• Wednesday, December 19, 2018

Battle of Mutah

Discussion in 'Military History & Tactics' started by Zarvan, Jun 1, 2014.

  1. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Page 1
    "What an excellent slave of Allah: Khalid ibn al-Walid, one of the swords of Allah, unleashed against the unbelievers!"
    [Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)]1

    Three months after his arrival at Madinah, Khalid got his chance to show what he could do as a soldier and a commander for the faith which he had just embraced. The Prophet had sent an envoy to the Ghassan 2 Chieftain of Busra, with a letter inviting him to join Islam. While passing through Mutah this envoy was intercepted and killed by a local Ghassan chieftain by the name of Shurahbil bin Amr. This was a heinous crime among the Arabs, for diplomatic envoys held traditional immunity from attack no matter how hostile a power they represented. The news of this outrage inflamed Madinah.

    An expedition was immediately prepared to take punitive action against the Ghassan, and the Prophet appointed Zaid bin Harithah as the commander of the force. If he were killed, the command was to be taken over by Jafar bin Abi Talib. If he were killed, the command would devolve upon Abdullah bin Rawahah. Having appointed these officers in the chain of command, the Prophet said, "If all three of these are killed, let the men select a commander from among themselves." 3

    The expeditionary force consisted of 3,000 men, one of whom was Khalid, serving as a soldier in the ranks. The mission the Prophet gave to Zaid was to seek out and kill the person responsible for the murder of the Muslim envoy, and to offer Islam to the people of Mutah. If they accepted Islam, they were not to be harmed. At the time this force was sent out the Muslims had no knowledge of the enemy strength that they would have to deal with.

    Spirits were high as the expeditionary force began its march from Madinah. When the force arrived at Ma'an, reports were received for the first time that Heraclius, the Eastern Roman Emperor, was in Jordan with "100,000 Romans" and had been joined by "100,000 Christian Arabs"-mainly from the Ghassan. The Muslims remained in Ma'an for two days debating their next move. There was a certain amount of hesitation and nervousness. Some suggested that the Prophet be informed of the large strength of the enemy so that he could give them fresh orders on what course of action they should adopt; but Abdullah bin Rawahah (the third?in?command) did not agree with this suggestion, as it would entail unnecessary delay and would give the impression that the Muslims were afraid. He recited a few verses and made a stirring speech to raise the spirits of the men. He concluded by saying, "Men fight not with numbers or weapons but with faith. By going into battle we have a choice of two glorious alternatives: victory and martyrdom." 4 This speech dispelled all doubt from the minds of the Muslims, and they promptly resumed their march towards Syria.

    The Muslims reached a place near the frontier of Balqa-a district in the east of what is now Jordan-where they made contact with a large force of Christian Arabs. Not finding this place suitable for battle, the Muslim commander withdrew his force to Mutah. The Christian Arabs followed the Muslims, and the two forces again met at Mutah. Both sides now decided to fight. It was the second week of September 29 (the third week of Jamadi-ul-Awwal, 8 Hijri).

    Zaid deployed his force in the normal pattern of a centre and two wings. The right wing was commanded by Qutba bin Qatadah and the left wing by Ubaya bin Malik. Zaid himself commanded the centre, and in the centre, too, was Khalid. The battlefield lay to the east of, and stretched up to about a mile from, the present village of Mutah. The ground here was even, but had a slight undulation, and the gentle slope of a low ridge rose behind the Muslims as they faced the Christian Arabs to the north. 5

    1. Tirmidhi and Ahmad from Abu Hurayrah, Sahih Al-Jami’ Al-Saghir No. 6776.
    2. A large and powerful tribe inhabiting Syria and Jordan.
    3. Ibn Sad: p. 636.
    4. Ibn Hisham: Vol. 2, p. 375.
    5. A new mosque is being built by the Jordanian Government to mark the site of this battle.

    Page 1
    Page 2

    The Christian Arabs, who were commanded by Malik bin Zafila, formed themselves into a deep mass confronting the Muslims. Some historians have given their strength as 100,000, while others have doubled that figure. These estimates are clearly mistaken. The enemy probably consisted of between 10 and 15 thousand men. In this battle the Muslims failed to gain a victory. If the enemy had been only twice their strength, they would undoubtedly have thrashed him; and an enemy had to be many times their strength to, inflict a defeat on them. It is largely on this basis that the above estimate of the enemy's strength is made.

    The battle began, and both armies very quickly got to grips with each other. This was essentially a battle of guts and stamina rather than military skill. The commander himself fought at the head of his men with his standard, and after a short while Zaid was killed. As the standard fell from his hands, the second?in?command, Jafar, picked it up and continued fighting at the head of the army. After his body had been covered with scores of wounds, Jafar also fell; and the standard went down for the second time. This distressed the Muslims, for Jafar was held in great esteem and affection as a cousin of the Prophet. A certain amount of confusion became noticeable among the Muslims, but soon the third?in?command, Abdullah bin Rawahah, picked up the standard and restored order. He continued to fight until he also was killed.

    Now there was real disorder in the ranks of the Muslims. A few of them fled from the scene of battle, but stopped not far from the battlefield. Others continued to offer confused resistance in twos and threes and larger groups. Fortunately the enemy did not press his advantage, for had he done so the Muslims, without a commander, could easily have been routed. Perhaps the gallantry of the Muslim commanders and the valour with which the Muslims had fought made the enemy overcautious and discouraged him from taking bold action.

    When Abdullah had fallen, the standard was picked up by Thabit bin Arqam, who raised his voice and shouted, "O Muslims, agree upon a man from among you to be the commander." He then spied Khalid, who stood next to him, and offered him the standard. Khalid was conscious of the fact that as a new convert he did not hold a high position among the Muslims, and Thabit bin Arqam was a Muslim of long standing. This consideration was important. He declined the offer of Thabit, saying: "You are more deserving than I" "Not I," replied Thabit, "and none but you!" 1 This was really a windfall for the Muslims, for they knew of the personal courage and military ability of Khalid. They all agreed to his appointment, and Khalid took the standard and assumed command.

    The situation now was serious and could easily have taken a turn for the worse, leading, rapidly to the total defeat of the Muslims. The commanders before Khalid had shown more valour than judgement in fighting this battle. Khalid regained control over his small army and organized it into a neatly deployed fighting force. He was faced with three choices. The first was to withdraw and save the Muslims from destruction, but this might be regarded as a defeat and he would then be blamed for having brought disgrace to Muslim arms. The second was to stay on the defensive and continue fighting; in this case the superior strength of the enemy would eventually tell and the battle end in defeat. The third was to attack and throw the enemy off balance, thus gaining more time in which to study the situation and plan the best course of action. The last choice was closest to the nature of Khalid, and this is the course that he adopted.


    The Muslims attacked fiercely along the entire front. They surged forward with Khalid in the lead. The example of Khalid gave fresh courage to the Muslims, and the battle increased in violence. For some time desperate hand?to?hand fighting continued; then Qutba, commanding the Muslim right, dashed forward and killed the Christian commander, Malik, in a duel. This resulted in a setback for the enemy and led to, a certain amount of confusion. The Christian Arabs now pulled back, still fighting, with a view to gaining time for reorganization. At this moment Khalid had his tenth sword in his hand, having broken nine in fierce combat.

    1. Ibn Sad: p. 638.

    Page 2
    Page 3

    As the Christian Arabs stepped back, Khalid restrained the Muslims and broke contact, pulling his force back a short distance. The two armies now faced each other out of bow range, both seeking time to rest and reorganize. This last round of the battle had ended in favour of the Muslims of whom so far only 12 had been killed. There is no record of enemy casualties but they must have been considerable, for each of the Muslim commanders before Khalid was a brave and skilful fighter and the nine swords that Khalid broke were broken on the bodies of Christian Arabs. The situation, however, offered no further prospect of success. Khalid had averted a shameful and bloody defeat and saved the Muslims from disgrace and disaster; he could do no more. That night Khalid withdrew his army from Mutah and began his return journey to Madinah.

    The news of the return of the expedition preceded it at Madinah, and the Prophet and those Muslims who had remained in Madinah set out to meet the returning soldiers. The Muslims were in an ugly temper, for never since the Battle of Uhud had a Muslim force broken contact with the enemy and left him in possession of the battlefield. As the army arrived among the Muslims, they began to throw dust into the faces of the soldiers.

    "O you who have fled!" they cried. "You have fled from the way of Allah." The Prophet restrained them and said, "They have not fled. They shall return to fight, if Allah wills it." 1 Then the Prophet raised his voice and shouted, "Khalid is the Sword of Allah." 2

    Later the resentment against Khalid died down, and the Muslims realised the wisdom, judgement and courage which he had shown in the Battle of Mutah. And the name stuck to Khalid. He now became known as Saifullah, i.e. Sword of Allah. When the Prophet gave Khalid this title, he virtually guaranteed his success in future battles.

    Some historians have described the battle of Mutah as a victory for the Muslims; others have called it a defeat. As a matter of fact it was neither. It was a drawn battle; but drawn in favour of the Christians, for the Muslims withdrew from the battlefield and left it in possession of their opponents. It was not a big battle; it was not even a very important one. But it gave Khalid an opportunity to show his skill as an independent commander; and it gained him the title of the Sword of Allah.

    1. Ibn Hisham: Vol. 2, p. 382.
    2. Waqidi: Maghazi, p. 322.


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  2. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    The Battle of Mu’tah
    It was the most significant and the fiercest battle during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allâh (Allah bless him and give him peace), a preliminary and a prelude to the great conquests of the land of the Christians. It took place in Jumada Al-Ula 8 A.H. / September 629 A.D. Mu’tah is a village that lies on the borders of geographical Syria.

    The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) had sent Al-Harith bin ‘Umair Al-Azdi on an errand to carry a letter to the ruler of Busra. On his way, he was intercepted by Sharhabeel bin ‘Amr Al-Ghassani, the governor of Al-Balqa’ and a close ally to Caesar, the Byzantine Emperor. Al-Harith was tied and beheaded by Al-Ghassani.

    Killing envoys and messengers used to be regarded as the most awful crime, and amounted to the degree of war declaration. The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) was shocked on hearing the news and ordered that a large army of 3000 men be mobilized and despatched to the north to discipline the transgressors. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/155; Fath Al-Bari 7/511] It was the largest Muslim army never mobilized on this scale except in the process of the Confederates Battle.

    Zaid bin Haritha was appointed to lead the army. Ja‘far bin Abi Talib would replace him if he was killed, and ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha would succeed Ja‘far in case the latter fell.[SahihAl-Bukhari 2/611] A white banner was raised and handed over to Zaid. [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.327]

    The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) recommended that they reach the scene of Al-Harith’s murder and invite the people to profess Islam. Should the latter respond positively, then no war would ensue, otherwise fighting them would be the only alternative left.

    He ordered them:

    "Fight the disbelievers in the Name of Allâh, neither breach a covenant nor entertain treachery, and under no circumstances a new-born, woman, an ageing man or a hermit should be killed; moreover neither trees should be cut down nor homes demolished. [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool p.327; Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 2/271]"

    At the conclusion of the military preparations, the people of Madinah gathered and bade the army farewell. ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha began to weep at that moment, and when asked why he was weeping, he swore that it was not love for this world nor under a motive of infatuation with the glamour of life but rather the Words of Allâh speaking of Fire that he heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) reciting:

    "There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished." [Al-Qur'an 19:71]

    The Muslim army then marched northward to Ma‘ân, a town bordering on geographical Syria. There news came to the effect that Heraclius had mobilized a hundred thousand troops together with another hundred thousand men of Lakham, Judham and Balqain — Arabian tribes allied to the Byzantines. The Muslims, on their part had never thought of encountering such a huge army. They were at a loss about what course to follow, and spent two nights debating these unfavourable conditions. Some suggested that they should write a letter to the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) seeking his advice. ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha was opposed to them being reluctant and addressed the Muslims saying: "I swear by Allâh that this very object which you hold in abhorrence is the very one you have set out seeking, martyrdom. In our fight we don’t count on number of soldiers or equipment but rather on the Faith that Allâh has honoured us with. Dart to win either of the two, victory or martyrdom." In the light of these words, they moved to engage with the enemy in Masharif, a town of Al-Balqa’, and then changed direction towards Mu’tah where they encamped. The right flank was led by Qutba bin Qatadah Al-‘Udhari, and the left by ‘Ubadah bin Malik Al-Ansari. Bitter fighting started between the two parties, three thousand Muslims against an enemy fiftyfold as large.

    Zaid bin Haritha, the closest to the Messenger’s heart, assumed leadership and began to fight tenaciously and in matchless spirit of bravery until he fell, fatally stabbed. Ja‘far bin Abi Talib then took the banner and did a miraculous job. In the thick of the battle, he dismounted, hamstrung his horse and resumed fighting until his right hand was cut off. He seized the banner with his left hand until this too was gone. He then clasped the banner with both arms until a Byzantine soldier struck and cut him into two parts. he was posthumously called "the flying Ja‘far" or "Ja‘far with two wings" because Allâh has awarded him two wings to fly wherever he desired there in the eternal Garden. Al-Bukhari reported fifty stabs in his body, none of them in the back. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/611]

    ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha then proceeded to hold up the banner and fight bravely on his horseback while reciting enthusiastic verses until he too was killed. Thereupon a man, from Bani ‘Ajlan, called Thabit bin Al-Arqam took the banner and called upon the Muslims to choose a leader. The honour was unanimously granted to Khalid bin Al-Waleed, a skilled brave fighter and an outstanding strategist. It was reported by Al-Bukhari that he used nine swords that broke while he was relentlessly and courageously fighting the enemies of Islam. He, however, realizing the grave situation the Muslims were in, began to follow a different course of encounter, revealing the super strategy-maker, that Khalid was rightly called. He reshuffled the right and left flanks of the Muslim army and introduced forward a division from the rear in order to cast fear into the hearts of the Byzantine by deluding them that fresh reinforcements had arrived. The Muslims engaged with the enemies in sporadic skirmishes but gradually and judiciously retreating in a fully organized and well-planned withdrawal.

    The Byzantines, seeing this new strategy, believed that they were being entrapped and drawn in the heart of the desert. They stopped the pursuit, and consequently the Muslims managed to retreat back to Madinah with the slightest losses. [Fath-Al-Bari 7/513, 514; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/156]

    The Muslims sustained twelve martyrs, whereas the number of casualties among the Byzantines was unknown although the details of the battle point clearly to a large number. Even though the battle did not satisfy the Muslims’ objective, namely avenging Al-Harith’s murder, it resulted in a far-ranging impact and attached to the Muslims a great reputation in the battlefields. The Byzantine Empire, at that time, was a power to be reckoned with, and mere thinking of antagonizing it used to mean self-annihilation, let alone a three-thousand-soldier army going into fight against 200,000 soldiers far better equipped and lavishly furnished with all luxurious conveniences. The battle was a real miracle proving that the Muslims were something exceptional not then familiar. Moreover, it gave evidence that Allâh backed them and their Prophet, Muhammad, was really Allâh’s Messenger. In the light of these new strategic changes, the archenemies among the desert bedouins began to reconcile themselves with the new uprising faith and several recalcitrant tribes like Banu Saleem, Ashja‘, Ghatfan, Dhubyan, Fazarah and others came to profess Islam out of their own sweet free will.

    Mu’tah Battle, after all, constituted the forerunner of the blood encounter to take place with the Byzantines subsequently. It pointed markedly to a new epoch of the Islamic conquest of the Byzantine empire and other remote countries, to follow at a later stage.

    Dhat As-Salasil Campaign

    Dhat As-Salasil is a spot situated ten days’ walk north of Madinah. The Muslims are said to have encamped in a place with a well of water called Salsal, hence the terminologyDhat As-Salasil. In view of the alliance between the Arabian tribes on the borders of Syria and the Byzantines, the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) deemed it of top urgency to carry out a wisely-planned manoeuvre that might bring about a state of rapport with those bedouins, and would at the same time detach them from the Byzantines. For the implementation of this plan, he chose ‘Amr bin Al-‘As, whose paternal grandmother came from Bali, a tribe dwelling in that area. This motive in mind, combined with provocative military movements, by Bani Quda‘a, precipitated this preemptive strike which started in Jumada Ath-Thaniya, 8 A.H.

    ‘Amr bin Al-‘As was awarded a white flag with a black banner to go with it. He set out at the head of 300 Emigrants and Helpers assisted by a cavalry of 30 men, and was recommended to seek help from Bali, ‘Udhra and Balqain tribes. He used to march at night and lurk during the day. On approaching the enemy lines and realizing the large build up of men, he sent for reinforcements from Madinah, and these arrived on the spot headed by Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah leading further 200 men as well as other platoons including Abu Bakr and ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab. All of them were given strict orders to cooperate, work in harmony and never leave any area for disagreement.

    At noon, Abu ‘Ubaidah wanted to lead the Muslims in prayer, but ‘Amr objected on grounds that the former came only to assist, and leadership in prayer was given to ‘Amr.

    The Muslim army reached the habitations of Quda‘a and penetrated deep in their land, destroyed the enemies and obliged the others to flee for their lives in different directions.

    At the conclusion of the military operations, a courier was despatched to the Messenger of Allâh (Allah bless him and give him peace) to brief him on the developments of events and the ultimate victory achieved.

    Khadrah Campaign

    In Sha‘ban month 8 A.H., news reached the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) of amassing troops by Bani Ghatfan, still outside the domain of Islam. He urgently summoned Abu Qatadah and sent him at the head of fifteen men to discipline those outlaws.

    It took fifteen days to teach them an unforgettable lesson. Some were killed, others captured and all their property confiscated. [Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 2/233; Talqeeh Fuhoom Ahl Al-Athar p.33]​
     
  3. Jf Thunder

    Jf Thunder SENIOR MEMBER

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    awesome bro, where do you find this stuff?
     
  4. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Reading and Research both on internet and books
     
  5. Jf Thunder

    Jf Thunder SENIOR MEMBER

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    so cool
     
  6. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Mutah where the battle was fought
    BATTLE OF MUTAH


    After the victory of Khaybar, the power of Islam and the authority of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) increased so much that he sent letters to various kings and invited them to Islam. The letters were sent to the Sultan of Byzantine, to the King of Iran, Najashi - the King of Abyssinia and to the Emperor of Egypt.

    In the neighbouring area of Arabia was a king who ruled under the influence of the Byzantine Empire. His name was Harith bin Abi Shamir. He enjoyed the authority of a king and was conceived as such by the commonality. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) dictated a letter in his name and giving it to his special emissary, Harith bin Umair, directed him to deliver the letter to the king and return with his reply.

    When the Prophet’s (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) emissary entered the domains of Harith bin Abi Shamir, one of his guards at the frontiers arrested him and put him to death. This incident fell hard upon the Muslims and they were deeply angered by his death. An emissary was sanctioned protection by all the nations of the world.

    The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) sent a message to Harith bin Abi Shamir, "A worker of yours, Sharjeel bin Umroah, has put an innocent person to death who was coming to you just to deliver a letter. The person was alone and unarmed in your territories and his journey was not to express any enmity, even then, he was put to death. To kill an ambassador is not permissible in any tribe, nation or religion. As your officer has murdered Harith bin Umair, it should be made known whether he has wilfully done the deed, or by your approval and orders? If he has killed our ambassador without your approval, you must hand over the person to us so that he could be sentenced for his deed, but if your approval was also included in this crime, then you are also responsible for this murder and you should better be prepared for the punishment as well".

    Harith bin Shamir replied in the letter, "I am an autonomous ruler of my country, and the decision rests with me whom to kill or absolve. None has the right for my accountability. It should be clear that the ambassador was put to death at my orders".

    When the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) received such an irresponsible and insolent reply, he at once decided to chastise Harith bin Abi Shamir, and sent an army of three thousand soldiers into his domains - Ghassan. Coincidentally, the king of Asia-Minor was thinking of invading Iran. He had gathered an army of one hundred thousand veteran soldiers. On request of Harith bin Shamir this army came to his help. It is not known how many men Harith himself had. Some historians have given the number of ten thousand soldiers.

    Islamic army faced these forces at a place called "Mutah". This area was in the dominions of Ghassan. When the Islamic army left Madinah, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) assigned its command to his foster son ZaydR.A bin Harith.

    One hundred thousand Roman soldiers, sent by the Roman king were armed to teeth with war equipment. They were also skilled at various war methodologies. They formulated contingents of six thousand soldiers, each called a "Legion". The Legion was divided into thirty groups, each of which was called "Manipool". Each Manipool consisted of two hundred soldiers. This was further subdivided into two groups each with one hundred soldiers and was called "Century". All the Roman soldiers wore steel helmets and armour. Their shields were large and their spears and swords extraordinarily long. They were also familiar with the formation of flanks.

    When the small Muslim army came face to face with the Romans, some Muslims said that they should first assess their chances of victory before indulging in the fight. Although the enemy had always out numbered them in previous battles but this time the enemy before them was forty or fifty times in comparison. It was also equipped with armoury of highest quality and of new style. Whereas some Muslim soldiers lacked even basic armour and weapon.


    The commander of the Islamic army, ZaydR.A bin Harith zealously said, "We have come to fight in the way of Allah, if we kill the enemy for victory, Paradise is our reward. The same is ours if we die and are defeated. Only those fear the enemy numbers who lack Faith in the hereafter. Why should we be afraid of the numbers of the enemy?" These words of ZaydR.A bin Harith induced rejuvenation among the Muslims and they became prepared for the battle.


    Before the battle commenced, the Muslims adopted the same strategy as employed in earlier battles. They arranged themselves in Flanks. This time expected results were not obtained by this formation, because the Romans also knew this skill. Furthermore, their armoury was far superior and advanced to that of the Muslims. They were also well trained in throwing spears.

    ZaydR.A bin Harith died in the early moments of battle. His command was replaced by Ja’far bin Abi Talib. He continually used sword and issued instructions to the army. Under his command, the Islamic army while engaged in fighting reached Mutah. At this place Ja’far bin Abi Talib was martyred. He had fought the entire battle valiantly. Even when both his hands had been cut off, he kept on fighting with the help of his legs, till he breathed his last.

    After Ja’far bin Abi Talib’s death, Abdullah bin Rawaha, who belonged to the Ansar was appointed the commander of the Muslim army. To encourage and motivate soldiers, Abdullah bin Rawaha began reciting the Holy Quranic verses. He was reciting verses about Jihad and entrance into Paradise. He was also using his sword fiercely and warning the Muslims to maintain their lines and face the enemy with complete unity.


    Had the Muslims not maintained their formation in this battle at Mutah, all would have been killed. It was only their unity in maintaining flanks that led them to consistently face the far stronger and more powerful enemy till evening.

    Abdullah bin Rawaha was also martyred in this battle and Khalid bin Walid took over the charge. Some traditions say that this battle ended in a single day. Two factors allowed the Muslims to remain unbent till evening. One was Khalid bin Walid’s unparalleled leadership and military proficiency and the other was the darkness of night. In those days, battles aborted automatically at dark.

    Before taking over the command of the Muslim army, Khalid bin Walid was leading a contingent of five hundred soldiers. His unmatched strength could be estimated by the fact that from the start of the battle till end, nine strong swords were broken by his hands. He changed his sword nine times. On taking over the command, he re-organised the Muslim troops and ordered them to launch a continuous attack on the enemy.

    Till then three out of six Muslim contingents had been completely finished with fifteen hundred Muslim soldiers martyred. After the reorganisation of the remaining army Khalid bin Walid launched a lightening attack and advanced swiftly. In his first attack, he killed the commander-in-chief of the enemy. His name was Malik bin Albaladi. This attack by Khalid bin Walid was so intense and sudden that Harith bin Shamir and his allied Roman army lost its courage. They thought that the Muslims had received fresh reinforcements. They began to recede when the darkness of night started to prevail. Khalid bin Walid also left for Madinah along with the remaining army.

    In this battle the Muslims lost two thousand lives. Nearly seventy per cent of the Muslim army was martyred. Among the martyrs were two very venerated personalities, Ja’far bin Abi Talib who grew up with the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and was considered his foster brother and ZaydR.A bin Harith who was a freed slave and the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)’s adopted son. ZaydR.A bin Harith was among the first four Muslims to enter Faith.


    It was due to his exemplary valour and military expertise that Khalid bin Walid safely delivered one thousand soldiers out of danger and reached Madinah. For this reason, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) honoured him by the title of "Saif Ullah" (the sword of Allah). Apart from the outcome of the Battle of Mutah, the Muslims received successive victories in the land of Hajjaz and flags of their victories were hoisted everywhere. In those days whosoever held his hold on Hajjaz could rule over the whole of Arabia. The Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)turned all the tribes of Hajjaz to Islam.
    @Jf Thunder @Aeronaut @Rashid Mahmood

    In September 629 Muhammad mobilized an army to confront Byzantine forces in Syria,[19] because a Byzantine governor had killed one of his emissaries.[20] He appointed Zayd ibn Harithah as commander of the army and instructed: “If Zayd is wounded or killed, Ja’far ibn Abu Talib will take over the command. If Ja’far is killed or wounded, Abdullah ibn Rawahah will take his place. If Abdullah is killed, then let the Muslims appoint themselves a commander.”[20]

    The Muslims met the Byzantines at Muta,[21] where they were heavily outnumbered.[19] Zayd ibn Harithah was among the first Muslims to be killed in the battle, and Ja’far then took over his standard and assumed command.[19] Mounted on his horse, he penetrated deep into the Byzantine ranks. As he spurred his horse on, he called out: “How wonderful is Paradise as it draws near! How pleasant and cool is its drink! Punishment for the Byzantines is not far away!”[citation needed] Ja’far fought until both his arms were cut off,[citation needed] but he was eventually killed.[21] “A Roman struck him and cut him in two halves. One half fell on the grape vine, and roughly thirty wounds were found on it.” “The body of Ja’far held seventy-two scars between his shoulders, where he had been either struck by a sword or pierced by a spear.
     
    Last edited: Jun 1, 2014
  7. Rashid Mahmood

    Rashid Mahmood MILITARY PROFESSIONAL

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    We all should study these battles.
     
  8. Zarvan

    Zarvan ELITE MEMBER

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    Country:
    Pakistan
    Location:
    Pakistan
    [​IMG]