• Sunday, February 17, 2019

Barak-8 is India's answer to Pakistan's Harpoon Anti-Ship Missile

Discussion in 'Naval Warfare' started by Tipu7, Dec 2, 2015.

  1. Tipu7

    Tipu7 SENIOR MEMBER

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    [​IMG]

    A successful missile test on Thursday, in the Mediterranean Sea off the Israeli port of Haifa, is potentially a giant capability leap for Indian and Israeli warships.

    Developed jointly by both countries, Israelis refer to the new missile system as the Barak 8, while Indians call it the Long Range Surface to Air Missile (LR-SAM). It protects warships from the weapon that their captains most fear: anti-ship missiles, launched from submarines, ships or aircraft up to 150 kilometres away.

    A modern, anti-ship missile like the Harpoon II, which costs less than $2 million, can scuttle a warship worth several hundred million dollars.

    The Indian Navy's answer to this is the LR-SAM, which has been described as "an anti-aircraft, anti-missile missile". Its origins lie in the Kargil crisis of 1999, when the navy realised its vulnerability to the Harpoon anti-ship missiles that America had supplied to the otherwise outgunned Pakistan Navy.

    To counter the Harpoon, New Delhi approached Tel Aviv for an emergency procurement of its newly developed Barak missiles, which could shoot down incoming Harpoons at a range of ten kilometres.

    While impressed with the Barak, the admirals wanted longer-range protection, given the navy's "blue water" ambitions of controlling wide swathes of ocean. Operating as a part of a widely dispersed flotilla, a capital warship (destroyer, frigate or corvette) needed to not just protect itself but to also create a protective "air defence bubble" for smaller accompanying warships.

    In January 2006, New Delhi and Tel Aviv agreed to develop a longer-range Barak that could counter anti-ship missiles of the future. New Delhi allocated Rs 2,606 crore to this project, which would enhance engagement ranges seven-fold, to 70 kilometres. Enemy fighter aircraft, which presented significantly larger targets than anti-ship missiles, could be detected and destroyed at longer ranges.

    It was agreed that India's Defence R&D Organisation (DRDO) would develop the missile's solid-fuel, two-pulse propulsion motors - 30 per cent of the work share-, while Israel Aerospace Industries would build the rest of the LR-SAM.

    Of this, Rs 1,700 crore were for three LR-SAM systems for the new Kolkata-class destroyers that India was building. Meanwhile, Israel planned to fit three systems on its Sa'ar 5 corvettes, its biggest and most advanced warships.

    It was one of these corvettes, the Israeli Naval Ship Lahav, which conducted the test on Thursday. This was the first time the LR-SAM was tested on a warship, fully deployed in "combat configuration". The anti-ship missile was simulated by a "pilotless target aircraft" that was racing towards the ship at 500-550 kilometres per hour. This is slower than the Harpoon anti-ship missile which travels at about 865 kmph, and barely half the 1,150 kmph speed of the Exocet anti-ship missile.

    A senior defence ministry official described the test to Business Standard. As the pilotless target aircraft flew toward the Lahav, the corvette's MF-STAR radar, the heart of the LR-SAM system, quickly detected it. The MF-STAR (multi-function surveillance, tracking and acquisition radar) can detect targets up to 200 kilometres away, but the actual range at which this test was conducted remains secret.


    How it unfolded ::

    Strategic affairs website DefenseNews quoted an Israeli official telling reporters that the target was acquired "at a range of more than 20 kilometres but less than 120 kilometres."

    Automatically, the MF-STAR began tracking the target, displaying in real time its distance, altitude, direction and velocity on a multi-function display in the ship's operations room - on the LR-SAM's command system.

    Meanwhile, an interceptor missile, housed in a canister in the warship, began its pre-launch checks. Within seconds, the LR-SAM's command system had computed engagement scenarios and calculated the impact point, where the outgoing missile would meet and destroy the incoming aircraft - a bullet hitting a bullet.

    At the designated nanosecond, the interceptor missile roared out of its canister, engulfing the Lahav's deck in a ball of fire. Quickly gaining supersonic speed, it levelled out and streaked towards the incoming missile, guided by continuous target updates transmitted by the MF-STAR over a data link.

    Seven kilometres short of the target, a seeker on-board the missile switched on; now the missile was itself locked onto the target, tracking its manoeuvres. The dual-pulse motor fired again, accelerating the missile that was, by now, merely "coasting". This increased velocity allowed the missile to manoeuvre sharply, keeping up with the target's evasive zigzags - termed "target dynamics".

    As the interceptor arrived a few metres from the target, a proximity fuse detonated its 23-kilo high-explosive warhead. This aims to destroy the target or damage it enough to prevent it reaching the mother warship. In Thursday's test, the Israelis claim the proximity fuse was irrelevant, since the interceptor missile directly hit the simulated target. "It was metal on metal," says an Israeli source.

    "All the subsystems of the missile performed as predicted and achieved the desired goal of hitting the incoming target," an Indian defence ministry statement corroborated on Friday.


    The next step ::

    The ministry says the next test will involve the LR-SAM being fired from INS Kolkata. After it is validated in at least three tests, the LR-SAM will be deployed in all the three Kolkata-class destroyers (Project 15-A); four Project 15-B destroyers being constructed in Mazagon Docks; and seven frigates that will soon begin construction in Mazagon and Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers, Kolkata. The LR-SAM will also be installed on INS Vikrant, the indigenous aircraft carrier being built in Kochi.

    The Israeli navy, meanwhile, will install the Barak 8 on all three of its Sa'ar 5 corvettes, and four new Sa'ar 6 corvettes that are being built in Germany.

    Senior DRDO sources describe working with the Israelis in developing the LR-SAM as "a lesson in professionalism and capable project management". The LR-SAM, which was to be operationalised in October 2012, is running three years late, but DRDO admits this is because of Indian delays in developing the dual-pulse motors, which required developing an entirely new propellant.

    Meanwhile, the Indian Air Force, which faces a dire shortfall of capable missile systems to defend Indian airspace, is plugging this gap, courtesy the LR-SAM. In March 2009, it signed a Rs 10,075-crore contract with DRDO for a ground-based version called the Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MR-SAM).

    The contract is for 18 fire units (each equipped with 24 missiles) to be delivered by October 2016. Each fire unit includes radar, three missile launchers, and a command system. "There is 90 per cent commonality between the LR-SAM and the MR-SAM. We are on track to conduct the first full MR-SAM test in the first half of 2016," says a senior DRDO official.

    With development of this new generation missile almost complete, the production chain has begun to roll. The missiles are being integrated at state-owned Bharat Dynamics. Several private sector companies, such as Godrej & Boyce and SEC, are parts of the production chain.

    "We are doing concurrent production, and have placed orders for sub-systems. A large part of the LR-SAM will be built in India, bringing down costs and increasing our capabilities," says a DRDO official.

    This missile production chain is assured of orders for at least the next two to three decades. A missile has a limited shelf life of seven to nine years and, as they complete their service lives and are consumed in training, replacement orders are guaranteed.


    Defence News, Apache, Chinook, Rafale deals got stuck due to UPA: Parrikar
     
  2. RazorMC

    RazorMC SENIOR MEMBER

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    Anti-Anti-Ship missile? What's next: Anti-Anti-Anti-Ship missile.

    Jokes aside, this will push IN's advantage further until PN itself acquires counter-measures.
     
  3. GURU DUTT

    GURU DUTT ELITE MEMBER

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    so OP thinks Barak 8 is indian answer to pakistani anty shipping missiles but do you really think we never has any anty ship missile missiles on owr ships in past :sarcastic:

    but jokes apart its a long range version while we had russian version for almost three decades if not more + barak1 for almost a decade now on all owr surface ship platforms
     
  4. Skull and Bones

    Skull and Bones ELITE MEMBER

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    Given the small RCS of incoming low flying cruise missiles, anti aircraft missiles are only good as the detecting radar systems. Honestly, I count CIWS and quick reaction short range SAMs as a real counter of cruise missiles.
     
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  5. zebra7

    zebra7 BANNED

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    Next-Gen: Barak-8
    [​IMG]

    The Navy’s Barak-NG/ LR-SAM project aimed to give India’s naval defenses a much longer reach, with the intention of eventually making it India’s primary naval SAM. The project was later renamed Barak 8, and aims to deliver 60-70 km/ up to 42 mile range, thanks to a dual-pulse solid rocket motor whose second “pulse” fires as the missile approaches its target. This ensures that the missile isn’t just coasting in the final stages, giving it more than one chance at a fast, maneuvering target.

    The missile’s most important feature may be its active seeker. Instead of forcing its ship or land-based radar to “paint”/illuminate its target at all times, the Barak 8 can be left alone once it is close to its target. This is an excellent approach for dealing with saturation attacks using older ship radars, which can track many targets but illuminate just a few. It’s also very useful for land-based systems, which will survive longer against enemy anti-radar missiles (ARMs) if they can turn themselves on and off to confuse enemy seekers, without worrying that they will lose all of their effectiveness.

    That kind of performance vaults the Barak 8 past widespread options like the RIM-162 ESSM, or entries like VL-MICA on land. Though the Barak-8 may compete globally with those systems, a better comparison would be naval missiles like Raytheon’s SM-2 Block IIIA and MBDA’s Aster-15, or land-based options like the Patriot. The Barak 8’s active seeker would even give it a performance advantage over the SM-2, and corresponds more closely to the SM-6 currently in development.

    The naval Barak-8 reportedly maintains its principle of using compact launchers and systems. Its ancillary capabilities will always depend on the radar and combat system aboard its ship.

    One wild card is the Barak’s potential use in a point defense role against ballistic missiles, a role that can be played by some of its more advanced competitors on land or sea. This capability is implied in the land-based system’s name, but hasn’t been discussed publicly, or validated in publicly announced tests.

    The land-based Barak 8 Air and Missile Defense (AMD) system includes several components:

    • RAFAEL supplies the Barak-8 interceptor missile, which remains vertically launched.
    • The battle management, command, control, communication and intelligence center (BMC4I) is produced by the MBT Division of IAI’s Missiles, Systems, and Space Group; it offers both stand alone operation for a single fire unit, and joint task force coordination (JTC).
    • IAI ELTA Systems Ltd. supplies the Land-Based Multi-Function Surveillance, Track & Guidance Radar (LB-MF-STAR), a rotating S-band digital Active Electronic Steering Array (AESA) Radar System that can deliver an accurate, high quality arena situation picture, and extract low radar cross section targets like stealthy cruise missiles, even in the toughest environmental conditions. The naval MF-STAR is expected to be part of Israel’s next-generation missile frigates.
    In Israel, the Barak-8 is slated to equip its next-generation frigates, and may find its way to other roles. India expects to field the missiles on land and sea.

    Beyond those 2 countries, export prospects beckon for a missile that may offer a value-priced naval alternative to Raytheon’s Standard-2 and MBDA’s Aster-15. According to Defense News, the Barak-8 project features funding from American military aid dollars, as well as Indian cooperation and private/governmental funding in Israel. An Israeli source, on the other hand, has told DID that the USA has no claim on the Barak-8’s intellectual property. DID has been unable to verify he exact situation; but if the USA has no IP or significant American-made components in the Barak AMD system, it would have implications for both procurement funding sources and export policy.

    India’s Barak Programs
    The Navy: LR-SAM
    [​IMG]
    Engagement profile
    (click to view the rest)
    India has 2 different programs that could use the new longer-range Barak missile. The naval Barak-NG, or LR-SAM deal, was the first. Signed in 2006, it’s worth INR 26.06 billion (about $591 million at then-conversion) as of December 2009.

    India’s Navy has decided as a matter of policy that it will only mount medium-long range surface-to-air missile systems on future warships, as opposed to depending on short range systems that might protect a ship, but don’t offer layered defense for the rest of the fleet. This was an early sign of its transition to a more of a “blue water” navy that can reach into high-threat areas, and a logical complement to India’s establishment of a serious carrier force beginning with INS Vikramaditya (ex Admiral Gorshkov [​IMG]).

    Hence the 2006 Barak-NG naval agreement, which gives India an upgraded version of a familiar system, extends India’s technological capabilities, fosters economic ties and integration at sub-component levels, and helps the Israelis build a new system that meets some of their own emerging requirements. The new system would reportedly have a range of 50-60 km.

    Making that happen required some loosening of bureaucratic constraints on India’s defense industry. Based on projections of need and the high cost of air defense systems, India’s Ministry of Defence began initiatives under which Indian state-owned agencies can forge joint co-development and co-production ventures with foreign companies. The rationale is that under these partnerships, much of the underlying technology will remain in India. Israel has risen to become one of India’s largest defense industry partners, and may be on its way to surpassing Russia as India’s largest partner.

    That rise, India’s previous positive experiences with Barak, and the opportunity to help develop new technologies instead of buying them, all led India toward Israel for its next-generation naval SAM partnership.

    Israel Aerospace Industries will be the key partner, and will contribute most of the applicable technology, just as Russia did for the BrahMos by offering its SS-N-26 Oniks missile as the base platform. 2011 Barak-8 materials show Indian firms contributing the dual-pulse rocket motor, associated motor arming/safing mechanisms, and the pneumatic actuation system. On the other hand, India Defence reports that IAI and its Israeli partners have agreed to transfer all relevant technologies and manufacturing capabilities to India.

    The LR-SAM project is now slated for completion by December 2015, which would be about a decade from its 2005 project approval to fielding. Israel will be ahead of that schedule, as they began steps to field Barak-8 in their navy in mid-2013.

    Land-Based: MR-SAM
    [​IMG]
    SA-3
    (click to view full)
    The Barak-8’s follow-on project involves a land-based system, intended to replace old Russian systems. Most reports place MR-SAM’s desired capabilities at 70 km/ 42 mile range effective range, with 360 degree coverage, plus the ability to engage multiple targets simultaneously. As The Times of India [​IMG] put it, in 2007:

    “The project is crucial because, as highlighted by TOI earlier, there are still “many gaping holes” in India’s radar network and the armed forces only have near-obsolete air defence units like Russian Pechora [DID: upgraded SA-3], OSA-AK [DID: SA-8B, scheduled for interim upgrades [​IMG]], and Igla [DID: SA-16 shoulder-fired] missile systems.

    Sources peg the MR-SAM project as an extension of the ongoing DRDO-Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) project, launched in January 2006 at a cost of $480 million, to develop a supersonic 60-km Barak-NG (new-generation) missile defence system for Navy.”

    India Defence and the Israeli newspaper Ha’aretz also reported that MR-SAM would be an extension of work done on the Barak-NG deal, and this seems to be the general consensus.


    SA-8
    (click to view full)
    The DRDO Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will be the ‘prime developer’ for the MR-SAM project, which will reportedly have a Rs 2,300 crore (INR 23 billion, about $445 million at signing in 2009) indigenous component within an estimated Rs 10,075 crore (INR 100.75 billion, about $1.95 billion at signing) total. The 4-5 year project aims to provide India’s military with 9 advanced air defense squadrons, each with 2 MR-SAM firing units. Each MR-SAM unit, in turn, would consist of a command and control center, an acquisition radar, a guidance radar, and 3 launchers with 8 missiles each.

    MR-SAM’s total would therefore be 10 C2 centers, 18 acquisition radars, 18 guidance radars, and 54 launchers, armed with 432 ready-to-fire missiles. Some reports have placed total missile orders as high as 2,000, which would add a significant reserve stockpile to replenish missiles in any conflict.

    Indian sources estimated a 4-year, $300 million System Design & Development phase to develop unique system elements, and produce an initial tranche of the land-based missiles. As of its approval by the Cabinet Committee on Security in July 2007, MR-SAM surpassed the BrahMos project in size, and may be the largest joint defense development project ever undertaken between India and any other country.

    The MR-SAM project reportedly has a “probable date of completion” by August 2016, which would be around 7 years from its 2009 approval.
    xc
     
  6. Basel

    Basel SENIOR MEMBER

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    PN also have block-2 harpoons which are designed to handle anti missile systems, also PN will have support of other more deadly missiles in near future like YJ-18, while C-602s (latest version) C-802s (different variants) and CM-400AKG (High Supersonic) and Ra' ad (ALCM with stealthy features) are also available for PN support.
     
    Last edited: Dec 2, 2015
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  7. AUSTERLITZ

    AUSTERLITZ SENIOR MEMBER

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    Barak 1 is enough for old subsonic harpoon/exocet.Barak-8 is for supersonic sea skimmers - harpoon is not a threat at all.
     
  8. graphican

    graphican ELITE MEMBER

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    PN already operates super sonic anti ship missiles. But not sure how effective Barak8 would be against super-sonic targets.
     
  9. tahir195

    tahir195 FULL MEMBER

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    and i dont think that we have kind of long range of anything no jets no sams
     
  10. rockstarIN

    rockstarIN SENIOR MEMBER

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    Which super sonic cruise missile PN have?
     
  11. ni8mare

    ni8mare SENIOR MEMBER

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    Observe the incoming missile doing high g turns and then the intercept by Barak-8 LRSAM


    [​IMG]

    All set for long-range missile launch from ship
     
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  12. Tipu7

    Tipu7 SENIOR MEMBER

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    Does PN posses any thing to counter anti ship missiles???
     
  13. Basel

    Basel SENIOR MEMBER

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    Good, but that was test in controlled environment not in uncertain war situation.

    It is a good system but no system in this world is invincible which means it can be defeated.


    Edit.

    When Barack-8 will be fully operational with IN fleet??

    This is supposed to be coming with Chinese subs, because all new Chinese subs are capable for firing it, and even US think its very potent and deadly system.

    Quote:

    Description: The YingJi-18 (YJ-18 or Eagle/Hawk-18) is a vertically-launched, long-range, supersonic, sea-skimming anti-ship missile designed by China to kill US Navy's Aegis-equipped destroyers or its equivalents provided to Japan, South Korea or European Navies. The YJ-18 is planned for deployment by the newest People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) Type 052D class destroyers and subsequently may be incorporated into existing destroyers and submarines as part of a modernization effort. Its guidance system consists of an advanced inertial navigation, maybe backed by the Beidou Chinese GPS, plus an active radar seeker in the terminal phase. Besides, a built-in data link allows the carrier ship to update the target's location. The Aegis-killer missile existence was first reported in 2013 with an entry into service expected by 2014 or later.
    The YJ-18 missile is equipped with a 300 kg high explosive (HE) warhead capable of taking out a destroyer-sized ship. The HE warhead can be replaced by an anti-radiation/electromagnetic pulse warhead that is said can take down up to 60 percent of the enemy ship's electronic systems at a range of 50 meters after detonating. After the vertical launch the missile's turbojet engine is capable of flying at a cruise speed of Mach 0.8 for about 180 kilometers after that point the warhead section separates and a solid rocket engine ignites allowing at a top speed of Mach 2.5-3 for about 40 kilometers. The missile can maneuver at 10G acceleration to avoid enemy interception by air-to-air or surface-air missiles. The missile design and performance is very similar to Russia's 3M54E which may have been the template for the YJ-18.

    Unquote:

    YJ-18
     
    Last edited: Dec 2, 2015
  14. Archie

    Archie SENIOR MEMBER

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    BARAK 8 is a Game changer
    The initial order of 18 systems will probably equip every Indian Frigate and Destroyer Barring the Rajput class and Godavari class which are meant to retire between 2015-2022
     
  15. zebra7

    zebra7 BANNED

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    This type of system not only provides protection against the supersonic cruise missile, but also can be used to destroy the source of the thread aka fighter plane or bomber itself over a long distance.
    So good news is that if not all threats could be destroyed, other than spoofed, fooled, jammed, hacked, but if destroyed the main source of the delivery tool, you destroy the threat completely.