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Emperor Taizong Heavenly Kaghan and Son of Heaven. Turks in Tang military

retaxis

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After Successful Victories against the Eastern and Western Turkish khaganates, Emperor Taizong was asked by all Turks to become the heavenly Khagan to all Turks. Following this massive amounts of Turks served in the Tang Dynasty military. Taizong used multiple means of victory including divide and conquer and combining massive armies to crush the Turks in the West. Many Turks later on served with distinction and received very high titles within the Tang military.



Taizong's adoption of the Heavenly Kaghan title was used to legitimize his role as a steppe khan not solely as a Chinese emperor with the title of Son of Heaven.[7] He valued the kaghan title and was sincere about his role as a leader of Central Asia. He sought to solidify his claim as a kaghan by organizing a gathering of Turkic leaders in the Lingzhou fortress during the last years of his reign to reconfirm his title.[8]
 

retaxis

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Not just turk, japs, korean, arab, persian and many more different ethnic people served in the court.
When China became ruler of the Turks we took in a lot of Turkic people and many northern Chinese back then had Turkic ancestors. Eventually it led to Turks assuming too much power which might have led to the An Lushan rebellion.
 

tower9

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When China became ruler of the Turks we took in a lot of Turkic people and many northern Chinese back then had Turkic ancestors. Eventually it led to Turks assuming too much power which might have led to the An Lushan rebellion.
The poet Li Bai was part Turkic
 

-blitzkrieg-

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When China became ruler of the Turks we took in a lot of Turkic people and many northern Chinese back then had Turkic ancestors. Eventually it led to Turks assuming too much power which might have led to the An Lushan rebellion.
wow They had China back then..They had olympics as well?
Zhong hua (China) was used for the nation somewhere in 11th century.What you are discussing happened centuries earlier.
 
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dBSPL

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wow They had China back then..They had olympics as well?
During the Chinese campaign of late 657, the Tang greatly expanded their territory. But generally, Turks, Tibetans and Tang Dynasty; struggled to control Central Asia until the 10th century when this dynasty collapsed.

After the Göktürk Khanate was divided into two parts as western and eastern; Göktürk Civil War took place in the country. The Western Turks, allied with the Byzantine Empire. While the territory of the Eastern Göktürk Khaganate, which is considered the main administrative part of the country, was shrinking, the Western Göktürk Khaganate began to expand its territory. Such a dynamic geopolitics was in the background in these years.

The background of the events is also full of intrigue. Li Shimin's predecessor, Emperor Gaozu, condoned the murder of Western Göktürk khan Arslan Taman Kagan by the Eastern Göktürks on November 2, 619. Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) aimed to fend off the threats of the Turks by making the eastern and western Göktürks fight each other. This has become the official ideology of China. In 641, In the civil war between the Western and Eastern Göktürks; Taizong supported Isbara Yabgu Kagan, the leader of the Western Turks. The Eastern Turk khan, Yukuk Kagan, occupied the oasis cities in the west that belonged to Isbara Yabgu, Yukuk assassinated his rivals in the Western Gokturks, than the eastern and western wings of the country were united.

In the years following the merger, Yukuk; It has become a great threat to China; China began to seize trade cities. In 642, Taizong once again supported a revolt against Yukuk's rule. Opposition Western Turks asked for help from Tang dynasty for Ériş Kül Kağan to ascend to the throne against Yukuk. The opposition, which received the support of China, succeeded in dethroning Yukuk and put Eriş on the throne. Yukuk then left the country and settled in Kunduz, which is within the borders of today's Afghanistan.

After this event, between the Tang and the Western Turks; Negotiations have started on the sovereignty of the 5 oasis states in the Tarim Basin, which is important for the Silk Road dominance. Eris wanted to establish strong ties with the Tang and get along with China. Therefore, he married the Tang princess. Since the management of the oasis states was under the Turkish beys; Whatever the outcome of Eris' negotiations with China; He could not find the power to transfer these statelets, which he could not be effective in the Eriş administration, to Tang. After the negotiations stalled, China decided to start organizing expeditions to the Tarim Basin again.

Before the Tang Dynasty decided on the expedition(Western Tujue in Chinese sources); Taking advantage of the competition between the Eastern and Western Göktürk states; seriously weakened the power of these two states. Emperor Taizong sent the Chinese army to the lands on the western flank of the Göktürks, to Karahoca in 640, Karaşehir in 644 and Kuçar in 648.

Campaigns against the Western Turks continued during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. After Gen, the khanate was completely annexed by the Tang. Su Dingfang defeated Il-Kullig Ishbara Khagan in 657. The Western Turks tried to seize the Tarim Basin from 670 to 677. however, these attempts were repelled by the Tang. In 712, the Second Eastern Turkic Khanate defeated the Western Turks and took this khanate under its own control.

In terms of the socio-cultural consequences of the events, The Tang Dynasty aimed to spread Chinese culture in the areas it controlled. However, in the regions where Turkish soldiers working for the Tang were located, Turkish influence became dominant. For this reason, the migration of Turkish tribes to the regions controlled by Turkish soldiers accelerated; The Indo-European peoples living in these regions became Turkified by melting into Turkish culture.
 
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-blitzkrieg-

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During the Chinese campaign of late 657, the Tang greatly expanded their territory. But generally, Turks, Tibetans and Tang Dynasty; struggled to control Central Asia until the 10th century when this dynasty collapsed.

After the Göktürk Khanate was divided into two parts as western and eastern; Göktürk Civil War took place in the country. The Western Turks, allied with the Byzantine Empire. While the territory of the Eastern Göktürk Khaganate, which is considered the main administrative part of the country, was shrinking, the Western Göktürk Khaganate began to expand its territory. Such a dynamic geopolitics was in the background in these years.

The background of the events is also full of intrigue. Li Shimin's predecessor, Emperor Gaozu, condoned the murder of Western Göktürk khan Arslan Taman Kagan by the Eastern Göktürks on November 2, 619. Emperor Taizong (Li Shimin) aimed to fend off the threats of the Turks by making the eastern and western Göktürks fight each other. This has become the official ideology of China. In 641, In the civil war between the Western and Eastern Göktürks; Taizong supported Isbara Yabgu Kagan, the leader of the Western Turks. The Eastern Turk khan, Yukuk Kagan, occupied the oasis cities in the west that belonged to Isbara Yabgu, Yukuk assassinated his rivals in the Western Gokturks, than the eastern and western wings of the country were united.

In the years following the merger, Yukuk; It has become a great threat to China; China began to seize trade cities. In 642, Taizong once again supported a revolt against Yukuk's rule. Opposition Western Turks asked for help from Tang dynasty for Ériş Kül Kağan to ascend to the throne against Yukuk. The opposition, which received the support of China, succeeded in dethroning Yukuk and put Eriş on the throne. Yukuk then left the country and settled in Kunduz, which is within the borders of today's Afghanistan.

After this event, between the Tang and the Western Turks; Negotiations have started on the sovereignty of the 5 oasis states in the Tarim Basin, which is important for the Silk Road dominance. Eris wanted to establish strong ties with the Tang and get along with China. Therefore, he married the Tang princess. Since the management of the oasis states was under the Turkish beys; Whatever the outcome of Eris' negotiations with China; He could not find the power to transfer these statelets, which he could not be effective in the Eriş administration, to Tang. After the negotiations stalled, China decided to start organizing expeditions to the Tarim Basin again.

Before the Tang Dynasty decided on the expedition(Western Tujue in Chinese sources); Taking advantage of the competition between the Eastern and Western Göktürk states; seriously weakened the power of these two states. Emperor Taizong sent the Chinese army to the lands on the western flank of the Göktürks, to Karahoca in 640, Karaşehir in 644 and Kuçar in 648.

Campaigns against the Western Turks continued during the reign of Emperor Gaozong. After Gen, the khanate was completely annexed by the Tang. Su Dingfang defeated Il-Kullig Ishbara Khagan in 657. The Western Turks tried to seize the Tarim Basin from 670 to 677. however, these attempts were repelled by the Tang. In 712, the Second Eastern Turkic Khanate defeated the Western Turks and took this khanate under its own control.

In terms of the socio-cultural consequences of the events, The Tang Dynasty aimed to spread Chinese culture in the areas it controlled. However, in the regions where Turkish soldiers working for the Tang were located, Turkish influence became dominant. For this reason, the migration of Turkish tribes to the regions controlled by Turkish soldiers accelerated; The Indo-European peoples living in these regions became Turkified by melting into Turkish culture.
im not interested in the history here rather the terminology used to define a kingdom/nation in those days.The most appropriate way to call it would be "Medieval China" or use the exact name of kingdom .
 

IblinI

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im not interested in the history here rather the terminology used to define a kingdom/nation in those days.The most appropriate way to call it would be "Medieval China" or use the exact name of kingdom .
Isnt it the same thing worldwide?
 

-blitzkrieg-

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Isnt it the same thing worldwide?
Misappropriation of history is common. Above the guys says "When China became ruler of Turks" There was no China back then..there was a certain dynasty that ruled gokturks.History should not be used in context of present day countries.
 

Leishangthem

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china is a modern nomenclature system,in reality it's a civilization state ,it hasn't changed .The civilization state just adopted the name china.
 

Indos

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Tang Dynasty is beaten by Muslim Arab and this is why Central Asian, including Turk, become Muslim


There are certain historical battles, which had very little influence immediately but changed things through the centuries. The battle of Talas between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Empire in 751 is a good example of such a conflict. It changed the religious outlook of Central Asia as Buddhism was slowly pushed out and Islam took its place, was crucial in changing the faith of the Turkic tribes. Later on the Seljuk Turks moved to the West, and that was one of the reasons for the Crusades. Historians also think that this battle was important for the Renaissance, as the papermaking made its way to Europe after it.
 

Polestar 2

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Tang Dynasty is beaten by Muslim Arab and this is why Central Asian, including Turk, become Muslim


There are certain historical battles, which had very little influence immediately but changed things through the centuries. The battle of Talas between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Empire in 751 is a good example of such a conflict. It changed the religious outlook of Central Asia as Buddhism was slowly pushed out and Islam took its place, was crucial in changing the faith of the Turkic tribes. Later on the Seljuk Turks moved to the West, and that was one of the reasons for the Crusades. Historians also think that this battle was important for the Renaissance, as the papermaking made its way to Europe after it.
The loss is attributed to China internal affair. Without alushan rebel. Tang could have send more forces or second campaign. Just like mongol polish campaign , stopped by Mengke death and mongolian retreated. Nothing to do with polish defeat the Mongol.
 

applesauce

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Misappropriation of history is common. Above the guys says "When China became ruler of Turks" There was no China back then..there was a certain dynasty that ruled gokturks.History should not be used in context of present day countries.

the idea of china is different from the western idea of countries. the name "china" (middle kingdom) has been around to refer to the civilization for 1000s of years. each dynasty refers to itself not just by the dynastic name but also that they represent china the civilization. its kind of like how rome had different dynastic ruling families but they all ruled the roman empire and when egypt falls under roman control you would generally say that rome controlled egypt not Julio-Claudian dynasty controlled egypt.
 

applesauce

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Tang Dynasty is beaten by Muslim Arab and this is why Central Asian, including Turk, become Muslim


There are certain historical battles, which had very little influence immediately but changed things through the centuries. The battle of Talas between the Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Empire in 751 is a good example of such a conflict. It changed the religious outlook of Central Asia as Buddhism was slowly pushed out and Islam took its place, was crucial in changing the faith of the Turkic tribes. Later on the Seljuk Turks moved to the West, and that was one of the reasons for the Crusades. Historians also think that this battle was important for the Renaissance, as the papermaking made its way to Europe after it.

Talas was a small battle in terms of the kind of wars china fights. the tang 100% would have been back with more force than ever had the an lushan rebellion not broken out and cause the tang empire to become engaged in a 7 year long civil war with millions dead that saw it needing to pull troops from the frontiers to fight internally.
china regularly has 100,000+ troops in battle per side and tens of millions of deaths in civil wars(huge percentage of total population). which is part of the reason the chinese public generally can endure a lot of abuse before its really raises up in revolts because a civil war is so deadly.
 

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