of 200 kg (440 lb). Due to relocated main undercarriage, the internal fuel capacity has increased by 40 per cent; combat radius will be 1,300 kilometres (810 mi) with six AAMs plus drop tanks, allowing for 30 minutes on station.[52] Ferry range will be 4,070 km (2,200 nmi) with drop tanks; the fuselage also has two additional hardpoints. The PS-05/A radar is replaced by a new active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, Raven ES-05, based on Selex ES's Vixen AESA radar family.[53][54] Amongst other improvements, the new radar is to be capable of scanning over a greatly increased field of view and improved range."[55] The Gripen Demo's maiden flight was conducted on 27 May 2008, it lasted about 30 minutes and reached a maximum altitude of about 6,400 meters (21,000 ft).[56] On 21 January 2009, the Gripen Demo flew at Mach 1.2 without reheat to test its supercruise capability.[57]

Saab performed study work on an aircraft carrier-based version in the 1990s. In 2009, Saab launched the Sea Gripen project in response to India's request for information on a carrier-borne aircraft. Brazil also potentially needs carrier aircraft.[58][59] Speaking in 2013, Saab's Lennart Sindahl stated that development of an optionally-manned version of the Gripen E capable of flying unmanned operations was being explored by the firm; further development of the optionally-manned and carrier versions would require the commitment of a customer.[60][61]

Sweden awarded Saab a four-year contract in 2010 to improve the Gripen's radar and other equipment, integrate new weapons, and lower its operating costs.[62] In June 2010, Saab stated that Sweden plans to order the Gripen NG under the JAS 39E/F designation, and is to enter service in 2017 or possibly earlier if export orders are received.[50] On 25 August 2012, Sweden announced it planned to buy 40–60 Gripen E/Fs; this followed Switzerland's decision to buy 22 of the E/F variants.[63] The Swedish government approved the decision to purchase 60 Gripen Es on 17 January 2013,[64] with the first deliveries pushed back to 2018.[65] Construction of the first pre-production demonstration aircraft began in July 2013.[66][67]


A JAS 39 Gripen performing aerial display at the 2006 Farnborough Airshow
The Gripen was designed to operate as one component of a networked national defence system; as such, information can be exchanged automatically in real-time between Gripen aircraft and ground facilities.[68] In order to deliver a high level of manoeuvrability in conjunction with good short takeoff and landing performance, Saab chose to adopt a delta wing-canard design with relaxed stability.[69] The Gripen is powered by the Volvo-Flygmotor RM12 engine, a derivative of General Electric F404; changes include greater thrust and more stringent birdstrike protection.[70]

The Gripen has favourable flight characteristics, such as low drag properties, which enables faster and more efficient flight, as well as either increased range or a larger equipment payload.[69] To allow operations from short strips, the Gripen is capable of maintaining a fast sink rate and is strengthened to withstand the stresses of conducting short landings.[71] The canards decrease landing distance, angling downwards to act as air brakes.[69] The main wing is also fitted with flaps and elevons to change the flow of air around the wing.[72]

On average, the aircraft's content is 67% sourced from Swedish or European suppliers, and 33% from the United States.[3] Some Gripens have been heavily customised to meet customer requirements or to include certain local suppliers; South African Gripens feature a considerable number of avionics components produced by firms based in South Africa; systems such as the communications suite and electronic warfare system were domestically manufactured and fitted in place of a standard fit.[73] Saab has also provided several technology-transfer arrangements with foreign operators. As part of their bid for an Indian contract, Gripen International offered to share the source code of the Gripen NG's AESA radar with India.[74]

Armaments and equipment
Saab describes the Gripen as a "swing-role aircraft", stating that it is capable of performing various mission profiles during a single sortie.[75] A unique aspect of the Gripen's capabilities is that it can rapidly rearm and sortie from Forward Operating Bases and even public roads when required.[55] Saab's campaign director for India Edvard de la Motte commented that: "If you buy Gripen, select where you want your weapons from. Israel, Sweden, Europe, US… South America. It’s up to the customer".[55]

The Gripen is typically capable of carrying up to 14,330 lb (6.50 t) of armament or equipment.[72] Munitions include various missiles, laser-guided bombs, and a single 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon;[76] missiles include the AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile, the AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missile, and the RBS-15 anti-ship missile.[77] External reconnaissance and targeting modules, such as the LITENING targeting pod, have been employed upon the Gripen by some operators.[78] The Gripen's Ternav tactical navigation system combines information from multiple onboard systems such as the air data computer, radar altimeter, and GPS to continuously calculate the Gripen's location.[79]

The Gripen's source code and technical documentation is made available to operators, which allows for the integration of additional munitions and equipment to be performed by the operator, as well as other improvements to the aircraft.[80] In 2010, the Swedish Air Force's Gripen fleet had finished receiving the MS19 upgrade which enabled the use of a range of new weapons, including the long-range MBDA Meteor missile, the short-range IRIS-T missile and the GBU-49 laser-guided bomb.[81] A subsequent upgrade programme, MS20, being conducted from 2011 to 2013, includes full compatibility with the Meteor missile.[82]

The total-integration avionics make the Gripen a "programmable" aircraft; software updates can change the aircraft's performance and allow for the adoption of additional operational roles and equipment over time.[72] The ADA programming language was adopted for the Gripen, and is used for the primary flight controls on the final prototypes from 1996 onwards and all subsequent production aircraft.[83] The Gripen's software is continuously being improved and changed to add new capabilities; in comparison the preceding Viggen was updated only as per an 18-month schedule.[84] In May 2010, Sweden issued a contract to Saab for the integration of several new computers and display systems and to improve the handling of sensory information, these are to be installed by 2020.[85]

The cockpit was designed with the express purpose of giving the pilot a high level of situational awareness. It is dominated by a head-up display and three large multi-function displays;[86] in two-seat variants the rear seat's displays can independently operate from the pilot in the forward seat, a useful capability during electronic warfare, reconnaissance and command and control activities.[86] The Gripen has sensor fusion functionality and a full-digital mission recording system is capable of capturing all sensory and onboard system information through a mission for later playback.[86]

The primary flight controls are compatible with the HOTAS control principle; the centrally mounted stick, in addition to flying the Gripen, also directly controls the cockpit displays and the weapon systems.[87] The Gripen also features the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS), developed by Saab and BAE and based on the Striker HMDS used on the Eurofighter.[88] By 2008, the Cobra HMDS was fully integrated on operational aircraft, and is available as an option for export customers; it has been retrofitted into older Swedish and South African Gripens.[88] In the event of ejection, the Cobra HDMS was developed so that all connections between the pilot and the cockpit can be rapidly and safely detached.[89]

The Gripen uses the modern PS-05/A pulse-doppler X-band radar, developed by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, which is based on the latter's advanced Blue Vixen radar for the Sea Harrier; this was also the basis for the Eurofighter's CAPTOR radar.[90] The radar is capable of detecting, locating and identifying targets 120 km (74 mi) away,[91] and automatically tracking multiple targets in the upper and lower spheres, on the ground and sea or in the air, in all weather conditions. It can guide several air to air missiles at beyond visual range to multiple targets simultaneously.[92]

Usability and maintenance

Gripen in flight, 2004
During the Cold War, the Swedish Armed Forces were preparing to defend against a possible invasion from the Soviet Union; in order to maintain an air defence capacity, Sweden elected to disperse its military aircraft across the country in the event of an invasion.[93] The JAS 39 was designed with the ability to take off from snow-covered landing strips of only 800-metre (2,600 ft).[69] Another requirement for this role was a short-turnaround time of just ten minutes; a team composed of a technician and five conscripts would be able to re-arm, refuel, and perform basic inspections and servicing inside that time window before returning to flight.[69][94]

One principle of the airframe's design was that many components do not require maintenance or are of low maintenance cost; combined with the aircraft's maintenance-friendly layout, it should mean that the Gripen will have a longer life than the preceding Viggen fighter, according to one source this is expected to be around 50 years.[84] Each aircraft is fitted with a Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) that monitors and records the performance of various systems, and provide information to technicians to assist in servicing the Gripen.[95] Additionally, the manufacturer operates a continuous improvement programme for the Gripen; towards this end, information from the HUMS and other Gripen systems can be submitted for analysis.[96] IHS Jane's Aerospace and Defense Consulting released a study in 2012, which compared the operational costs of the Gripen, Lockheed Martin F-16, Boeing F/A-18 Super Hornet, Dassault’s Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon and the F-35 aircraft. It concluded that Gripen had the lowest cost per flight hour (CPFH) when fuel used, pre-flight preparation and repair, and scheduled airfield-level maintenance together with associated personnel costs were combined. Then next cheapest, the Block 40/50 F-16, had a 49% higher CPFH at an estimated $7,000 per hour with the twin-engine aircrafts least double again of that.[97]

Czech Republic
In December 2001, the Czech Government announced that the Gripen had been selected, and stated that a major factor in this decision was the provision of a generous financing and offset programme by Gripen International.[113] Hungary also received an offset arrangement, valued at 110 per cent of the cost of the 14 fighters.[114] Hungary's decision to lease the Gripen came as a surprise; earlier the government had announced the intention to procure the F-16 instead.[115] Leased for a period of 10 years for 780 million Euros, the 14 ex-Swedish Air Force aircraft include 12 single-seaters and two JAS 39D double seat trainers; the lease is expected to be renewed for another term in excess of 10 years.[116][117] The lease has an option of eventually acquiring the fighters.[117]


Hungarian Air Force Saab JAS 39D Gripen at RIAT 2009
Initially, Hungary had planned to lease aircraft from Batch II, however the inability to conduct aerial refuelling and employ US guided weapons led to an upgraded variant being developed to meet NATO requirements.[118] The export Gripen underwent refuelling tests in 1998 at Boscombe Down, UK, in response to Hungary's needs.[119] The Hungarian Air Force operates 14 Gripen aircraft under lease, with the option of procuring them later.[117]

United Kingdom
The Empire Test Pilots' School (ETPS) in the United Kingdom has used the Gripen for advanced fast jet training of test pilots since 1999.[120]

South Africa
In 1999, South Africa signed a contract with BAE/Saab for the procurement of 26 Gripens (C/D standard) with minor modification to meet their requirements.[24] Deliveries to the South African Air Force commenced in April 2008.[121] By April 2011, 18 aircraft (nine two-seater aircraft and nine single-seaters) had been delivered.[122] On 13 March 2013, South African Defense Minister Nosiviwe Mapisa-Nqakula reported that "almost half of the SAAF Gripens" have been stored because of insufficient budget to keep them all flying. Of the 26 Gripens delivered, 12 are in long-term storage, with 10 or fewer being operational.[123] While the establishment of a Gripen Fighter Weapon School at Overberg Air Force Base in South Africa had been under consideration, in July 2013 Saab ruled out the option due to a lack of local support for the initiative; Thailand is one alternative location under consideration.[124] Since April 2013, South African contractors had taken over prime responsibility for maintenance work on the Gripen fleet, as all previous support contracts with Saab had expired; this arrangement led to fears that extended operations may not be possible due to lack of proper maintenance.[125] Brigadier-General John Bayne has testified that the Gripen met the minimum requirements of the SAAF, as the country faced no military threats.[126] In September 2013, the SAAF decided not to place a number of its Gripen fighters in long-term preservation. Instead, the cheaper alternative will be rotating all 26 aircraft, with some held in short-term storage under corrosion-controlled conditions between flying cycles to keep all planes operational and evenly spread flying hours.[127] In December 2013, Armscor awarded Saab a long-term support contract for the company to perform maintenance work on the aircraft. All engineering, maintenance, and support services will be performed by Saab on all 26 Gripens through 2016.[128]


Saab JAS 39 Gripen of the Royal Thai Air Force
The Royal Thai Air Force ordered six Gripens (two single-seat C-models and four two-seat D-models) in February 2008 to replace some F-5s, with deliveries beginning in 2011.[129] Six more Gripen Cs were ordered in November 2010 with deliveries from 2013.[130] The Gripens are to be based at Surat Thani Airbase.[131] The first of the six aircraft were delivered on 22 February 2011.[132] The next three were delivered on 2 April 2013, while the remaining three were delivered in September 2013.[133] It is believed that Thailand may eventually order as many as 40 Gripens.[134]

Potential and future operators
Saab's Head of exports Eddy de La Motte has stated that the Gripen's chances have improved as nations waver in their commitments to the F-35.[135] Richard Aboulafia of the Teal Group has attributed difficulty securing export sales to the Swedish government's inability to offer the same sort of strategic partnership as some rival aircraft manufacturing nations.[136]

In 2013 Canada reopened its plan to replace the aging CF-18 Hornet fighter. Originally planned to acquire 65 F-35 Lightning IIs, the program has fallen under scrutiny for cost overruns and other expenses. The JAS 39 is one of the contenders alongside the F/A-18E Super Hornet, Eurofighter Typhoon, and Dassault Rafale.[137] In June 2013, following discussions with Canada during the evaluation process, Saab decided to withdraw from the competition, saying "conditions were not yet ripe for us". The Gripen may be re-entered if conditions change.[138]

In October 2008, it was reported that the Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists in their F-X2 fighter programme. They are Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, and Gripen NG.[139] The number of aircraft involved is to total at least 36 and possibly up to 120 later. The decision was expected on 2 October 2009. On 2 February 2009, Saab submitted a tender for 36 Gripen NGs to the Brazilian Air Force Command.[140] On 5 January 2010, it was reported in the media that the final evaluation report by the Brazilian Air Force placed the Gripen ahead of the other two contenders. The decisive factor was reportedly the overall cost of the new fighters, both in terms of unit cost, and operating and maintenance costs.[141] Some of the media reported that in early 2010 the Rafale had been chosen by the Defense Ministry,[142] However in February 2011, Brazil's President, Dilma Rousseff, reportedly selected the F/A-18.[143][144] The decision was delayed due to financial constraints.[145][146] On 18 December 2013, President Roussef announced that the Saab Gripen had been selected;[147][148] a contract for 36 Gripen NG fighters is expected to be finalised in 10–12 months.[149][150]

The Croatian Air Force had announced plans to replace their MiG-21 bis aircraft, possibly with either the JAS 39 Gripen or the F-16 Falcon.[151] On 27 March 2008, the Swedish Defence Material Administration and Saab responded to Croatia's request for information regarding the procurement of 12 aircraft.[152] Due to economic and political reasons, the Croatian Air Force postponed the decision and was looking at a possible joint purchase with Slovenia of 12 aircraft as of October 2010.[153] Croatia was formerly offered eight Gripen C/D fighters in October 2012.[154]

In 2007, Denmark signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the Defence Ministers of Sweden and Denmark to evaluate the Gripen, pending Denmark's future replacement of their fleet of 48 F-16s. Denmark has also requested new variants of Gripens to be developed that will include new avionics, a larger and more powerful engine, larger payload and, most importantly, longer range.[30] This request was the basis for the Gripen NG, which satisfies all Denmark's requirements, such as the more powerful F414G engine.[155] Denmark has since delayed the decision over the purchase several times,[156] but with their reconsideration of the F-35 purchase, Saab in 2013 indicated that the Gripen was now one of four contenders for the Danish purchase.[157]

On 7 July 2008, Dagens Industri reported that the Netherlands announced it would evaluate Gripen NG together with four other competitors and announce the result in the end of 2008.[158] Saab responded on 25 August 2008 to a 'Replacement Questionnaire' issued by the Dutch Ministry of Defence, offering 85 aircraft to the Royal Netherlands Air Force.[159] The Netherlands evaluated the Gripen NG against the F-35.[160] On 18 December 2008, media reported that the Netherlands evaluated the F-35 ahead of the Gripen NG, citing a better performance-price relation.[161][162] On 13 January 2009, NRC Handelsblad claimed that, according to Swedish sources, Saab has made an offer to the Dutch to deliver 85 Gripens for 4.8 billion euro, about 1 billion euro cheaper than budgeted for the F-35.[163] This price includes training of pilots and maintenance for the next 30 years.[164]

In January 2008, the Swiss Defence Material Administration invited Gripen International to submit initial bids for supplying the Gripen NG as a replacement for their ageing F-5s.[165] Saab responded with an initial proposal on 2 July 2008.[166] Some 22 aircraft were expected to be procured. Other contenders were the Dassault Rafale and Eurofighter Typhoon fighters.[167] On 30 November 2011, the Swiss government announced its decision to buy 22 Gripen NG fighters.[168][169][170] The contract for the 22 aircraft would total 3.1 billion Swiss francs.[171]

In early 2012, a confidential evaluation report of the Swiss Air Force's tests of the three contenders in 2009 was leaked to the press. It rated the Gripen as performing substantially worse than the Rafale and the Eurofighter. The Gripen was assessed as satisfactory for reconnaissance missions, but unsatisfactory for air policing or air-to-air and strike missions.[172][173] The evaluation was of the JAS 39C/D, while the more advanced Gripen NG was bid.[174] The parliamentary security commission found that the Gripen offered the most risks, but voted to go ahead with the fighter because it was the cheapest option.[175]

On 25 August 2012, the plan to order was confirmed by both the Swedish and Swiss authorities.[176] The Swiss Air Force is to order 22 single-seater JAS 39Es. The aircraft are expected to be delivered from 2018 to 2021 at a fixed price of CHF 3.126 billion ($3.27 billion) which includes research and development costs, mission planning systems, initial spares and support, training, and certification. The Swedish government guarantees the price, performance and operational suitability of the aircraft. Eleven current generation (8 JAS 39Cs and 3 JAS 39Ds) Gripen fighters will be leased from 2016 to 2020 to train Swiss fighter pilots while avoiding expensive upkeep of the current F-5s.[177][178][179][180] In 2013, Saab moved to increase the offsets to Swiss industry above 100% of the deal value after the upper house of the Swiss parliament voted down the financing for the deal.[181] Then on 9 April 2013, the lower house's security policy commission postponed discussions until its next session in late August to allow time to receive clarification about contract details.[182] On 27 August 2013, the National Council's Security Commission approved the purchase,[183][184] while the lower house and the upper house of the parliament approved it in September 2013.[185][186][187][188] A national referendum on this order is expected to be voted in 2014.

United Kingdom
Following a meeting with Ministry of Defence (MoD) officials in May 2011, Saab agreed to establish a development centre in the UK to expand on the Sea Gripen concept. Saab chief executive Håkan Buskhe stated: "The MoD is looking for competition". The decision to proceed to a flight demonstrator will be made in late 2012.[189]

In September 2006, Bulgaria announced they were considering the replacement of ageing MiG-21s, either with 16 JAS 39C/D Gripens, or 16 used F-16s.[190] In January 2013, the Bulgarian government was considering the replacement of ageing MiG-21s and Su-25s with 9 new JAS 39C/D Gripens, used Eurofighters Tranche 1 or used F-16s to replace the MiG-21s.[191]

Other nations that have expressed interest in Gripen include Finland,[192] Oman,[193] Slovakia,[144][194] and the Philippines.[195]

In September 2013, Saab's CEO Håkan Buskhe said he envisions Gripen sales to reach 400 or 450 airplanes.[196]

Failed bids

Saab Gripen ready for take off at Aero India 2011, Yelahanka Air force Base Bangalore.
In 1989 the Finnish Air Force began to look for a new fighter to replace its fleet of MiG-21s and Saab 35 Drakens. During 1991 and 1992, the Dassault Mirage 2000, Gripen, General Dynamics F-16, MiG-29 and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet were evaluated; this was the first formal competition the Gripen had participated in.[197] On 6 May 1992, the Hornet was announced as the winner of the fighter competition and a total of 64 aircraft were ordered.[198]

The Gripen was a contender for the Indian MRCA competition for 126 multirole combat aircraft.[199] In April 2008, Gripen International offered the Next Generation Gripen for India's tender[200] and opened an office in New Delhi in order to support its efforts in the Indian market.[201] On 4 February 2009, Saab announced that it had partnered with India's Tata Group to develop the new Gripen variant to fit India's needs.[202]

The Indian Air Force (IAF) conducted extensive field trials and evaluated Gripen's flight performance, logistics capability, weapons systems, advanced sensors and weapons firing.[203] In April 2011, the IAF rejected Gripen's bid in favour of the Eurofighter Typhoon and the Dassault Rafale.[204] Senior Indian Air Force officials, while happy with the improved capabilities of Gripen NG, identified its high reliance on US-supplied hardware, including electronics, weaponry and the GE F414 engine, as a factor that may hamper its export potential.[205]

The Gripen C/D was one of contenders in competition for 48 new multirole fighters for the Polish Air Force started in 2001, the government previously planned to purchase 64 F-16A/B MLU. On 27 December 2002, the Polish Defence Minister announced the selection of the F-16C/D Block 50/52+.[206] The third candidate was the Dassault Mirage 2000-5 Mk 2. According to Stephen Larrabee, the choice to go with the F-16 was heavily influenced by a lucrative offset agreement by Lockheed Martin, and the political emphasis placed on the strategic relationship between Poland, the US, and NATO.[118] The Lockheed Martin's offer was valued at $3.5 billion and 170% offset, while the Swedish-British bid at €3.2 billion with 146% offset. Both Gripen International and Dassault Aviation described the decision as political.[207] According to a former Polish military defence vice-minister, the JAS 39 offer was better. Saab's offer also included participation in fighter research and technologies.[208]

On 18 January 2008, the Norwegian Ministry of Defence issued a Request for Binding Information (RBI) to the Swedish Defence Material Administration,[209] who responded in April 2008 with an offer for 48 Gripens.[210][211] On 20 November 2008, the Norwegian government announced that the F-35 Lightning II had been selected for the Royal Norwegian Air Force, stating that the F-35 is the only candidate meeting all of its operational requirements;[212] media reports have claimed the requirements were tilted in the F-35's favour.[213]

Saab and the Swedish defence minister Sten Tolgfors have criticised the selection, stating that there were flaws in Norway's cost calculations for the Gripen NG.[43] The offer was for 48 aircraft over 20 years, but Norway had extrapolated it to operating 57 aircraft over 30 years, thus doubling the cost; Norway's operational cost projections also failed to relate to the operational costs of Sweden's Gripens. Norway also calculated with more attrition losses than what Sweden considered reasonable. According to Tolgfors, Norway's decision will complicate further export deals for the Gripen.[214][215] In December 2010 leaked United States diplomatic cables revealed that the USA deliberately delayed Sweden's request for access to a US AESA radar until after Norway's selection. The cables also indicated that Norwegian consideration of the Gripen "was just a show" and that Norway had decided to purchase the F-35 due to "high-level political pressure" from the US.[29]

The Romanian Air Force announced they would replace their MiG-21 LanceR aircraft beginning in 2008, possibly with JAS 39 Gripen, F-16 Fighting Falcon or Eurofighter Typhoon.[216] On 23 March 2010, the Romanian Ministry of Defence decided to purchase 24 ex-USAF F-16s.[217] The bids of both the Gripen and the Eurofighter were re-submitted in May 2010; both parties matched the price of the F-16 proposal in the revision.[218]

Khaqan Humayun

Jun 30, 2013
Shenyang J-11
The Shenyang J-11with NATO reporting name: Flanker B+ is a single-seat, twin-engine jet fighter based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27 (NATO reporting name: Flanker) air superiority fighter and manufactured by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation. The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the sole operator of the aircraft.

The base J-11/A is a fourth-generation jet fighter which, like its Sukhoi brethren, is intended as a direct competitor to Western fourth generation fighters such as the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon

Proposed J-11
In the 1970s, Shenyang Aircraft Factory proposed a light fighter powered by the British Rolls-Royce Spey 512 engine, but otherwise similar to the MiG-19 then in service. Known as the J-11, the project was abandoned due to difficulties in obtaining the engines.[3]

Modern J-11
The J-11 was finally born in 1995 as a Chinese version of the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27SK air superiority fighter after China secured a $2.5 billion production agreement which licensed China to build 200 Su-27SK aircraft using Russian-supplied kits. Under the terms of the agreement, these aircraft would be outfitted with Russian avionics, radars and engines. However, in 2004, Russian media reported that Shenyang co-production of the basic J-11 was halted after around 100 examples were built. The PLAAF later revealed a mock-up of an upgraded multi-role version of the J-11 in mid-2002. The indigenous J-11B variant incorporates various Chinese material modifications and upgrades to the airframe with improved manufacturing methods in addition to the inclusion of domestic Chinese technologies such as radar, avionics suites and weaponry,[4][5][6][7][8] including anti-ship and PL-12 air-to-air missiles presumably for the role of a maritime strike aircraft. The alleged reason for the sudden stop in the production line of the J-11 was because it could no longer satisfy the PLAAF's requirements,[4] due to elements such as the obsolete avionics and radar, which were structured for aerial missions.[9]

The J-11/J-11B's legitimacy remains unproven, despite a wealth of information coming to light since 2007. In the course of a press conference at the 2009 Farnborough Airshow, Alexander Fomin, Deputy Director of Russia's Federal Service for Military-Technical Co-operation, reported that Russia had not so far tabled any questions to China with regard to "copying" military equipment. Fomin reported that Russia handed China the licences to manufacture the aircraft and its components, including an agreement on the production of intellectual property rights. Details of intellectual property rights, however have not been disclosed, fuelling speculation about a "secret" contract or parts of the original contract. The licence, at least officially, did not include an aircraft carrier version- Sukhoi Su-33 nor any variant of it, such as the Shenyang J-15.[10] At the MAKS 2009, Rosoboronexport's General Manager Anatoli Isaykin was quoted saying: "Russia is going to investigate the J-11B, as a Chinese copy of the Su-27 and Sukhoi Company is partaking in the process."[11] In 2010, Rosoboronexport announced via their official website that it was in talks with the Chinese side, regarding the ongoing production of weapons that Russia considers as un-licenced. In light of the ongoing investigations, Rosoboronexport expressed its concern over future sales of advanced Russian systems and components to China.[12][13]

In the future, the current AL-31 engine may be replaced by an indigenous engine known as the WS-10 Taihang turbofan.[14] At the Zhuhai 2002 airshow, a photo was released allegedly depicting a J-11 modified for flight testing of a single WS-10A.[15] Andrei Chang, a military specialist on China reported that one J-11A was outfitted with the indigenously produced WS-10A turbofan engine, J-11B also uses WS-10A. However, Russian media reports also indicate that China still intends to upgrade the current J-11 fleet's engines with either Saturn-Lyulka or Salyut powerplants. Engines under consideration include the Saturn AL-31-117S (a development of the Lyulka AL-31F planned for the Russo-Indian Su-30MKIs), and the Salyut AL-31F-M1, an improved variant of the AL-31F engine.[16]

In 2002, Russian media reported that Shenyang Aircraft Corporation was looking into replacing Russian-made J-11/Su-27SK components with domestic, Chinese-made parts. Specifically, to replace the Russian-made NIIP N001 radar with a Chinese-made fire control radar based on the Type 147X/KLJ-X family, the AL-31F engine with WS-10A, and Russian R-77 AAM's with Chinese-made PL-9 and PL-12 AAM's. One J-11 was photographed with an AL-31F and a WS-10A engine installed for testing in 2002. However, it was not until 2007 when the Chinese government finally revealed information on the domestic J-11: the J-11 used to test WS-10 was designated as J-11WS, and it was when state television station CCTV-7 aired J-11B footages in mid-2007 when the existence of J-11 with domestic components was finally confirmed officially.

Serial manufacturing of the WS-10 and integration with the J-11, proved to be more difficult than expected. As a result, even though several related prototypes had been tested and at least one regiment converted to the Taihang powered J-11B version in 2007, these aircraft were later grounded for an extended period due to a poor operational reliability. A report in the Washington Times suggested that the Chinese engines lasted 30 hours before they needed servicing, compared to 400 hours for the Russian versions.[17] Defects were traced back to the engine manufacturer, Shenyang Liming Aircraft Engine Company employing sub-standard manufacturing and quality control procedures. Several subsequent batches temporarily reverted to the original, Russian AL-31F turbofans. The engines manufacturing problems had finally been solved by the end of 2009 and the WS-10A had reportedly proved mature enough to power the Block 02 aircraft.[10]

Operational history
In March 2011 a joint Sino-Pakistani exercise, Shaheen 1, was conducted at a Pakistan Air Force (PAF) base involving a contingent of Chinese aircraft and personnel from the PLAAF.[18] Information on which aircraft were used by each side in the exercise was not released, but photos of Pakistani pilots inspecting what appeared to be Chinese Shenyang J-11B fighters were released on the internet. The exercise lasted for around 4 weeks and was the first time the PLAAF had deployed to and conducted "operational" aerial maneuvers in Pakistan with the PAF.[19]

The J-11B, along with the J-10A and Su-30MKK, was deployed to enforce China's Air Defense Identification Zone.[20]


Khaqan Humayun

Jun 30, 2013
It has US Engine. Anything with links to USA is a big no-no for Pakistan.
Engine can be replace by any Euro Engine.

One thing I must say Must give reason before Vote I want a Useful Discussion....
If this is not a good Air Craft so Why India and Other want to buy this????
Last edited:


Jan 13, 2010
Russian Federation
Engine can be replace by any Euro Engine.

One thing I must say Must give reason before Vote I want a Useful Discussion....
If this is not a good Air Craft so Why India and Other want to buy this????
dude, what you suggest is highly appreciable but a big NO, today PAF received 50th JF-17 Thunder and we will be happy with it quite for long time. Forget about engines from USA or EU and do hats off to Russians for their RD-93 kindness.

Just scroll on Pakistan defense and military forum and it will help you a lot reviewing your thread.


Aug 26, 2007
Isn't gripen a light aircraft like thunder and lca? Where as Rafale is a heavier plane in the category of j-10, f-18, EF-2000.
IAF was looking for a heavier and more capable plane. And gripen can't be everything despite being very cost-efficient and high-tech.
Pakistan could prefer this plane over F-16 as both are very similar and compatible.


Jul 16, 2009
Its already been discussed in different threads thousands of times in many different ways...no point in repeating same things again and again..


Dec 10, 2009
United Kingdom
Engine can be replace by any Euro Engine.

One thing I must say Must give reason before Vote I want a Useful Discussion....
If this is not a good Air Craft so Why India and Other want to buy this????

India is not buying Gripen.

Pakistan evaluated it back in early 2000s, but decided to stick with F-16s.

PAF's hands are full as of now with the new BVR F-16s and JF-17s


Oct 29, 2009
We have our LCAs, why purchase foreign ones?
  • Foreign purchases will depreciate over time, we'll be throwing money on maintenance and upgrades. If we spend the money on tech acquisitions for our JF-17 program, they will pay for itself as JF-17 becomes more exportable
  • We don't rely on any foreign nation for maintenance and upgrades. US has enough clout to force European nations to apply sanctions on us if we decide to stop letting it drag us by the balls.
  • As our program grows, so will our defense industry - we'll have more money to spend on R&D on other programs as well.
  • As our program grows, our defense industry will employee more Pakistanis, engage more Pakistani contractors and overall bring more $$$ into our coffers.


Apr 29, 2013
Iran, Islamic Republic Of
Syrian Arab Republic
saab (WTF) JAS ?

kidding ? guys just talk to russia for good multi-role fighter . and then pass 1 or 2 to iran for RE :D


Sep 8, 2009
Saab , I think about be contacted for Battle Field systems for Military or replacement of our Damaged Saab.

J11 & J10B would be sufficient for Pakistan's next goal for next 20 years of service
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