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China 'out-STEMs' the US

beijingwalker

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China 'out-STEMs' the US
M Ziauddin 11 Aug 2021


A large share of the best universities in the world is said to be in the United States and they are known for excellence. The seventh annual ranking of the Best Global Universities conducted by US News & World Report and published in October 2020 found that 19 of the top 25 schools were American.

However, the QS World University Ranking published by UK company, Quacquarelli Symonds in July this year found that 12 of the top 25 universities were in the US, five in the UK, three in China, two each in Singapore and Switzerland and one in Japan.

Then, at the beginning of August, the Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET) at Georgetown University in Washington, issued a report entitled "China is Fast Outpacing US STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) PhD Growth," which concluded that: "Based on current enrollment patterns, we project that by 2025 Chinese universities will produce more than 77,000 STEM PhD graduates per year compared to approximately 40,000 in the United States."

In 2000, the US had produced more than twice as many STEM PhDs as China. But China overtook the US in the number of STEM PhDs in 2007 and was 47% ahead by 2019. The change has been rapid and it remains so. The quality of Chinese university-level STEM education has also kept improving.

"Most of the recent and rapid growth in Chinese PhD enrollments comes from universities within the higher-quality tiers," the CSET study found, and "because more than three-quarters of Chinese doctoral graduates specialize in STEM fields, this evidence indicates China's STEM talent pipeline is becoming more robust."

And, not surprisingly, according to Scott Foster (US falling further behind China in STEM PhDs, published in Asia Times dated August 9, 2021) new studies show Chinese universities will produce nearly twice as many STEM PhD graduates than US by 2025

"Given the scale of China's investments in higher education and the high-stakes technology competition between the United States and China, the gap in STEM PhD production could undermine US long-term economic and national security."

Remco Zwetsloot, one of the authors of the CSET report, was quoted in Axios as warning: "If this continues, there seems to be no way the US can continue competing with China on the talent front without immigration reform. It is just a numbers game."

Because a large percentage of American students are not prepared for graduate studies in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, the US depends on foreign students to fill its universities and pay the bills.

But it has been alienating foreign students - particularly Chinese students, who accounted for about one-third of foreign students in the US before Donald Trump's anti-China rhetoric and tighter immigration controls.

Efforts under both Trump and President Biden to exclude potential Chinese 'spies' from advanced STEM research also have had an impact.

And according to one estimate, Chinese students contributed US$15 billion to the US economy in the 2018-19 school year when enrollments of foreign students had peaked.

Another report says foreign student enrollments kept American universities afloat, rising by 55% from 2011 to 2019 while domestic enrollment stagnated.

President Biden's election has led to a notable improvement in how the US is regarded overseas and a more open immigration policy. But for the Biden administration, to simply distance itself from Trump-era anti-immigrant rules and ideologies may not be enough to fully rebuild Chinese lost sense of confidence.

China attracted 46% as many students as the US despite its short history as an open country with modern universities. Most foreign students in China are from other Asian countries, led by South Korea, but there are substantial numbers from the US, Russia and France as well.

Clearly, the scale and diversity of university excellence in the West, the rise of East Asian university education and the educational weakness of other regions are said to be phenomena as significant as the relative decline of the US.

China is evolving from cheap hand assembly to fully automated manufacturing and has a huge internet sector. It has built the world's largest high-speed train network, put a rover on Mars and launched its own space station.

All this requires first-rate STEM education, which in China is supported by a government of engineers rather than lawyers. Most likely, when it comes to nation-building, the education data is expected to continue to evolve in its favor.

Asia Times last month was the first to report (China is first out of the gate to Industry 4.0, June 26, 2021) that China had the semiconductor capacity to work around American sanctions for critical applications such as 5G network build-out, and that China was moving rapidly to exploit 5G in a wide range of industries.

China is proposing to build nearly a million 5G base stations this year, vastly outpacing the rest of the world combined. Chinese industry sources, moreover, report that tens of thousands of dedicated 5G networks for factories, ports, warehouses, mines and urban transportation systems will be installed in the course of the next year.

In a July 2021 report on China's semiconductor industry, the US Semiconductor Industry Association wrote:

Just last month, China sent astronauts into space to board a new space station. Earlier this year, China landed a rover on Mars. Chinese state media reported that inside both China's space station and the Mars rover were 100% indigenously designed-and-produced semiconductors, signaling China's increasingly sophisticated microchip capabilities.

Buoyed by a booming market and these government investments, China is poised to be increasingly competitive in some semiconductor market segments.

In an August 4 commentary for Project Syndicate, Harvard Professor Graham Allison and former Google CEO Eric Schmidt warned:

Most Americans assume that their country's lead in advanced technologies is unassailable. And many in the US national security community insist that China can never be more than a "near-peer competitor" in AI. In fact, China is already a full-spectrum peer competitor in terms of both commercial and national-security AI applications. China is not just trying to master AI; it is mastering AI.

The Trump technology sanctions haven't slowed down China. On the contrary, China is gaining on the US and in some fields has overtaken it. Both for economic and strategic reasons, the Biden administration is likely soon to give Trump's failed China policy a decent burial and move on.

The US now imports about $550 billion a year from China, or almost a quarter of America's manufacturing output of $2.4 trillion on a GDP basis. Tariffs of 20% apply to about half of Chinese imports, so by simple arithmetic, the elimination of tariffs should reduce the cost of durable goods in the US by a bit over 2%.

Renmin University Professor Jin Canrong, a prominent Chinese academic closely followed in Washington, is quoted to have argued last week that inflation could bankrupt the US federal government by boosting the cost of interest on the federal debt. He added that the US needs China's supply chains to keep inflation under control ("Will China bail out Biden?," Aug. 3, 2021).

Last month, US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen told the New York Times that tariffs "hurt American consumers." Since then-president Donald Trump imposed a 20% tariff on roughly half the goods America buys from China, the Treasury has collected about $100 billion in fees. Most of that was paid by US consumers.

Tariffs explain part of the explosion in durable goods inflation during the past year. Inflation is the most pressing economic issue for American voters, according to a Vox/Data for Progress poll released on August 3.

Indeed, according to David P. Goldman (US business pushes Biden for a China trade deal, published in Asia Times dated August 7, 2021) Trump era tariffs on Chinese imports are fuelling record US inflation and threaten Biden's chances at 2022 mid-term elections.

It was, therefore, no bolt from the blue to see the whole of the American business community-more than thirty major business organizations-speaking with one voice as it did in an August 5 appeal to the Biden administration to eliminate tariffs on imports from China. Never before was such a spectacle witnessed in US political history.

The US and China have held three rounds of high-level trade talks since early last month, but so far have failed to reach a compromise.

A deal is most likely and sooner than later because inflation could poison the Democratic Party's chances at 2022 mid-term elections and return control of the US Congress to the Republicans. Cutting tariffs is the quickest way to reduce inflation. Beyond the arithmetic of electoral politics, a consensus is emerging that the technology sanctions that Trump imposed on China have failed and may even have backfired.


 

CatSultan

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But the US has a free market where it is easy to do business so all the smart Chinese students come because their is no ceiling on how successful you can be.
 

Song Hong

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The US elites strategy is to pillage talents from all over the world. US elites deliberately destroy the fundamental education in US in order to create a dalit class.

This works well until now when US elite realized that oversea Chinese are bringing back technologies.
 

hualushui

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The trade agreement between China and the Trump administration expires at the end of this year. Next year, China does not need to buy American products, including agricultural products and energy. Biden should consider how many senators and congressmen will be lost in the midterm elections?
 

PoondolotoPandalum

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73/87 sources I've cited during my metallurgical sciences Ph.D. (from a UK University), came from authors with Chinese names. Mainland Chinese sounding names. And over half of them are from mainland Chinese institutions themselves.

In my field (metallurgy, and material science in general), China is arguably the world leader. Far higher volumes of high-quality internationally recognized peer-reviewed publications come out of China than anywhere else. And this sort of academic output also manifests itself within Chinese industries and their growth.
 

beijingwalker

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China’s STEM workforce a challenge for US policymakers
  • Dean DeChiaro CQ-Roll Call (TNS)
  • Aug 11, 2021

WASHINGTON — As Congress and the Biden administration seek to rival China’s push for dominance in science and technology, policymakers are grappling with how to compete in an area where Beijing is seen as wielding a major advantage: its high-skilled workforce.

In 2000, American colleges and universities awarded about 503,500 bachelor’s degrees in science and engineering fields, according to a National Science Board study released in January. The same year, China awarded about 359,500, the report found.

Fifteen years later, the report said, the U.S. had boosted its output by nearly 50%, awarding more than 750,000 degrees. China, following more than a decade of targeted investments in its high-skilled workforce, awarded 1.7 million, nearly a 400% jump.

The sharp increase is one metric that underscores the uphill climb the U.S. government faces as it tries to carve out space in the market for emerging technologies like advanced manufacturing, quantum computing and 5G. While a skilled adult workforce drove growth of the U.S. economy for much of the 20th century, China is primed to take over.

“The evidence of the weakness of the educational foundation for American STEM competitiveness is clear from the performance of our students on both national and international assessments,” wrote Mark Schneider, who directs the Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences, in a recent op-ed for The 74, an education news site.

“There is also evidence from a large-scale international assessment of adult competencies that America’s historical advantage, based on having a skilled adult workforce, is eroding relative to global competitors, particularly China,” Schneider wrote.

Experts say those seeking answers at the higher education level are looking in the wrong place and should be focused on elementary and secondary schools. Caleb Watney, the director of innovation policy at the Progressive Policy Institute, says the culture of “reading, writing and arithmetic” is too baked into American educational philosophy.

“Our school system is kind of stuck on the Prussian model from the 1800s, and we really haven’t changed the fundamental structure of how education works in the country,” Watney told CQ Roll Call. “Who chooses STEM studies in the first place is partially dependent on exposure to those skills, and those kinds of career paths, at an early age.”

Investing in science, technology, engineering and mathematics in early education, before students can fall behind their peers in other countries, is crucial, Watney said.

“A combination of greater exposure to these kinds of career paths and increased investment in them, especially at an earlier age, could increase the number of people who end up interested, because a lot of them aren’t getting exposure to it right now,” he said.

Both the House and Senate recently passed bipartisan bills that include provisions aimed at boosting STEM education and workforce development through the National Science Foundation. The House bill, backed by Science Committee Chairwoman Eddie Bernice Johnson, D-Texas, includes money to help NSF research science and technology education programs at the pre-kindergarten through 8th grade levels.

Lawmakers are also seeking to address longstanding racial gaps in STEM education, hoping greater diversity could give the U.S. an edge. According to the Pew Research Center, Black workers make up only 9% of the STEM workforce, compared with 11% of all jobs. Hispanics hold 8% of STEM jobs, compared with 17% in all industries.

“If we continue to neglect the education of these students and the raw talent represented by so many Americans, the U.S. will be trying to compete with at least one hand tied behind our back,” Schneider wrote in his op-ed.

The Senate bill, backed by Majority Leader Charles E. Schumer of New York, would establish a Senate-confirmed position within NSF that would be tasked specifically with improving the participation of underrepresented groups in science and technology fields.

One area not addressed by recent efforts that has long hampered the government’s ability to build a competitive 21st century workforce is immigration. While Republican and Democratic lawmakers have both shown interest in overhauling the system to attract more foreign talent, partisan disagreements over illegal immigration and border security have stood in the way.

One problem, Watney said, is that the primary visa program for high-skilled workers, the H-1B program, often ties an employee to a single employer. Furthermore, the H-1B program offers a finite number of visas each year and many go to larger companies.

“So there are a lot of startups or potential startup founders that end up without access to a talented pool of immigrants and international students,” Watney said.

Another problem with the H-1B program, he said, is that it operates as a lottery.

“You can meet all of the qualifications, you can have a seven-figure salary offer from a cutting-edge firm and totally miss out because your name wasn’t drawn out of the hat,” he said. “And that creates a lot of uncertainty. Why would you make future plans to try to stay in the United States if it’s not even certain?”
———
 

Song Hong

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USA is another India.

1. Indian Brahmin stay in good quarters. Dalit stay in shyt hole. US elite stay in gated community, peasant stay in crime infested neighborhood.

2. Indian Brahmin inhibit literacy transfer to lower class. US elites inhibits education to peasants by cutting public school syllabus while sending their kid to private schools.

3. There is one law for Brahmin and one law for Dalits. Same as US. Elites never get death penalties.
 

Song Hong

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China PHD in STEM will double US by 2025.

Anyway US can always enrol all these BLM types in STEM and I believe US will supercharge human STEM advancement.

1628747798328.png
 

GiantPanda

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But the US has a free market where it is easy to do business so all the smart Chinese students come because their is no ceiling on how successful you can be.
Glass ceiling. There are very few Chinese or Chinese-American CEOs of companies in the West.

There are many, many, many in China.
 

Itachi

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China 'out-STEMs' the US
M Ziauddin 11 Aug 2021


A large share of the best universities in the world is said to be in the United States and they are known for excellence. The seventh annual ranking of the Best Global Universities conducted by US News & World Report and published in October 2020 found that 19 of the top 25 schools were American.

However, the QS World University Ranking published by UK company, Quacquarelli Symonds in July this year found that 12 of the top 25 universities were in the US, five in the UK, three in China, two each in Singapore and Switzerland and one in Japan.

Then, at the beginning of August, the Center for Security and Emerging Technology (CSET) at Georgetown University in Washington, issued a report entitled "China is Fast Outpacing US STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) PhD Growth," which concluded that: "Based on current enrollment patterns, we project that by 2025 Chinese universities will produce more than 77,000 STEM PhD graduates per year compared to approximately 40,000 in the United States."

In 2000, the US had produced more than twice as many STEM PhDs as China. But China overtook the US in the number of STEM PhDs in 2007 and was 47% ahead by 2019. The change has been rapid and it remains so. The quality of Chinese university-level STEM education has also kept improving.

"Most of the recent and rapid growth in Chinese PhD enrollments comes from universities within the higher-quality tiers," the CSET study found, and "because more than three-quarters of Chinese doctoral graduates specialize in STEM fields, this evidence indicates China's STEM talent pipeline is becoming more robust."

And, not surprisingly, according to Scott Foster (US falling further behind China in STEM PhDs, published in Asia Times dated August 9, 2021) new studies show Chinese universities will produce nearly twice as many STEM PhD graduates than US by 2025

"Given the scale of China's investments in higher education and the high-stakes technology competition between the United States and China, the gap in STEM PhD production could undermine US long-term economic and national security."

Remco Zwetsloot, one of the authors of the CSET report, was quoted in Axios as warning: "If this continues, there seems to be no way the US can continue competing with China on the talent front without immigration reform. It is just a numbers game."

Because a large percentage of American students are not prepared for graduate studies in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, the US depends on foreign students to fill its universities and pay the bills.

But it has been alienating foreign students - particularly Chinese students, who accounted for about one-third of foreign students in the US before Donald Trump's anti-China rhetoric and tighter immigration controls.

Efforts under both Trump and President Biden to exclude potential Chinese 'spies' from advanced STEM research also have had an impact.

And according to one estimate, Chinese students contributed US$15 billion to the US economy in the 2018-19 school year when enrollments of foreign students had peaked.

Another report says foreign student enrollments kept American universities afloat, rising by 55% from 2011 to 2019 while domestic enrollment stagnated.

President Biden's election has led to a notable improvement in how the US is regarded overseas and a more open immigration policy. But for the Biden administration, to simply distance itself from Trump-era anti-immigrant rules and ideologies may not be enough to fully rebuild Chinese lost sense of confidence.

China attracted 46% as many students as the US despite its short history as an open country with modern universities. Most foreign students in China are from other Asian countries, led by South Korea, but there are substantial numbers from the US, Russia and France as well.

Clearly, the scale and diversity of university excellence in the West, the rise of East Asian university education and the educational weakness of other regions are said to be phenomena as significant as the relative decline of the US.

China is evolving from cheap hand assembly to fully automated manufacturing and has a huge internet sector. It has built the world's largest high-speed train network, put a rover on Mars and launched its own space station.

All this requires first-rate STEM education, which in China is supported by a government of engineers rather than lawyers. Most likely, when it comes to nation-building, the education data is expected to continue to evolve in its favor.

Asia Times last month was the first to report (China is first out of the gate to Industry 4.0, June 26, 2021) that China had the semiconductor capacity to work around American sanctions for critical applications such as 5G network build-out, and that China was moving rapidly to exploit 5G in a wide range of industries.

China is proposing to build nearly a million 5G base stations this year, vastly outpacing the rest of the world combined. Chinese industry sources, moreover, report that tens of thousands of dedicated 5G networks for factories, ports, warehouses, mines and urban transportation systems will be installed in the course of the next year.

In a July 2021 report on China's semiconductor industry, the US Semiconductor Industry Association wrote:

Just last month, China sent astronauts into space to board a new space station. Earlier this year, China landed a rover on Mars. Chinese state media reported that inside both China's space station and the Mars rover were 100% indigenously designed-and-produced semiconductors, signaling China's increasingly sophisticated microchip capabilities.

Buoyed by a booming market and these government investments, China is poised to be increasingly competitive in some semiconductor market segments.

In an August 4 commentary for Project Syndicate, Harvard Professor Graham Allison and former Google CEO Eric Schmidt warned:

Most Americans assume that their country's lead in advanced technologies is unassailable. And many in the US national security community insist that China can never be more than a "near-peer competitor" in AI. In fact, China is already a full-spectrum peer competitor in terms of both commercial and national-security AI applications. China is not just trying to master AI; it is mastering AI.

The Trump technology sanctions haven't slowed down China. On the contrary, China is gaining on the US and in some fields has overtaken it. Both for economic and strategic reasons, the Biden administration is likely soon to give Trump's failed China policy a decent burial and move on.

The US now imports about $550 billion a year from China, or almost a quarter of America's manufacturing output of $2.4 trillion on a GDP basis. Tariffs of 20% apply to about half of Chinese imports, so by simple arithmetic, the elimination of tariffs should reduce the cost of durable goods in the US by a bit over 2%.

Renmin University Professor Jin Canrong, a prominent Chinese academic closely followed in Washington, is quoted to have argued last week that inflation could bankrupt the US federal government by boosting the cost of interest on the federal debt. He added that the US needs China's supply chains to keep inflation under control ("Will China bail out Biden?," Aug. 3, 2021).

Last month, US Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen told the New York Times that tariffs "hurt American consumers." Since then-president Donald Trump imposed a 20% tariff on roughly half the goods America buys from China, the Treasury has collected about $100 billion in fees. Most of that was paid by US consumers.

Tariffs explain part of the explosion in durable goods inflation during the past year. Inflation is the most pressing economic issue for American voters, according to a Vox/Data for Progress poll released on August 3.

Indeed, according to David P. Goldman (US business pushes Biden for a China trade deal, published in Asia Times dated August 7, 2021) Trump era tariffs on Chinese imports are fuelling record US inflation and threaten Biden's chances at 2022 mid-term elections.

It was, therefore, no bolt from the blue to see the whole of the American business community-more than thirty major business organizations-speaking with one voice as it did in an August 5 appeal to the Biden administration to eliminate tariffs on imports from China. Never before was such a spectacle witnessed in US political history.

The US and China have held three rounds of high-level trade talks since early last month, but so far have failed to reach a compromise.

A deal is most likely and sooner than later because inflation could poison the Democratic Party's chances at 2022 mid-term elections and return control of the US Congress to the Republicans. Cutting tariffs is the quickest way to reduce inflation. Beyond the arithmetic of electoral politics, a consensus is emerging that the technology sanctions that Trump imposed on China have failed and may even have backfired.


India also "outstems" the US based on raw engineers it produces each year...

Yet you don't see US engineers leaving country and trying to find jobs abroad?? The same can't be said about China.....whose citizens would leave the first chance provided and many do leave to Australia, Europe or the US.

Not to mention the hundreds of thousands of Chinese who yearly study abroad in Western Universities. :D

And for all that "outstemming", the Chinese still had to hack F-35 files to finally get their own stealth aircraft. :disagree:
 

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