• Thursday, November 15, 2018

Chinese Aero Engine information thread

Discussion in 'Chinese Defence Forum' started by shuttler, Feb 17, 2014.

  1. Deino

    Deino INT'L MOD

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    Not sure by You are so much offended? IMO it is a sign of good analysis and journalism to question any statement and image esp. if a certain source is known for not overall reliable.
    So instead of complaining my concerns I'm a bit surprised that You seem to take everything for granted especially You seem to have missed my argument: Just look at that image ... which WS-10 on a teststand looks more modern? This just now posted image from Sina or Your image posted a few days ago??

    And if You now take into consideration that nearly exact images showing a WS-10 on an outside teststand were posted several years ago - even if I have to admit that I wasn't able to find it in my collection - I think it is at least allowed to question the text.

    In return, Your post just say "WS-10B bench test" as if You have confirmation or as if You are sure!??
    Not even an "alleged", "maybe" or "said to be" in advance. :undecided:

    But again it's a matter of trust and I don't trust Sina very much.

    Deino
     
    Last edited: Oct 18, 2017
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  2. Deino

    Deino INT'L MOD

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    Like I said... and if I have to weight reliability and credibility of xinfengcao vs Sina, Sina will loose without any doubt by a wide, wide margin. By the way that old image was taken at the CFTE at Xi'an/Yanliang, while the newer/more recent one most likely at Jiangyou, Sichuan province.

     
    Last edited: Oct 22, 2017
  3. cirr

    cirr ELITE MEMBER

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    Chinese enterprise makes core component of aircraft engines: report

    2017-10-25 09:53 Global Times Editor: Li Yan

    Chengdu Aerospace Superalloy Technology Co (CAST), a listed mining company, made a great breakthrough in producing a single-crystal blade, the most important part of an aviation engine, national business channel CCTV 2 reported on Monday.

    Designed to work at the highest temperatures, under the most complicated pressure levels and exposed to the most adverse environment in the engine, the single-crystal blades were produced by CAST to a high standard and used customized casting techniques.

    The single-crystal blades directly determine the performance of an aviation engine.

    "Specifications of the turbofan engine have reached an advanced international level. All components have independent intellectual property rights for both design and production, especially the most difficult part - the single-crystal turbine blades inside the engine," Xu Gang, a member of the aircraft engine R&D team and dean of the Laboratory of Light-duty Gas-turbines in the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, was quoted as saying in the report.

    The development has broken the U.S. monopoly in the global market, said the report.

    In the core of a thrust engine, the component consists of 60 single blades. Each blade outputs power that is equivalent to a sport utility vehicle car with a 2.0 liter engine and the temperature is more than 1,720 C.

    To avoid melting, the materials for single-blade production include a rare metal called rhenium.

    To maintain its dominant position in the aviation industry, the U.S. and some other Western countries have blocked China from both material and technical details for years, according to the report.

    CAST is able to purify rhenium for the blade product in a customized furnace now, it said.

    http://www.ecns.cn/business/2017/10-25/278319.shtml

    :coffee::D

    中国企业打破美国垄断 造出航空发动机核心部件

    2017-10-24 20:13:29字号:A- A A+来源:央视财经

    关键字:中国 航空发动机铼 发动机涡扇发动机单晶叶片

    这两天随着十九大的胜利召开,一些振奋人心的新名词被大家热议着。未来的中国将要建设成为科技强国、质量强国、航天强国、网络强国、交通强国、数字中国,而广大科技人员也奋力走在实现这些宏伟目标的路上。

    央视财经10月23日“经济半小时”节目关注我国航空航天业的新发展。在科研人员的努力下,我国航空发动机关键零件单晶叶片、3D打印金属钛零件等,均已取得国际领先水平。

    不断打破国外垄断 中国航空发动机关键零件国际领先

    在河北廊坊科技园,一款为无人机和商务机而设计的航空发动机正在进行150小时试车,考核发动机在各种状态下技术性能和可靠性及寿命等综合指标。

    [​IMG]

    中国科学院工程热物理所所长朱俊强:150小时做完了,首飞保证就没问题了,可以到不同高度进行试飞了,这个发动机基本定型。

    十三五期间,我国启动了航空发动机和燃气轮机重大专项,航空工业持续发力,不断缩小与国际一流发动机生产企业的差距。

    中国科学院工程热物理所轻型动力实验室实任徐纲:这一款涡扇发动机它的耗油率、寿命指标都达到了国际先进水平,国内也是个空白,所有的零件都是自主设计、自主生产,尤其是像里面的高温的单晶涡轮叶片,实际上就是可以说发动机里面加工的难点中的难点。

    [​IMG]

    单晶叶片处于航空发动机中温度最高、应力最复杂、环境最恶劣的部位,是航空产品第一关键零件,它的铸造工艺直接决定了航空发动机的性能。

    在这台1000公斤推力的发动机中心,核心部件就是眼前这60片单晶叶片。发动机将空气进行压缩之后压入燃烧室,在有限的空间内和燃料发生剧烈燃烧,产生猛烈的燃气喷射流,推动这些叶片高速旋转,让看似单薄的零件迸发出惊人的动力,每一片叶片输出的马力都相当于一台2.0排量的SUV汽车,温度大概在1720多度。

    在1700度的高温之下,普通金属是不够耐热的。生产单晶叶片,就一定离不开一种珍贵的稀有金属-铼。

    [​IMG]

    在成都航宇超合金技术有限公司,我们见到了单晶叶片生产中最为关键的金属—铼。这是人类发现最晚的天然元素,因为发现者是德国化学家,因此以莱茵河的名称命名为铼。它在地壳中的含量比所有的稀土元素都小,比钻石更难以获取。根据美国地质调查局的报告,全球探明的铼储量仅为2500吨左右。铼的价格跟白金的价格相仿,一克大概需要两三百块钱。

    能够提纯铼金属的,是成都航宇超合金技术有限公司的母公司,这是一家上市的矿业公司。2010年,这家公司在其下属的陕西省洛南县黄龙铺钼矿区矿山中斟探到铼,储量达到176吨,约占全球储量的7%,仅次于智利、美国、俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦。近年来,随着航空工业的发展,铼消费量的年均增长率为3%,虽然价格不菲,却一直处于供不应求的状态。

    成都航宇超合金技术有限公司董事长 张政:我们原来最初的想法是把铼生产出来。交给国内的用户。我们每年增加我们的收益,对上市公司就是一个很好的帮助。

    [​IMG]

    美国是最大的铼金属消费国,控制着全球销售市场,一直处于垄断地位。由于铼可以广泛应用于喷气式发动机和火箭发动机,全球约80%的铼用于生产航空发动机,其在军事战略上有重要意义。为了维持在航空工业的优势地位,美国和其它一些西方国家常年针对中国进行材料和技术封锁。

    成都航宇超合金技术有限公司副总经理 宋阳:它有一些区域是限制中国人进入的,他们不希望这样的一些技术机密,或者是技术信息被中国所了解和掌握。

    越是封锁,就越说明航空发动机的战略重要性,就越需要突破。矿业公司董事长张政拍板做了一个重要的决定:自己生产用于航空发动机的单晶涡轮叶片。

    [​IMG]

    2012年7月,国务院印发《“十二五”国家战略性新兴产业发展规划》,将航空装备产业列为高端装备制造产业中的第一个项目,明确提出要突破航空发动机核心关键技术,加快推进航空发动机产业化。国家层面大力倡导,然而生产设备的采购却面临着巨大的困难——国外巨头再次相对中国进行技术封锁,生产设备中的关键环节——热处理炉因为西方国家的封锁卡了壳

    几大航空发动机生产公司所使用的,都是航空工业专用的一级热处理炉。但是因为西方国家的严密封锁,能够生产这类设备的厂商根本无法将设备销售给中国的企业,而国内的企业也只能生产二级炉。

    [​IMG]

    宋阳:二级炉,就是温度差正负5度,从正负3到正负5度,这一点点的差距,设备的结构热处理之后的效果差距是非常明显的。

    时间不等人,专家组另辟蹊径,尝试用电子行业的一级热处理炉来替代传统的航空工业一级热处理炉。这种跨行业的混搭在航空发动机的生产领域是一个前所未有的大胆尝试,成功与否谁都没有把握,幸运的是这个炉子比原来想象的,正负3度的偏差更低,它正负只偏差了2.1度,这几乎是比一级炉还要精密。

    解决好了热处理炉的问题,但他们紧绷的神经依然没有丝毫放松。因为整条生产线依然还差一台单晶浇铸环节最重要的设备—单晶炉。几经辗转,他们又找到英国一家单晶炉的供应商,提出了定制化要求。

    宋阳:刚开始的时候它对于一个中国的厂商能够生产单晶叶片,他们更多是想卖一台设备到中国来,但是并没有想帮助我们把这件事给做成。

    [​IMG]

    2015年7月22日,成都航宇第一批产品出炉,合格率一鸣惊人。这家专业的单晶炉制造商不由得对这位行业新入者另眼相看。

    成都航宇超合金技术有限公司董事长张政:这个成品率高到这个炉子的生产商都很高兴,他专门飞过来跟我们庆祝了一次,他做了几十年的这个专业设备,实验性开炉的第一炉产品,做到全球最高的成品率。

    成都航宇超合金技术有限公司副总经理宋阳:我觉得中国这么多年的这个经验,凡是国外对中国进行封锁的,靠着我们自己的自力更生艰苦奋斗,我们都能够在这个领域取得突破。

    0.5公斤零件撑起400公斤重量 中国航天器试水3D打印

    为了突破西方对于中国的核心技术封锁,中国的企业家、科学家大胆实践、勇于创新,不仅是造出了被西方国家垄断的铼金属核心部件,还创造出了新的金属制造方式。

    2017年9月20日,世界顶尖的金属3D打印设备制造商德国斯棱曼公司与一家中国公司签下了合作协议,与一家中国公司成立联合应用研发中心,将展开针对中国市场的应用研发。

    [​IMG]

    金属材料的3D打印技术门槛高,难度大,附加值高,金属3D打印的产值也占到了整个3D打印行业的80%以上。在金属3D打印方面,西方国家的技术也长期领先于中国。而如今,金属3D打印正在越来越多地出现在中国制造的高端装备上,这让世界领先的企业,也注意到了中国企业在这个方面取得的创新和成就。

    中国航天科技集团五院的展厅,浓缩了中国空间飞行器研制的主要成果,这些航天器对于减少重量的要求,可谓是严苛之极,因为每增加一克的重量,就会给发射带来很高的成本,并且会加大航天项目的复杂性,甚至直接影响到整个方案的可行性。为了减轻每一克的重量,研究人员从材料和结构上想了任何可能的办法。

    [​IMG]

    中国航天科技集团五院总体部增材制造技术项目经理张啸雨:这个就是我们目前工程上最轻的材料,叫蜂窝夹层结构,这种结构里面全部是蜂窝,然后上下的面用的是碳纤维。这种碳纤维非常昂贵,它的一公斤差不多要比那个同等重量的黄金还要贵一些。

    减轻重量是不懈的追求。碳纤维材料,加之蜂窝状的结构,这几乎已经达到了减重的极限,但是工程技术人员对此还是不满意,他们希望重量再降低一些。可是,如何才能实现新的突破呢?

    [​IMG]

    位于北京市昌平区的一间厂房,正在生产着钛合金、铝合金、不锈钢等多种金属的零部件。但是与其它的冶金厂房不同,在这里,记者看不到金属锻造的大型设备,也看不到很多的技术工人操作,只看见一台台3D打印的机器在忙碌地工作着。

    这个金属打印技术叫激光选区熔化,使用激光照射预先铺展好的金属粉末,使其成形固定。

    经过两天时间,制造过程终于接近尾声,技术人员小心翼翼地将“打印机”中多余的粉末扫去,一个结构非常复杂和精巧的钛金属立方体显现出来。

    [​IMG]

    鑫精合激光科技发展有限公司副总经理孙峰:钛合金在我们冶金行业,是一种非常难成形的一种材料牌号,它的冶金工艺非常的复杂,通过我们这次3D打印工艺,把这么难做的一个钛合金,通过我们3D打印工艺,呈现出这样一个轻量化的结构来。

    在制造业中,传统制造的方式是 “减材制造”,它是利用已有的几何模型工件,用工具将材料逐步切削、打磨、减少,最终成为所需要的零件。而3D打印则恰恰相反,它是根据一个数字三维文件,在一个完全没有任何材料的平面上,一点点逐层打印、添加材料,最终形成一个三维整体,这就是所谓的3D打印,也被称为“增材制造”。

    这样一个边长20厘米左右的立方体,如果用传统的金属铸造工艺制造,重量至少要在5公斤以上,而这个零件的重量却只有0.5公斤,只有以前的十分之一,大大减轻了重量,却具备高强度。孙峰现场给我们做了一个演示。

    [​IMG]

    将近100公斤的孙峰,整个人站在这个立方体上都没有问题,孙峰告诉我们,它最大的承受力在300到400公斤,那可能是800倍到1000倍的载荷。

    目前,在我国很多飞机、船舶甚至航天器的重要零部件上,都可以见到金属3D打印的身影。无论是飞机、船舶的发动机、零部件,还是运载火箭、空间航天飞行器、无人机等航空航天设备,金属3D打印部件正在悄悄地取代着传统制造的零件,并给航空航天等高端制造提供了更多的可能。航天器上很多大大小小的零件,都可以用这种结构来替代原有的较为笨重的金属。甚至一根头发丝,就可以吊起来一个体积不小的卫星上的小零件。

    孙峰:它的轻量化效果非常的好,整个零件它的减重达到了30%以上,它给咱们整个火箭发射这一块,成本节约了几百万,甚至上千万人民币的一个效果。我们传统制造业来说,制造一颗卫星它可能需要几个月甚至几年的时间,通过我们3D打印工艺实现整个卫星的机构,可能只需要十几天的时间,一颗小的卫星可以打出来。

    3D打印作为一项前沿性的先进制造技术,已经成为全球新一轮科技革命和产业革命的重要推动力。然而,多数的设备和工艺尚不成熟,还无法批量打出稳定、耐用、高性能的工业品来,处在“模型制造”和实验阶段。但是这种情况正在发生变化,我国的金属3D打印正在不断地向尖端制造靠拢。

    [​IMG]

    在鑫精合的厂房里,一个大型的钛合金航天器零件,即将在这台由中国民营企业自主研发的大型金属3D打印机里诞生。

    与小型的精密的金属3D打印机的技术不同,大型的打印机采取了另一种不同的技术方式——同轴送粉工艺。而中国在这项技术上已经走在了世界的先列。目前,能用3D打印技术制造出达到锻造水平的金属部件的国家,只有德国、美国、中国等少数几个。而鑫精合批量制造大型钛金属结构件的能力已经在国际领先。

    这种激光“打印”金属粉末的工艺,使得金属材料冷却凝固速度极快,组织细小,力学性能优异,也具备了像锻件一样的高强度。

    [​IMG]

    直径4米的航天器部件拆分成6个2米左右的大零件,3D打印并加工后,再进行整体焊接。在过去,这样巨大的金属件从开模具到锻造,再到机械加工,是个非常浩大的工程,通常需要一年时间才能完成,而用3D打印的方式,仅需要3-6个月。

    张啸雨:可能我们最快的在明年,或者是后年都会有发射的型号来去做这样的一个尝试。我们大概现在有60件到100件的产品已经是在完成了制造,而且已经开始装星,已经开始做整星级的力学实验。

    当前,我国在创新能力建设方面持续发力,迎来了收获果实的时节。中国科技整体能力正从以跟踪为主到跟踪和并跑、领跑并存的新阶段,我们相信,加速前行的中国创新将会给我们带来越来越多的惊喜。
     
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  4. rcrmj

    rcrmj SENIOR MEMBER

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    I just want to clearify the types of WS TH engines we have at the moment````(in serivce, in development)

    for air force
    WS-10A hunderds in serivce, 12.5 T thrust, on J-11B
    WS-10B start entering production, 13.5 T thrust, for future J10 series (cannot use on Chinese flankers, as its engine crankcase is underneath of the main budy)
    WS-10ipe/J all testing is about to end, 14.1 T thrust, J-16s``````

    for navy
    WS-10H```similar to 10A,

    to our fans, our turbofan engine industry started at very late stage, in order to shorten the gap with U.S and Russia, we need short cuts. WS-10 is the result of this short cut policy!```its CFM56 "style" core, F110's "architect"```Russian "standard" of low pressure stage and AL31f's "style" control mechanism and liquid supply system etc, during the period, 2005 (first inducted) to 2016, 606 went through very tough time```until to this day, there is still no personnel from this team has been nominated for "service and contribution distinction" reward``````but soon, thats what I heard, someone will be "nominated"`````the institution is gethering materils for incoming PR compaign now!

    until all of these "key" projects are finalized, than we can safely to say that we are 30 years behine the U.S```and the real deal is WS-15, as it is the first Turbofan engine that we start with our own, inside out! (only a minor data collection outsource jobs to Russia's CIAM, to check the consistency of the same data calculated and collected from our end). WS-15 will bring us only 10 years after the U.S (those professors like to use "how many years" to describe the gap between China and U.S``I guess its thier layman's method :lol:)

    so still long way ahead of us```be humble but not pessimistic``
    @cirr @Asoka @Deino @ChineseTiger1986 @Figaro
     
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  5. Akasa

    Akasa SENIOR MEMBER

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    Can the WS-10IPE be used aboard the J-11D & J-10D?
     
  6. rcrmj

    rcrmj SENIOR MEMBER

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    I dont know about that````
     
  7. Akasa

    Akasa SENIOR MEMBER

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    How about the WS-19 for future shipborne versions of FC-31?
     
  8. rcrmj

    rcrmj SENIOR MEMBER

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    the official shipborne 5th gen stealth fighter has not been revealed yet, how can you be sure of that?

    as far as I know H20 is going to have its own turbofan engine```could be a new model that is based on WS-10's core```but the problem facing them now is how to reduce the tempreture of exhasut nozzle dramatically, so they have to work really hard on low pressure part/chamber``````they have strict requirement on Long range, all round stealth and AI ``````I hope I didnt cross the line``:D
     
  9. Akasa

    Akasa SENIOR MEMBER

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    Not going to imply that it is definitely the shipborne 5th gen jet, but it is likely one of the contenders, and in order to make the platform as attractive as possible, they would need a new engine (WS-19 is what it's called, according to rumors).

    The H-20 could be initially equipped with the D-30 (or a derivative) and refurbish with its own customized turbofan once the latter is ready.
     
  10. rcrmj

    rcrmj SENIOR MEMBER

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    where did you get that info, or just your thought of convenience?
     
  11. Akasa

    Akasa SENIOR MEMBER

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    Unless there are size restrictions or incompatible locations of the engine gearbox, why can't this be a possibility? It is perfectly customary for large aircraft to complete flight testing with "mature" engines.
     
  12. Figaro

    Figaro FULL MEMBER

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    This information is inaccurate. WS-15 has already completed most ground tests ... and is currently being prepared for flight testing. I don’t believe there have been any problems with WS-15’s compressors or combustor ... the main problem used to lie in the single crystal blade production which was rectified in recent years. The core has already passed testing and a full scale engine prototype was built 4 years ago.

    and another hint for why that report mentioned Liming – it will since both WS-10 and WS-15 are developed by AECC Liming (aka Institute No.606).
    Liming is not the same institute as 606. Shenyang Liming is the manufacturer of the WS-10 and was responsible for a lot of the early defects/reliability issues. 606 is the Shenyang Aeroengine Research Institute, which bears no connection with Shenyang Liming. The manufacturing of the WS-15 will be done by XAC (Xian Aeroengine Corporation), not Liming given the WS-10 problems.
     
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  13. messiach

    messiach FULL MEMBER

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    You can be right here. I had some involvement with SF-A15 core but that information is atleast from 2008-09.

     
  14. Deino

    Deino INT'L MOD

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    :-)

     
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  15. Akasa

    Akasa SENIOR MEMBER

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    I wonder how he arrived at that conclusion.