• Wednesday, March 20, 2019

China-Pakistan Cooperation in Eliminating Corruption

Discussion in 'Strategic & Foreign Affairs' started by OsmanAli98, Jan 11, 2019.

  1. OsmanAli98

    OsmanAli98 SENIOR MEMBER

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    Prime Minister Imran Khan, after winning election held on 25 July 2018, in his maiden speech, pointed out that he is impressed by China’s experience in eradicating Poverty and overcoming the Corruption. He stressed to learn from Chinese experiences to implements in Pakistan to eradicate Poverty and root-out Corruption.

    Pakistan in facing an external debt of upto 95 billion US dollars. Last two consecutive governments took major part of this loan and got personal benefits. Their personal assets increased exponentially but the country suffered a lot. The corruption and nepotism was at peak. In fact, they appointed their loyal to almost all important posts, who served as their front men and facilitated them in looting national wealth.

    PTI Government is facing huge challenges due to corruption and nepotism of previous governments. PTI promised the nation to eliminate corruption and nepotism from the country, before general election held on 25 July 2018. After winning the election, PTI is focused to full-fill its promise with the nation. It is rather up-hill task, but Prime Minister Imran Khan is a strong man and determined to root out the menace of corruption once for all. Unlike past, where influential were given exemption, and only small corrupts were held accountable, this time, it was witnessed that the accountability has not spared any one, irrespective to their position or status. Even previous head of the states like President, Prime Minister, and Ministers etc., are accountable. This is “Naya” New Pakistan, where each one is treated equally.

    National Accountability Bureau (NAB), the prime institution to curb corruption, its Chairman Justice (retired) Javed Iqbal on Sunday, 6 January 2019, said that the anti-graft watchdog has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with China to oversee China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) projects being completed in Pakistan. Currently, all the commercial activities are revolving around CPEC, as most of mega projects are under CPEC and major investment is also under CPEC. CPEC is pivotal role in Pakistan’s whole economy.

    He said that considering corruption as cancer, NAB has chalked out a comprehensive National Anti-Corruption Strategy for logical conclusion of mega corruption white collar crimes cases by adopting the policy of ‘Accountability for All’ as the figures of complaints, inquiries and investigations are almost double as compared to the figures of the period between 2017 to 2018. The comparative figures for the last one year from October 2017 to December 2018 are indicative of hard work being put in by all ranks of NAB officers in an atmosphere of renewed energy and dynamism, where the fight against corruption is being taken as a national duty, he added.

    He said that NAB is committed to rooting out corruption in all its forms and manifestations across the board with iron hands. He said that NAB has established a state-of-the-art forensic science lab in Islamabad which has facilities of digital forensics, questioned documents and fingerprint analysis which will be utilized for further improvements in the quality of inquiries and investigations. The NAB chief said that due to the prescribed timeline of 10 months for efficient, effective and expeditious disposal of cases from complaint verification-to-inquiry-to-investigation and finally to a reference in the accountability court, NAB has filed 440 corruption references from October 2017 to September 2018 which is a record achievement.

    He said that NAB has introduced a new concept of Combine Investigation Team (CIT) in order to benefit from the experience and collective wisdom of senior supervisory officers, hence a system of CIT comprising of a director, additional director, investigation officer and a senior legal counsel has been put in place. This is not only lending quality to the work but also ensuring that no single individual can influence the official proceedings of NAB. He also said that NAB has signed MOU with China to oversee CPEC projects being completed in Pakistan.

    Transparency International (TI), PILDAT, Mishal, Gillani and Gallop survey and World Economic Forum have appreciated NAB’s efforts in the eradication of corruption. NAB, in a very short span of time, has established over 50,000 character-building societies in universities/colleges to create awareness against corruption which has proved very successful and now the young generation is aware of the ill effects of corruption and has joined hands with NAB to eradicate corruption from the country. We are optimistic that Pakistan may over-come corruption in very near future.

    In a matter of fact, corruption is the major cause of poverty in Pakistan and as well as in developing countries. While, the beneficiary of corruption are the developed world. The influential people from Developing countries, stolen and looted wealth transfer to the developed countries. In other words, the developed countries provided them safe custody of their illegal wealth. It contributes to their economy, so they provide them protection. Although, there is an awareness among the public of developing nations and some of the countries have already taken some measures to control corruption. But unless the international community cooperate and sincerely try to control it, little success is expected. UN and International community may formulate legislation, where the developed countries may not be able to provide them protection. Without cooperation from Developed World, eliminating corruption may turn a dream only.

    China has gained success in controlling corruption to a huge extent that is why Pakistan wanted to learn from Chinese experience and signed MoU.Since the President Xi Jin Ping , came into power, an anti-graft movement was initiated and till date, thousands of high profile officials and business tycoons were arrested and recovered the illegal money from them or punished exemplary. Chinese model of fighting against the corruption is to spare none, irrespective of his/her position or status. Even they have not spared Ministers, Governors, Party’s senior officials or big tycoons from business community.

    It is expected that PTI government will meet its manifesto of eliminating corruption from this society. Cooperation with China is a big initiative in this regard and yet many other initiatives have to be taken to meet the sever challenges. It might need to pass new legislations, and introduce reforms in the judicial system of Pakistan, as some of laws are rather out dated back to century old colonial era. Today, the world has emerged a high-tech and cyber styled. Our Law enforcement mechanism and judiciary may not be able to coup with white collar crimes. Wide range, comprehensive, reforms are also required to address the complicated and radical crimes.

    NADRA is one of the very well and equipped institution to handle the hi-tech crimes. Pakistan may use all possible latest technologies to investigate modern time crimes.

    The popularity of PM Imran Khan will increase if he succeeded in elimination corruption and recovered the looted money from high profile criminals.

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    Why does India need evidence-based crime policy more than ever?

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    Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan

    Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan, Sinologist (ex-Diplomate), Non-Resident Fellow of CCG (Center for China and Globalization), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

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    21st Century Great Power Scramble Rush to Indian Ocean
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    Published

    4 hours ago
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    January 10, 2019
    By

    Ramla Khan
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    The Indian Ocean Region (IOR),dubbed as the 21stcentury’s “pecuniary cauldron” has emerged to be the modern competitive zone for existing and emerging powers of the world. The global power patterns at present remain in the transformational stage. However, in the past the international community has seen spectrum of power shifting from bipolar to unipolar whereas at the present junction, the growing expectations are of a clash within materializing multipolarity. John Mearsheimer, renowned international relations scholar, deduces that in a multipolar world order there are greater likelihood for war, particularly when states in order to address “security dilemma” practice the offensive realpolitik approach.

    Great power states are espying their futures in the high waters of the Indian Ocean that is third largest on the world map and is heavily packed with eccentric sea resources. India and China considering their geographical proximity remain the elitist contenders that are striving hard for the steering. The United States (US) remains a key player in the emerging scenario with the “Pivot towards Asia” gaining an exponential credibility under the Trump administration that looks towards the region under the broadly coined term “Indo-Pacific”. It also signifies the strategic interest of the Americans, underlying that US is not ready to compromise on both ends. The policy of bandwagon with potential allies allows the “sole superpower” in wake of its declining power and influence to remain “hand-dipped” and relevant in the waters of the Indian Ocean. The years after British departure, US strengthened its footsteps in IOR by inheriting the Diego Garcia island base. At present, it continues to back India to contain China’s “peaceful rise”. The activities are supported by the Fifth Fleet which continues to rest beside the major choke points. The fleet has substantial presence near the Red Sea located at the closure of Bad-el-Mandab Strait. The naval convoys have long provided US the operational easiness since the Second World War against its potential foes. The fleet has since then with an intermission in its presence has extended its diameter to the Indian Ocean in the post-Cold war period.

    The region holds overriding significance for China, whose staunch presence provides it with the prospect to pursue its economic and political interests in the South China Sea. It relies on ‘The Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC)’for the essential energy consumption. The approximate of 80 percent of its oil requirement is fulfilled through these lanes from Middle East. In this ongoing setting, any blockade of Malacca and Hormuz Strait is almost exorbitant to the Chinese economy that is aiming to surpass the US economy in times to come. The oil-rich Middle East transports its petro-minerals via the Indian Ocean routes to the East and West. Any disruption in these communication lines can lead to economic collapses of major power relations, analogous to what was witnessed during the First and Second World War. Indian Ocean stores immense amount of resources in the form of islands, bays and straits in the waters and on the bordering regions whose control will remain reason for perpetual conflict. The Bay of Bengal holds in it range of fossil fuels and hydrocarbons. Andaman and Nicobar Islands located in the bay’s premises are militarized by India.It has stationed its special naval forces in the demesne and aims to increase the patrolling networks in the region. India and China are contradicting each other with the apophthegm‘enemy of your enemy is your friend’. Beijing coupled with Pakistan considering it as the classical rival to India whereas India openly sides with the US. With the ‘Look East Policy’, Delhi has gained new allies, most of whom are China’s adversaries in the troubled waters of the South China Sea that are prescribed to react to the ‘Strings of Pearls’.

    Chinese enlargement in Gwadar via the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project with Pakistan, has made its economic presence firm and permanent in the area. The country has rendered a foreign policy as sympathizer to the developing states but Indian analyst describe is as a curtain of its goodwill knitted by China under the aim to grow its military control all across Indian Ocean borders. The Indian Ocean allows China to achieve its long-term goals to sustain immense fiscal growth, providing it a stronger position to deter enemies and contenders alike. The Omni presence of Beijing has raised inquisitive period in the international arena about the new potentials of Xi’s administration. Will the Indian Ocean become another South China Sea and is an escalation likely, is an interesting question.US being not a direct participatory in region, has allowed India and China to exercise more openly in a region that is home to three nuclear powers.

    Like always, there is uncertainty in what lies ahead in international relations. The ‘peaceful rise of China’, which can be labeled as the US equivalent to a ‘new world order’ seems to tackle the situation with diligence by providing a win-win situation to all parties. It also depends largely on the US and India, as to how far they are willing to push China, that could in the near future to influence the regional and international geopolitical setting. The economies of the People’s Republic of China and India are flourishing day by day whereas the US economy remains contracted with the domestic and international opposition to the President Trump’s economic vision. Yet, the economy of US remains at-least two fold greater than that of Beijing. However, the “Red Regan” is swiftly catching up and can fill the void in the decades to come. The puzzle considering the present geopolitical complexions remains uncertain as to which of the power would gain supremacy in the maritime space of the Indian Ocean. International law gives freedom of navigation in the international waters under the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982. However, with the speculation of historical evidences, international law could never have an eminent effect on the realist power maximization intentions of states.

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    SOUTH ASIA
    Why does India need evidence-based crime policy more than ever?
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    Published

    1 day ago
    on

    January 9, 2019
    By

    Raaghavi Senthil
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    On 28th December, 2018, the Union cabinet approved amendments to the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, to extend death penalty to all cases of “aggravated sexual offences” against children, both boys and girls, below 18 years. This comes months after the Cabinet first introduced death penalty for raping girls below the age of 12 years, in the wake of rape and murder of an eight-year-old girl in Kathua in J&K. If this amendment is approved by the Parliament, punishment for aggravated sexual offences will be a minimum of twenty years up to life imprisonment and even death.

    At first glance, this amendment seems to support the ideology that severe punishments will deter the commission of child rapes. But, criminological evidence on the effectiveness of capital punishment suggests that applying death penalty is ineffective as a deterrent and is more expensive than other sentencing measures. It also goes ahead and illustrates that promoting ‘sexual abuse prevention education’ in schools and communities is a much viable solution to curbing child rapes.

    Despite compelling evidence, this proposal – supporting serious investment in prevention programs – remains politically unviable. Policies aimed at protecting children and providing survivors with justice continue to form out of impulse, with little to no certainty that they will effectively bring down the incidents of child rape.

    Leave aside the issue of child rapes. Almost every bill relating to crime is scrutinized on the basis of what legislators ‘believe’ might reduce crime rather than what would ‘actually’reduce crime. And as they exercise their discretion, no serious consideration is given to how ‘futile’ policy decisions would impose additional burden on exchequers.

    How then does one discern what works in crime reduction and what doesn’t? How does one ascertain that a legislation which is passed will truly benefit the stakeholders – and is not just another election gimmick?

    The answer lies in adopting what has proved to be the most robust, cost-effective and informed way of decision-making – using research evidence in policy process.

    Echoing this sentiment, a recent journal article published by Criminologists R. Rochin Chandra, K. Jaishankar and Sony Kunjappan, highlights the need for advancing the relationship between criminological research and criminal justice policy and practice.

    Emphasizing that time has never been more ripe for the expansion of criminological research in the public policy arena, the authors share a perspective on why there is a gap between research and policy in criminal justice, and how conveying research findings to policy-makers can result in tangible policy outcomes.

    “It is almost obvious what is to gain from policymaking that is informed by rigorously established objective evidence. Criminal justice policies impose heavy costs on the government budget. At times of financial crises and under duress to show tangible results, the government can often be pressured into making ill-thought-out decisions. It is only imperative, then, that these policies be evidence-based, in order to avoid bad laws and bad justice”, the paper stated.

    How far across evidence based approaches are adopted by policy-makers, as they decide on criminal justice policies?

    “In India, criminal justice policies are traditionally shaped by beliefs, emotions and political expediency. Governmental strategies intended to prevent crimes, support crime victims, and punish offenders appear to form – rather than be formulated – out of situational compulsions. The overhauling of juvenile laws after the horrific Nirbhaya tragedy and the recent passage of bill seeking death for raping girls below 12 years are typical examples of government’s knee-jerk decision-making”, the paper said, noting that: “despite seemingly natural connection with government policy-making, the scientific knowledge generated within the fields of criminology and criminal justice remains largely underutilized”.

    The paper, which was published in the International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences, further noted that: “due to inherently political nature of policy making, the costs of crime and criminal justice responses are rarely deliberated over, while legislative debates are reduced to a simple binary of whether bill should become a law or not?”

    Elaborating on why evidence-based approaches are often ignored by policy-makers, the paper cited several reasons – including fear of appearing soft on crime, partisan control of the legislature and fear of being criticized for wasting money on experiments – that direct policy positions in a politically viable pathway.

    In what ways then can policy process be informed by rigorous research evidence?

    “To enable the creation of evidence-driven policies, it would be helpful to involve criminologists and criminal justice experts in legislative process and encourage them to give expert testimony. Although India’s legislative process doesn’t statutorily mandate such participation, their involvement will only help the decision making body to interpret the quality and meaning of the evidence (in relation to local needs, fiscal constraints, contexts, and visibility of the problem)”, the paper recommended, adding that: “central government should raise an infrastructure to monitor research evidence and link them with policy process. Research to policy linkages will further strengthen by creating forums that enable criminal justice researchers to exchange their findings with policy-makers and facilitate the formation of common policy objectives.”

    The paper also noted that connecting criminal justice researchers and policy-makers will dramatically increase the access to and accessibility of research evidence.

    Shouldn’t the Indian Government then embrace and prioritize evidence-informed policy-making?

    “As the society aspires to get better administration of safety and justice, embracing evidence-based policy-making will only help government agencies to inform better policy decisions, save public money and improve criminal justice performance”, the paper concluded.

    “Applying evidence-based practices in criminal justice policy-making will be the biggest evidence of democracy”.

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    SOUTH ASIA
    The CPEC and US-India Enviousness
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    Published

    3 days ago
    on

    January 8, 2019
    By

    Irfan Khan
    [​IMG]
    Authors: Irfan Khan and Rafaqat Khalil*

    The United States and India, the two strategic allies pose with impunity, a strong opposition to CPEC. Both countries have been launching a media campaign diplomatically and strategically against CPEC for the last few years. In May 2015, Prime Minister Modi readily visited China to persuade the Chinese government to abandon this project by maintain that the CPEC route was passing through the disputed territory of Gilgit-Baltistan. During the G-20 summit at Hangzhou in China in September 2016, PM Modi had expressed India’s concerns over the CPEC in his bilateral meeting with Chinese President, holding that the two countries needed to be “sensitive” to each other’s strategic interests. In October 2017, the Trump administration told the Senate Armed Services Committee that CPEC was passing through a disputed territory. Similarly, a senior Trump administration official has recently also remarked that the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) “is a made in China, made for China” initiative. US consideration of India as a strategic ally is its diplomatic blunder, as India have a proactive, functional and workable relationships with Russia.

    China Pakistan Economic Corridor(CPEC), currently in progress is a mega strategic and economic based project. It is aimed to bilateral exchange of trade, technology and energy between two forever strategic partners China and Pakistan. Even though, democratic power transition from Pakistan Muslim League-N(PMLN) to Pakistan Tehreek Insaf(PTI) on July 2018, CPEC was remain unaffected and the later considered it the extreme need of time. As, Prime Minister Imran Khan, in various conferences and interviews argued to emulate China in various institutions.

    However, some detractor, impediment elements has bellyache with the project. November 2018 attack on Chinese Consulate Karachi was just an attempt to put a rift in the two partners friendship. But Pakistan security forces made it failed and the diplomatic wisdom of the both countries understand circumstances very well.

    In December 2108, Indian newspapers and American newspaper New York Time made a hype that, a military dimension is also installed within the canvas of CPEC. However, both Pakistan foreign ministry and China president had issued outright statements that there are no such ties. Pakistan’s Foreign Office spokesman, during his last week’s press briefing, made it just clear that the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) had no military dimensions. “The CPEC is a bilateral economic project, which is not against any country”. He was commenting on a report published in a leading US newspaper alleging that the CPEC was not about economy and trade but had military dimensions as well. No doubt, there are strong military ties between China and Pakistan. The CPEC, however, has nothing to do with these ties. Both friends forever have been enjoying close diplomatic, strategic and military relations for decades, independent of, and prior to, the CPEC project. China and Pakistan, being two sovereign states, have the right to foster strong economic and military relations in accordance with their national interests.

    Some disgruntled experts claimed that, the CPEC is not tantamount economically to both China and Pakistan and the later will suffer debts burdens. As Last week, Chinese embassy in Pakistan also refuted another media report which claimed that Pakistan would pay $40 billion to china in 20 years in shape of repayments of debt and dividends on Chinese investment under flagship CPEC. The embassy issued a statement that the Chinese government provided concessional loans of $5.874 billion for Pakistan’s transportation infrastructure projects, with a composite interest rate of around 2 per cent in a repayment period of 20-25 years. The embassy also clarified that all the CPEC energy projects are investments in nature and the companies are responsible for their own profits and losses and repayments of loan. But it is not more than just propaganda. The project equally will bring economic prosperity and it is a grassroot for the functional and workable relationships to both countries.

    Pakistan and China always have been understanding and dealing US-India jealousy, security challenges and troubled environment in Afghanistan through their vast diplomatic wisdoms. The CPEC is promoting both nation and a day is about to come when Pakistan and China both will lead third world countries.

    *Rafaqat Khalil, M.Phil Scholar at Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

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  2. AZADPAKISTAN2009

    AZADPAKISTAN2009 ELITE MEMBER

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    Chinese model to deal with Corruption is ideal match for usage by Pakistan
     
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  3. AZADPAKISTAN2009

    AZADPAKISTAN2009 ELITE MEMBER

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    Crime figures which cost nation loss over certain $ figure should be an automatic hanging
     
  4. Beast

    Beast ELITE MEMBER

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    China set a growth target for all province to archieve. In China, even corrupted officers need to meet this target if not they will be sack. The growth will be monitor by the president.