Salaam! Looking at some of the comments on this thread - pros and cons. I think overall, one cannot really assess the capabilities in a certain area...unless there is close/knowlegeable contact with the source. Pakistan has been 'poorly' considered by many nations. Most comments from these nations was that Pakistan cannot do this or that...they do not have the capability and so on....however on the contrary Pakistan has managed to 'baffle' many of the commenatators with it's many 'success' in various fields. For a poor country with low infrastructire and very limited resources - Pakistan has done extremely well (Better than many of it's rich neighbours (Arabs)). It is a capable nuclear power with the ability to to deliver (if required) from Air/Land and Naval to any would be adversary. Pakistan finds itself in a situation where self-reliance has become a practical rather than an ideological necessity. it has received advanced systems but has been prone to embargos and other restrictions. The positive side of this is that it has given Pakistan further impetus to make it's small military technology base to grow and diversify. My limited understanding is that the Military R & D is conducted by the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DESTO), and the college of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering in Rawalpindi. DESTO is responsible for PROPULSION, BALLISTICS, AERODYNAMICS,. ELECTRONICS, PROPELLANTS and METALLURGY, and the college of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering took responsibility for adapting imported systems, such as the ANZA sam system. As per 1995 DESTO employed approx 130 dedicated scientists, of who 12 held doctorates. The Military industrial base employed a total of 83,300 personnel......I'm sure there will be alot more now (Ref: Military Capacity and the Risk of War = China,India,Pakistan and Iran - Sipri). There will also be other R & D departments...all working hard for their given project. For Pakistan to develop/re-engineer/modify items such as the Babur Cruise missile....is a remarkable achievement and can only be given credit to it's scientists. It's the fact that Pakistan is able to achieve this with very limited resources that has taken aback many other nations. It has chosen the cost effective strategy and it seems to work quite well.