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Breif History of Karachi!!

Discussion in 'Members Club' started by Moin91, Sep 28, 2007.

  1. Moin91

    Moin91 SENIOR MEMBER

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    Introduction of Karachi.

    Karachi, city (1998 pop. 9,269,265), largest city and former capital of Pakistan, SE Pakistan, on the Arabian Sea near the Indus River delta. The capital of Sind prov., it is Pakistan's chief seaport and industrial center, a transportation, commercial, and financial hub, and a military headquarters. It has a large automobile assembly plant, an oil refinery, a steel mill, shipbuilding, railroad yards, jute and textile factories, printing and publishing plants, media and entertainment industries, food processing plants, and chemical and engineering works. Karachi airport is one of the busiest in Asia. Karachi has a university and other educational institutions; the national museum, with a fine archaeological collection; and the tomb of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan.
    An old settlement, Karachi was developed as a port and trading center by Hindu merchants in the early 18th cent. In 1843 it passed to the British, who made it the seat of the Sind government. Steady improvements in harbor facilities made Karachi a leading Indian port by the late 19th cent., while agricultural development of the hinterland gave it a large export trade. Karachi served as Pakistan's capital from 1947, when the country gained independence, until 1959, when Rawalpindi became the interim capital pending completion of Islamabad. The political base of the Bhutto family, Karachi has been troubled since the 1980s by violence between local Sindhis and the descendants of muhajirs, the Muslim immigrants who fled to Pakistan following partition in 1947; the lawlessness in the city was further aggravated by Sunni-Shiite fighting in the 1990s. In the late 1990s the government began efforts to suppress the violence, but these have been only sporadically successful.


    HISTORY OF KARACHI​



    The Baloch tribes from Balochistan and Makran established a small settlement of fishing communities, many of whom still inhabit sections of Sindh, and called it Kolachi. The modern port-city of Karachi, however, was developed by authorities of the British Raj in the 19th century. Upon the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the city was selected to become the national capital, and was settled by Muslim refugees from India, which radically expanded the city's population and transformed the demographics and economy. Karachi has faced major infrastructural and socio-economic challenges, but modern industries and businesses have developed in the city, and the population expanded even after the capital was moved to Islamabad in August 1960.
    The area of Karachi has been known to the ancient Greeks by many names: Krokola, the place where Alexander the Great camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia after his campaign in the Indus valley; 'Morontobara' port (probably the modern Manora Island near the Karachi harbour), from where Alexander's admiral Nearchus sailed for back home; and Barbarikon, a sea port of the Indo-Greek Bactrian kingdom. It was also known as the port of Debal to the Arabs, from where Muhammad bin Qasim led his conquering force into South Asia in 712 AD. According to the British historian Eliot, parts of city of Karachi and the island of Manora constituted the city of Debal.

    The present city started its life as a fishing settlement where a Sindhi fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi took up residence and started a family. The village that later grew out of this settlement was known as Kolachi-jo-Goth (The Village of Kolachi in Sindhi). By the late 1700s this village started trading across the sea with Muscat and the Persian Gulf region which led to its gaining importance. A small fort was constructed for its protection, armed with cannons imported from Muscat. The fort had two main gateways: one facing the sea, known as Khara Darwaaza (Brackish Gate) and the other facing the adjoining Lyari river known as the Meetha Darwaaza (Sweet Gate). The location of these gates corresponds to the present-day city localities of Khaaradar (Khārā Dar) and Meethadar (Mīṭhā Dar) respectively.

    In 1795, the village became a domain of the Balochi Talpur rulers of Sindh. A small factory was opened by the British in September 1799, but was closed down within a year. After sending a couple of exploratory missions to the area, the British East India Company conquered the town on February 3, 1839. The village was later annexed to the British Indian Empire when the province of Sindh was conquered by Charles Napier in 1843. Kolachi was added along with the rest of Sindh to the jurisdiction of the Bombay Presidency.

    The British realized its importance as a military cantonment and a port for exporting the produce of the Indus basin, and rapidly developed its harbour for shipping. The foundations of a city municipal government were laid down and infrastructure development was undertaken. New businesses started opening up and the population of the town started rising rapidly. Karachi quickly turned into a city, making true the famous quote by Napier who is known to have said: Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!

    In 1857, the First Indian War for Independence broke out in the subcontinent and the 21st Native Infantry stationed in Karachi declared allegiance to revolters, joining their cause on September 10, 1857. However, the British were rapidly able to reassert their control over Karachi and defeat the uprising. Karachi was known as Khurachee Scinde (i.e. Karachi, Sindh) during the early British colonial rule.

    In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from India to England when a direct telegraph connection was laid down between Karachi and London. In 1878, the city was connected to the rest of British India by railway line. Public building projects such as the Frere Hall (1865) and the Empress Market (1890) were undertaken. In 1876, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in the city, which by now had become a bustling city with railway, churches, mosques, courthouses, markets, paved streets and a magnificent harbour. By 1899 Karachi had become the largest wheat exporting port in the east (Feldman 1970:57). The population of the city had also risen to about 105,000 inhabitants by the end of the 19th century and was a cosmopolitan mix of Hindus and Muslims, European traders, Jews, Parsis, Iranians, Lebanese, and Goan merchants. By the turn of the century, the city faced street congestion, which led to India’s first tramway system being laid down in 1900.

    By 1914, Karachi had become the largest grain exporting port of the British Empire. In 1924, an aerodrome was built and Karachi became the main airport of entry into India. An airship mast was also built in Karachi in 1927 as part of the Imperial Airship Communications scheme, which was later abandoned. In 1936, Sindh was separated from the Bombay Presidency and Karachi was made the capital of the new province. By the time the new country of Pakistan was formed in 1947, Karachi had become a bustling metropolitan city with beautiful classical and colonial European styled buildings lining the city’s thoroughfares. Karachi was chosen as the capital city of Pakistan and accommodated a huge influx of migrants and refugees to the newly formed country. The demographics of the city also changed drastically. However, it still maintained a great cultural diversity as its new inhabitants arrived from all parts of the subcontinent. In 1958, the capital of Pakistan was shifted from Karachi to Rawalpindi and then to Islamabad in 1960. This marked the start of a long period of decline in the city, owing to a lack of governmental attention and development. The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of refugees from the Afghan war into Karachi. Political tensions between the Mohajir groups (descendants of migrants from the partition era) and other groups also erupted and the city was wracked with political and sectarian violence. Most of these tensions have now simmered down.

    Karachi continues to be an important financial and industrial centre for the country and handles most of the overseas trade of Pakistan and the central Asian countries. It accounts for a large portion of the GDP of Pakistan and a large chunk of the country's white collar workers. Karachi's population has continued to grow and is estimated to have passed the 20 million mark, although official figures still show a population of around 14.5 million. The current economic boom in Pakistan has also resulted in a new period of resurgence in the economy of Karachi.

    CLIFTON KHI, JAHANGIR KOTHARI
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    ELPHINSTONE STREET KHI..
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    KARACHI AIRPORT EARLY
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    Regards
    General.Moin

    Thanks:)
     
  2. Moin91

    Moin91 SENIOR MEMBER

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    Please tell me that how much you like this thread??? :)
     
  3. Moin91

    Moin91 SENIOR MEMBER

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    GOVERMENT OF KARACHI​


    The City of Karachi Municipal Act was promulgated in 1933. Initially the Municipal Corporation comprised the mayor, the deputy mayor and 57 councillors. The Karachi Municipal Corporation was changed to a Metropolitan Corporation in 1976. The administrative area of Karachi was a second-level subdivision known as Karachi Division, which was subdivided into five districts: Karachi Central, Karachi East, Karachi South, Karachi West and Malir. In 2000, the government of Pakistan designed a new devolution '';' financial resources and responsibilities. This plan abolished the earlier second-level division and merged the five districts of Karachi into a Karachi District. When the devolution plan was implemented in 2001, this district officially became a City District, with the City District Government of Karachi handling its government. Karachi now has a three-tier federated system, formed by:

    The City District Government (CDG)
    Town Municipal Administrations
    Union Council Administrations
    The City-District of Karachi is divided into eighteen towns governed by elected municipal administrations responsible for infrastructure and spatial planning, development facilitation, and municipal services (water, sanitation, solid waste, repairing roads, parks, street lights, and traffic engineering), with some functions being retained by the CDG.

    The towns are sub-divided into 178 localities governed by elected union councils (UC's), which are the core element of the local government system. Each UC is a body of thirteen directly elected members including a Nazim (mayor) and a Naib Nazim (deputy mayor). The UC Nazim heads the union administration and is responsible for facilitating the CDG to plan and execute municipal services, as well as for informing higher authorities about public concerns and complaints.

    In the local body elections of 2005, Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan & Nasreen Jalil was elected as the City Naib Nazim. Mustafa Kamal was the provincial minister for information technology in Sindh before assuming office as the city's mayor. His predecessor, Naimatullah Khan was chosen as one of the best mayors in Asia. Mustafa Kamal is advancing the development trail left by Naimatullah Khan, and has been actively involved in maintaining care of the city's municipal systems.
    Baldia Town
    Bin Qasim Town
    Gadap Town
    Gulberg Town
    Gulshan Town
    Jamshed Town


    Kemari Town
    Korangi Town
    Landhi Town
    Liaquatabad Town
    Lyari Town
    Malir Town


    New Karachi Town
    Orangi Town
    Saddar Town
    Shah Faisal Town
    SITE Town





    Note: Defence Housing Society Karachi is located in Karachi but is not a town of Karachi nor part of any town of Karachi. It is administered by the Defence Housing Authority, Karachi of Pakistan Army.
     
  4. Moin91

    Moin91 SENIOR MEMBER

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    ECONOMY​


    Karachi is the financial capital of Pakistan; it accounts for the lion's share of GDP and revenue. It generates approximately 65% of the total national revenue (federal and provincial taxes, customs and surcharges) On the Gross regional product (GRP) front, Sindh's share almost comprising 28% of the total GDP Karachi produces about 42 percent of value added in large scale manufacturing. Recently in February 2007, World Bank has termed Karachi the most business-friendly city in Pakistan.

    The city’s economy is large and diverse, Most of Pakistan's public and private banks have their head offices in Karachi. Nearly all of them are located at Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road (usually shortened to I.I. Chundrigar Road (Pakistan's Wall Street). During the 1960s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the world, and there was much praise for the way its economy was progressing. Many countries sought to emulate Pakistan's economic planning strategy and one of them, South Korea, copied the city's second "Five-Year Plan" and World Financial centre in Seoul is designed and modelled after Karachi.

    Karachi possesses a versatile industry. The economy of the city concentrates on Cement plants, corn mills and shipbuilding, in addition, automobile, steel, textiles, chemicals, refined oil, shoes, machines and food are produced in the city. The city gains 60 per cent of the tax receipts of the country and 70 per cent of the taxes of the province Sindh. The Per-head income of the city is about four to five times more highly than in the state average. Karachi is also a location of a nuclear power station & many large banks.

    Besides being the banking and finance capital of the country, Karachi also hosts the offices of almost every major foreign multinational corporation as well as corporations based in Pakistan. It is home to the largest stock exchange in Pakistan: the Karachi Stock Exchange, which was considered by many economists to be one of the prime reasons for Pakistan's 8% GDP growth across 2005. The Port of Karachi and nearby Port Qasim are the two main seaports of Pakistan, and Jinnah International Airport is the largest & the busiest airport in Pakistan.

    The recent trends involving ICTs (Information & Communications Technology), electronic media and call centres have become a significant part of Karachi's business hierarchy. Call centres for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 80% in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector.

    Karachi is also the software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. Many of Pakistan’s independent television and radio channels are headquartered in Karachi. Geo, ARY, Hum and AAJ TV are the most popular ones; some of the local stations include KTN, Sindh TV, Roshni News, and Dawn News.

    Karachi has a huge industrial base, with several large industrial zones such as SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi located on the fringes of the main city. The primary areas are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. In addition, Karachi has a vibrant cottage industry and there is a rapidly flourishing Free Zone with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5%. Real Estate industry growing rapidly in Karachi. There was huge constrution in progress which listed Pakistan as developed country. Karachi has an Expo centre which hosts many regional and international exhibitions.

    Toyota, Honda, BMW, Mercedes, Nissan and Suzuki Motor Company are located in Karachi. Among others, Millat Tractors, Adam Motor Company, HinoPak and Ghandhara Nissan Buses and Trucks manufacturing plants are also located in Karachi. The automobile manufacturing sector is one of the fastest growing industries in Pakistan, and a large vendor industry associated with it is also located principally in Karachi.


    DEVELOPMENT


    There are many development projects proposed, approved and under construction in Karachi city. Among projects of note, Emaar Properties is proposing to invest $43bn (£22.8bn) in Karachi to develop Bundal Island, which is a 12,000 acre (49 km²) island just off the coast of Karachi. The Karachi Port Trust is envisioning another Rs. 20 billion project, the Port Tower Complex, which will be 1,947 feet high, the height indicating the Independence of Pakistan (14 August 1947), and is slated for completion within six years. It is expected to comprise a hotel, a shopping centre, and an exhibition centre. The main feature of the venture is supposed to be a revolving restaurant, which will also contain a viewing gallery offering a panoramic view of the coastline and the city. The tower is planned to be located at the Clifton shoreline.

    Some other mega projects that are proposed or under construction include: MCB Tower (completed), Port tower complex (proposed), Crescent Bay, Karachi (under construction), Karachi Waterfront (approved), Karachi Creek Marina (under construction), Dolmen Towers (under construction), I.T Tower (approved), Bundal Island (under construction), Buddo Island (approved), Square One Towers (under construction), Sign Tower (approved), Karachi Mass Transit System, Enshaa Towers (approved), Karachi FPCCI Tower (proposed) and, IT Tower (approved), Dolmen Mall (Hyderi) (under construction), City Centre (proposed), Malir Expressway (proposed),Northern Bypass Industrial Area (under construction).
     
  5. EagleEyes

    EagleEyes PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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  6. Moin91

    Moin91 SENIOR MEMBER

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    nice video webby :agree: