My understanding only for the MiGs ( @Destranator bhai is correct). Yak-130 (or Yak-131 Attack variant, which was supposed to replace the Su-25 ground attack variant) is a much smaller platform which can only carry Sidewinder level missiles, rocket pods and of course some lightweight GsH cannons. Yak-131 single-seater attack variant will supposedly have a BVR or even AESA radar and have a strengthened inner hardpoint maybe for R-77 or even heavier missiles. But this is akin to carrying a large king-size bed using a tuk-tuk.
Indians use the R-77 extensively. Americans call the R-77 AMRAAM-ski, which to them is the Russian version of the AIM-120, which itself is significantly larger than the sidewinder. More info below (new version of R-77 will be the main missile for Su-57):
Technologically, the R-77 is an active-radar homing missile, meaning that the seeker itself has a small radar that sends out radar pulses to detect the target and then uses that information to home in on the target. The current R-77 and R-77-1 use mechanically directed doppler radar without AESA, while rumored future variants will use AESA, in which the radar beam can be electronically directed with greater precision and speed (the use of AESA does not preclude the use of mechanical direction; modern Russian radars have been seen with both). The missiles also possess inertial guidance. Aerodynamically, the R-77 is distinctive among air-to-air missiles in that it uses grid (lattice) fins, an innovation that greatly increases the surface area versus traditional fins. This allows the R-77 to maneuver at higher angles of attack. These fins are also foldable allowing the R-77 to be placed on internal missile bays of some aircraft. The R-77 also uses a laser proximity fuze, in contrast to the AIM-120, which uses a radar proximity fuze. The laser fuze is immune to ECM by design principle; however, the AIM-120’s fuze is said to be designed to be resistant to ECM as well.
R-77 was a great design for its time, but due to budgetary reasons, it wasn't developed to the same extent as its American counterpart (Aim-120). There were plans for multiple variants with different seekers, propulsion systems (including ramjets), and aerodynamic config. But no money to put them into production
R-77 chronologically corresponds to Aim-120A/B. Early Amraam's had a terrible hit ratio, worse than AIM-7s. It took a lot of development to make a compact (for something that isn't the size of an AIM-54) fully active air to air missile work well. The Amraam became what it is in the C-variant, after a lot of development. Russia on the other hand was broke in the 90s, and the R-77 remained more or less a 1st gen active-radar AAM with questionable capability. R-77-1 entered service later, which was an incremental upgrade.
TBH the performance of R-77's is questionable. By now, it's pretty certain they would've upgraded its seekers and electronics. But even then, its development was never complete in Russia, so it's quite outdated. I think medium-range BVR missiles are one of few areas Russia lags behind everyone else. More emphasis was placed on air defense, strategic weapons (ICBMs etc), and even air-to-ground weapons than BVR combat.
It had the chance to perform over Balakot but failed miserably. They probably fired a few, but they all missed for one reason or another. This is why the Meteor and Rafael are so important for them, as the IAF is in a notable disadvantage in BVR capability in the region. PAK AF's SD-10's are currently more capable than any BVR missile in Indian fields, it's a more developed product with more advanced technology. Not to mention the arsenal of really mean BVR missiles fielded by the PLA
For BAF, as it stands, only 6 of our aircraft are BVR capable, which is extremely pathetic.
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