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Discussion in 'Social & Current Events' started by James-bond, Jan 8, 2018.

  1. James-bond

    James-bond BANNED

    Feb 1, 2017
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    Recently the head of the Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), a component of the Khyber Pkhtunkhwa (KP) government, congratulated his government for expunging “secular content” from textbooks being used in the province’s schools. The KP government’s two main component parties are the populist Pakistan Tehreek-i-Insaf (PTI) and the conservative JI.

    It was during the Ayub Khan regime (1958-69) that the term “Pakistan Ideology” first began to circulate. A. Pande in his book Explaining Pakistan quotes Field Marshal Ayub Khan as saying [in 1958], “Every human being needs an ideology for which he should be able to lay down his life.” Justice Javed Iqbal [the son of Muhammad Iqbal] wrote in his memoir that in 1959, Ayub sent a questionnaire to some intellectuals asking them to define the ideology of Pakistan. However, by then the Ayub regime had somewhat already formulated its own definition.

    In a 1960 speech, Ayub claimed: “Pakistan was not achieved to create a priest-ridden culture but instead, it was created to evolve an enlightened society. It is a great injustice to both life and religion to impose on 20th century man the condition that he must go back several centuries in order to prove his credentials as a true Muslim.” Ayub claimed to have been following the “modernist” ideals of Islam held by the likes of Iqbal and Jinnah. Three years later, when Ayub’s party, the Muslim League-Convention, was debating the contents of the 1962 constitution with the opposition, the phrase Pakistan Ideology was heard for the first time in a Pakistani parliament.

    The JI rejected Ayub’s idea of Pakistan Ideology for being “Westernised” and “secular.” In 1967, founder of JI, Abul Ala Maududi, formulated his party’s own idea of Pakistan Ideology to mean an Islamic Republic which was to evolve into becoming an “Islamic State” run on Sharia laws. On the other end, intellectuals such as Hanif Ramay and Safdar Mir, who were associated with the left-leaning PPP, saw Pakistan Ideology to mean a country driven by popular democracy and a socialist interpretation of Islam. The phrase, however, never made its way into any school textbook.

    This changed after the 1971 East Pakistan debacle. Just before

    the tragedy, Justice Javed Iqbal had published The Pakistan Ideology which was critical of Ayub’s as well as JI’s version of the ideology. Justice Iqbal lamented that both the versions were self-serving and did not take into account the more complex ideas of faith and statehood held by Muhammad Iqbal and Mr Jinnah.

    Dr Mubarak Ali in Pakistan: In Search of Identity writes that the first time the term “Pakistan Ideology” appeared in textbooks was in 1972. According to Dr Ali this was done to reinforce the Two-Nation Theory which some believed had been shattered by East Pakistan’s departure. This alone seems to be the purpose because the term was never fully explained. In her book Judging the State Paula Newberg wrote that in 1975, the Z.A. Bhutto regime got the courts to ban the National Awami Party “for going against the Pakistan Ideology.” By this the regime meant a party which was against the Two-Nation Theory.

    It was during the Gen Zia dictatorship (1977-1988) that the whole idea of Pakistan Ideology was turned into a detailed doctrine. However, due to the reactionary disposition of the regime, the “modernist” dimensions of the idea were eschewed in favour of a narrower and more theological dimension. It is this version of the ideology that has stuck. One which was constructed from the late 1970s onward.

    Many have criticised it for being isolationist and non-inclusive, and hence not in tune with Pakistan’s ethnic, religious and sectarian diversity. They have also described it as being a departure from Mr Jinnah’s idea of Islam and statehood. But its defenders claim that it is a natural and evolutionary culmination of the idea of the “Islamic Republic” which Jinnah created. The jury is still out on this.

    Published in Dawn, EOS, January 7th, 2017