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[Analysis & Updates] CHINESE SPACE PRIVATE COMPANIES RISING & TAKE OFF, MEANWHILE JAPANESE COMPANY FAILURE

Daniel808

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2020: A Turning Point for Chinese Commercial Space

Landspace.jpg

Landspace Corporation Ltd

Space in China has historically been associated with the state, and for good reason. The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) has been synonymous with space in China. With CASC being owned by the Chinese government, this has meant that effectively the entirety of the Chinese space industry, up until 2014, was CASC.


This changed in 2014 as the Chinese government published Document 60, a document allowing for increased freedom of private investment into technologies such as launch and satellite manufacturing. The past six years have seen more than 100 commercial space companies established in China, with these companies having raised more than $1.4 billion (10 billion yuan) in the process, according to Euroconsult’s just-released China Space Industry 2020 research report.

That being said, good things take time, and space is hard. Despite the huge increase in number of startups, most of these companies have yet to move beyond the R&D phase — it takes a few years to develop a rocket. As we move into the 2020s, we are reaching a turning point in Chinese commercial space — the point at which commercial companies commence business operations at scale. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic that shut down most of China for the early part of the year, the country’s space sector has proven surprisingly resilient, with launches having continued at an impressive clip.

What Makes 2020 a Turning Point?

Several factors make 2020 a turning point for the Chinese commercial space industry. While a major reason is the increasing maturity of Chinese space companies, perhaps the single largest reason is geopolitics.




Other factors are less strategic, but no less important. The fact that many Chinese commercial space companies were established three to five years ago means that now, many of them are reaching maturity and are ready for commercial operations. This is evident in the large bump in funding in 2018 and 2019 (above chart), funding which would have been spent on R&D efforts that are now starting to bear fruit. The increasing interest by major tech companies, a wider variety of universities, and some high schools in the space industry has led to pockets of demand, with several commercial satellite manufacturers counting on academia as a major early source of revenues. The evolution of this larger ecosystem will be essential for a healthy Chinese space industry to develop, as diversity of demand will allow for commercial space companies to be less reliant on subcontracted work from CASC.

The Rise of China’s Commercial Industry

With an increasing amount of government support combined with an increase in funding, the Chinese commercial space sector is on the brink of lifting off. 2020 has seen, among other things, the launch of satellites proving new technologies, an attempt (albeit a failed one) at launching the first Chinese commercial rocket with a payload of greater than 1,000 kilograms, and government rulings in support of development of space applications. In short, despite a shutdown from COVID-19 for much of February and March, China has rebounded strongly in the space sector.

On the satellite manufacturing side, 2020 has seen the launch of the first satellite in the Galaxy Space constellation, a planned constellation of several hundred satellites aiming to address 5G and internet of Things (IoT) demand. Launched to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) in January 2020, the satellite’s Q-band/V-band payload has a total throughput of roughly 10 Gigabits per second. In an interview around the time of the launch, Galaxy Space CEO Xu Ming noted that he expected non-Chinese constellations to occupy most Ku-band and Ka-band spectrum, and as such, that Galaxy Space hoped to claim Q-band/V-band spectrum for Chinese constellations. Separate to Galaxy Space, Guodian Gaoke has seen several satellites in its Tianqi IoT constellation launched over the past year, while Earth Observation (EO) constellation company Charming Globe has launched multiple EO satellites. Euroconsult expects the number of NGSO satellites launched by China to increase from about 50 in 2015 to more than 160 by 2025.

Separately, satellite manufacturer Commsat announced in May 2020 a $39 million (270 million yuan) round of funding, with the money expected to go towards building a satellite manufacturing facility for an unnamed customer. That the customer is large enough to allow Commsat to justify building a satellite manufacturing facility is a likely indication that the customer is a government project. This represents a significant shift that a commercial company has been selected to provide such products to the government. Satellite manufacturer and aspiring constellation operator LaserFleet also made apparent progress during the year, having provided components for two Xingyun satellites launched in May 2020.



On the launch vehicle side of the industry, 2020 has seen ups and downs, but consistent progress. China’s most advanced (nominally) commercial launch company, Expace, has been the most visible company in the sector thus far in 2020. In April, Expace sold a rocket in a live online auction, fetching more than $5 million for the launch. Maybe more importantly, it attracted several hundred million views in what was perhaps the most successful publicity stunt the Chinese space industry has ever seen. The company has also seen several successful launches of its Kuaizhou-1A rocket, including for multiple commercial clients. Capable of lifting 250 to 300 kilogram to LEO and Sun-Synchronous Orbit (SSO), the KZ-1A has proven itself as a reliable small launch vehicle, with nine successes in nine attempts. Expace also attempted the first launch of its Kuaizhou-11 — a much larger rocket capable of carrying 1 metric ton to SSO and 1.5 metric ton to LEO — though the July 2020 launch attempt failed.

Ispace.jpg

i-space Corporation Ltd

Other than Expace, several Chinese launch companies have seen progress over the course of 2020. Landspace, the second most-well-funded commercial launch company after Expace, has continued to make progress on its Zhuque-2 (ZQ-2) rocket, expected to launch for the first time in 2021. Having completed a $71 million (500 million yuan) round of funding in December 2019, Landspace has focused on developing the TQ-11 engine for its ZQ-2 rocket, with the company having recently completed a 3,000 second hot test on the engine, which represented the longest single engine test of any cryogenic liquid rocket engine in China. Meanwhile, fellow liquid-powered rocket company Deep Blue Aerospace announced a $14 million (100 million yuan) round of funding in June 2020, with this representing roughly the eighth commercial launch company in China to raise more than 100 million yuan. The advancements in the launch sector are expected to continue moving forward, with the Chinese government having passed legislation in mid-2019 that provided some additional clarity for commercial launch companies.

Downstream applications have seen the most major turning point in 2020, however, as China has had several significant developments in this area in recent months. Most significantly, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC, 国家发展改革委员会) announced in April the addition of satellite internet to its list of new infrastructures (新基建). The addition of satellite internet to this list sent a powerful signal to the industry that the Chinese government supports the development of satellite internet applications, and has been met with several major announcements in the weeks following. Among others, China Unicom Airnet, a satcom subsidiary of China Unicom, announced 3 new satellite internet products, as well as a location-based service product, with the announcement mentioning the NDRC decision. Commsat also mentioned the NDRC decision in the press release for its aforementioned round of funding, with the company stating that its satellite factory would aim to build broadband internet satellites in line with the ruling.

Galactic Energy.jpeg

Galactic Energy Corporation Ltd

Other application areas have received a similar boost in recent months, though in some instances this has occurred in late 2019. For example, in November 2019, the China National Space Administration (CNSA) announced that they would start sharing global 16 meter-resolution EO data from the Gaofen-1 and Gaofen-6 satellites for free in partnership with Huawei. Having deployed a global EO constellation over the past decade or so, China is now in a position to push more of its EO data towards the rest of the world. In satellite navigation, in 2020 China completed the third generation of its BeiDou constellation, and has concurrently offered significant support for downstream application development for satnav/location-based services, with this including the development of BeiDou R&D centers in China and elsewhere. Moving forward, we expect China to aggressively position BeiDou as an alternative to GPS, relying partly on geopolitics and financing, and partly on technology to encourage other countries to use BeiDou.

What to Expect after the Turn?

China’s space industry is likely to become more fragmented in the 2020s, and this is seen as a positive development. To now, almost all space activity in China is in some way connected to CASC, a sprawling company of nearly 200,000 people and business lines in nearly all space-related verticals. This has allowed the Chinese space industry to catch up to the West fairly quickly and consistently, with five year plans, broad industrial development policies, and vertically integrated state-owned enterprises leading the way.

While CASC and subsidiaries will remain the dominant force moving forward in China’s space industry, the private sector will take a bigger piece of the pie. This will be particularly true if CASC were to focus on larger projects such as the Long March-9 super heavy lift rocket, the China Large Modular Space Station, and missions to Mars and beyond. As a greater number of Chinese commercial space companies reach technological maturity, we will likely see these companies move to aggressively address export markets when possible, likely supported by Chinese financing.

Standards will likely be set for activities such as the integration of EO, telecommunications, and navigation satellites, and China will likely attempt to set its own standards for this. Most countries will be unable to support a full suite of space activities, and likely China will open its space infrastructure to other countries in what could be considered an act of goodwill, an attempt to win market share, or both.


http://interactive.satellitetoday.c...a-turning-point-for-chinese-commercial-space/







MEANWHILE IN JAPAN FAILURE COMPANY,

Japan's Interstellar Technologies FAILS to reach space with private rocket launch
By Tariq Malik June 14, 2020
The sounding rocket Momo-F5 crashed into the ocean instead.



The Interstellar Technologies sounding rocket Momo-F5 stands atop its launch pad in Taiki Town, Hokkaido on June 13, 2020 ahead of a launch attempt.

The Japanese space start-up Interstellar Technologies failed to reach space with its latest small rocket launch early Sunday (June 14).

The crowdfunded sounding rocket, called Momo-F5, lifted off from a pad in Taiki Town, Hokkaido at 5:15 a.m. JST on Sunday (4:15 p.m. EDT on Saturday, June 13). Shortly after liftoff, the rocket suffered an anomaly, forcing Interstellar Technologies to issue an abort command that sent the booster crashing into the Pacific Ocean.

Interstellar Technologies representatives said they terminated the launch about 70 seconds after liftoff once it became clear the Momo-F5 rocket had suffered a failure, according to a Google translation of a report to crowdfunding supporters on the Japanese website Campfire. About 36 seconds after liftoff, debris was spotted falling from the rocket's engine nozzle, they added.

You can watch a video of the launch from NVS-Neko Video Visual Solutions and the Tokachi Mainichi newspaper below. The debris event is visible from the ground as a brief flash near the engine after liftoff.



Momo-F5 reached a maximum altitude of 7.1 miles (11.5 kilometers), well short of its goal of 62 miles (100 km), an altitude recognized as the boundary of space. It crashed into the Pacific Ocean just over 2 miles (4 km) offshore.


As its name suggests, Momo-F5 is the fifth sounding rocket built by Interstellar Technologies, which aims to build affordable rockets to "make space more accessible," according to a statement. It stands 32 feet (10 meters) tall and weighs about 1 metric ton. The company has launched one successful mission, the Momo-F3 rocket flight of May 2019, out of its five to date.


Interstellar Technologies used the Campfire crowdfunding site to raise $391,000 (42 million yen) for the Momo-F5 launch, well above the mission's goal of nearly $84,000 (9 million yen). The mission was named for the book "Poupelle of Chimney Town" by Akihiro Nishino.


https://www.space.com/interstellar-technologies-momo-f5-rocket-launch-failure.html
 

Daniel808

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Chinese rocket firm Galactic Energy succeeds with first orbital launch, secures funding
by Andrew Jones — November 7, 2020
Galactic Energy.jpeg
Liftoff of Galactic Energy's first Ceres-1 rocket from Jiuquan Nov. 7, 2020. Credit: Ourspace

HELSINKI — Chinese rocket firm Galactic Energy successfully sent a small satellite into orbit Saturday with the first launch of its Ceres-1 launch vehicle.
The Ceres-1 four-stage solid rocket lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center near the Gobi Desert at 2:12 a.m. Eastern Saturday.

First indications of launch came from spectators posting footage on Chinese social media. Chinese state media announced launch success around 30 minutes later.

The 50-kilogram Tianqi-11 satellite was sent into a 500-kilometer Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). Shanghai ASES Spaceflight Technology Co. Ltd., developed the satellite, nominally part of the Tianqi (“Apocalypse”) narrowband Internet of Things constellation for Beijing Guodian Gaoke Technology Co. Ltd.

The successful mission means Galactic Energy becomes the second nominally private Chinese launch company to reach orbit.

Ceres1-launch-ourspace-1-large-2.jpg


Chinese NewSpace boost
Galactic Energy is the fourth Chinese private launch company overall to make an orbital launch attempt, all with light-lift solid launchers. Landspace made the first attempt in October 2018, with OneSpace following in March 2019. In July last year iSpace became the first to successfully achieve orbit with its Hyperbola-1 launch.

The 19-meter-long, 1.4-meter-diameter Ceres-1 can loft 350 kilograms to low Earth orbit or 230 kilograms to a 700-kilometer SOO. It consists of three solid stages and an advanced liquid upper stage.

Galactic Energy, full name Beijing Xinghe Dongli Space Technology Co. Ltd., announced $29.9 million (200 million yuan ) in A round funding earlier this week. The round was led by Huaqiang Chuangtou,
The firm has now raised $43 million (300 million yuan) in total since its establishment in February 2018.

Competitors Landspace, iSpace and OneSpace have also in recent months secured major funding rounds, indicating strong support for commercial launch companies.

cERES 1.jpg


The addition of “satellite internet” to a list of “new infrastructures” in April by China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) also led to an apparent increase in funding to commercial satellite companies.

Chinese launch, small satellite and related downstream companies have proliferated in China since a central government policy decision in late 2014 to open portions of the space sector to private capital.
Galactic Energy also recently struck a deal with the southwestern Chinese city of Jianyang, under the administration of Chengdu, for the construction of a rocket research, testing and manufacturing facility. The move is indicative of a level of provincial and municipal support of the new space ventures in China.

Galactic Energy.png


Transition to reusable liquid launchers
Today’s Ceres-1 launch had been planned for the first half of 2020. The COVID-19 outbreak was partly responsible for delays.
Galactic Energy is following the path of Landspace and iSpace in starting with solid rockets but shifting to larger, more complex liquid propellant launchers.

The Pallas-1 kerosene and liquid oxygen launch vehicle is currently expected to have its test flight in late 2022. Like Ceres-1 the launcher is named after a major object in the asteroid belt.
The launcher will be powered mainly by Cangqiong (Welkin) RP-1/LOX engines producing 40 tons of thrust and described by the company as China’s version of SpaceX’s Merlin engine. The company says it has developed innovative designs and procedures to reduce costs and allow multiple engine reuses.

Pallas-1 is designed to carry four metric tons to LEO or two tons to a 700-kilometer SSO. That makes it comparable to Landspace’s planned Zhuque-2 methalox launcher, both of which will be more capable than iSpace’s Hyperbola-2. All three launchers are planned to be capable of vertical takeoff, vertical landing.

Assembly of Galactic Energy's first Ceres-1 solid rocket.
Assembly of Galactic Energy’s first Ceres-1 solid rocket. Credit: Galactic Energy

https://spacenews.com/chinese-rocke...ds-with-first-orbital-launch-secures-funding/











They also have much Bigger PALLAS-1 Rocket under-Development :smitten:

Pallas 1.jpg

Galactic Energy 4.jpg


http://www.galactic-energy.cn/index.php/En/List/cid/15
 

Daniel808

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Daniel808

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Daniel808

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SPACETY Corporation Ltd (Chinese Start-up Satellite Company that Focused on SAR [Synthetic-Aperture Radar] Satellite

Hisea-1 SAR Satellite from SPACETY CORPORATION Ltd
Hisea Satellite.jpg




1. i-Space Corporation Ltd
2. Space Pioneer Corporation Ltd



Chinese Start-up Private Space Companies scramble to Space, Moon, Mars & Beyond :toast_sign:

A Great Pride for All of us, Asian people. In Private Space Development :cheers: I will keep this thread Updated for Chinese Private Space Companies News & Development
 
Last edited:

Beast

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I can be sure, Chinese expendable rocket will be even cheaper than SpaceX reusable one.

Like US space shuttle brag to be reusable but costing USD 500 million per launch. That is not called innovation but foolish throwing your money away.
Some Recent Important Updates regarding Chinese Space Start-up Companies (NewSpace Companies) 😉

Galactic Energy Corporation Ltd


i-Space Corporation Ltd

Landspace Corporation Ltd
 

bshifter

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yeah the Space Shuttle was never going to be sustainable on the long run that's why the US retired it. Also those disastrous explosions isn't giving astronauts the confidence they needed. That's how many feel about those Boeing planes these days.
 

Galactic Penguin SST

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MEANWHILE IN JAPAN FAILURE COMPANY,

Japan's Interstellar Technologies FAILS to reach space with private rocket launch
What is that for an analysis? Are you proud of yourself?

To only mention Japan's Interstellar, without even acknowledging that Chinese space tourists might well be riding en masse Japanese space planes by 2025 to reach space!
:hitwall:

Pakistani readers deserve to be informed, and not mislead when spending time browsing PDF!

Japan In The Manned Space Race

PD AeroSpace

Japanese startup PD AeroSpace aims for commercial space travel in 2023

2018/09/04/

The startup PD AeroSpace Ltd. is developing a reusable spacecraft shaped like an airplane to carry paying customers into space by 2023.

The Nagoya-based company plans to offer space flights up to an altitude of 110 kilometers using the craft, which is capable of carrying six passengers and two pilots, at a price of ¥17 million ($153,000) per person.

Currently, 11 workers at a plant in Hekinan, Aichi Prefecture, are working to fly an unmanned test vehicle up to an altitude of 100 km.

“We would like to open a new space era (with the spacecraft),” said Shuji Ogawa, the 48-year-old president of PD AeroSpace.

Last summer, the company successfully carried out a combustion experiment with the spacecraft’s pulse detonation engine, which can switch from air-breathing mode, where propulsion is achieved through pushing out hot exhaust gases, to rocket mode.

According to the company’s plan, the spaceship will change its mode of combustion at an altitude of 15 km to ascend further, and passengers will be able to enjoy a near weightless experience for about five minutes while staring down at Earth.

By launching a reusable spacecraft from airport runways, PD AeroSpace aims to keep costs down compared to using nonreusable rockets.

Ogawa founded the startup in 2007 after being inspired by Scaled Composites LLC’s SpaceShipOne, which in 2004 became the first privately owned piloted vehicle to reach space. It won the $10 million Ansari X Prize, established to encourage entrepreneurship in space travel.

The space tourism industry at one point lost steam due to a series of accidents and a reluctance to invest in the field, but it appears to have regained momentum, with U.S. companies taking the lead.

Backed by investments from firms such as ANA Holdings Inc., as well as support from some 40 expert volunteer workers, PD AeroSpace is trying to overcome numerous challenges, including the procurement of funds.

“Space has the power to attract people,” Ogawa said.



High-end tourists from China targeted as Japan’s new ‘space port’ prepares for lift-off

Published: 5:38pm, 14 Sep, 2020

• Spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace is developing an airport on an island in Okinawa prefecture for space tourism by 2025

• The company is eyeing wealthy adventure seekers, particularly those from China, for initial flights that are expected to cost around US$141,000

Japan ’s first passenger “space port” is to be built on the tiny Okinawan island of Miyako Shimojishima, with spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace aiming to be aloft by 2025 as it seeks to attract adventurous travellers from across the region – particularly well-heeled thrillseekers from China.

The company, based in the city of Nagoya in central Japan, has reached an agreement with the Okinawa prefectural government to develop the island’s little-used airport for use as the departure point for its state-of-the-art space plane, as well as landing facilities for returning tourists.

“We plan to target people from across Asia and we believe there are a lot of people who would very much like to go into space if only the price of a flight was lower,” said Ryo Ojima from PD Aerospace’s business development department. He confirmed the company was “targeting people from China” for its flights, but said they would take anyone who wants to experience space.

Ojima said initial flights would last for about 90 minutes and reach an altitude of 100km, which the World Air Sports Federation has set as the boundary between the atmosphere and space. For five minutes, passengers will be able to experience the weightless conditions of astronauts, while the journey will provide stunning views of the Earth.

“We are aiming to reach 100km because that is what is known as the Karman line, or the ‘gateway to the universe’,” he said.

The cost of a flight is expected to be around Ұ15 million (US$141,000), Ojima told This Week in Asia, or around 70 per cent of the cost proposed by similar space tourism ventures.

“We selected Miyako Shimojishima for four primary reasons,” he said. “It has a 3,000-metre runway, it has a training airspace that is aligned north-south, it faces the ocean and the local authorities have been cooperative.”

Tourism-dependent Okinawa has been hit by the Covid-19 pandemic, with people working in the local travel industry describing the outlook as “grim”. As such, experts say, the possibility of space tourism in the next five years could provide a much-needed boost for the prefecture.

“Okinawa has felt the loss of the China market due to the coronavirus, so it makes complete sense that they would go after wealthy travellers from the big cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong – as their passengers,” said Ashley Harvey, general manager of destination management firm Aviareps Japan.

“All those cities have huge populations, large numbers of people with money to spend and easy access to Okinawa. These are people who have already travelled overseas and have seen many of the major attractions around the world, so they are going to be looking for something completely different, something that none of their friends have tried before.

“An experience like this would be something special and something that enough people would want to try to make it a viable business.”

In its first year of operations, PD AeroSpace expects to take around 100 people into orbit, but it plans to operate 200 flights a year – carrying 1,000 passengers – by 2030. It has big ambitions beyond these initial flights and ultimately intends to be involved in the construction of an orbiting space hotel.

The company has tied up with All Nippon Airways (ANA) and domestic travel giant HIS, with a spokeswoman for HIS pointing out that a number of legal revisions need to be passed before space travel can become a reality.

“We believe there will be strong demand, initially from Japan but very quickly after that from across the entire region [once that hurdle has been overcome],” she said.

Miyako Shimojishima, which is nearly 300km from Okinawa’s main island, covers an area of just 10 sq km and is connected to neighbouring islands by bridges.

Its airport was built in 1979 to serve as Japan’s sole pilot training facility for jet aircraft, with ANA and Japan Airlines
using the facility until it became significantly cheaper to train pilots on simulators. The airfield is presently used for tourist flights.


“It’s a very appealing and dream-inspiring proposal,” Okinawa prefecture vice governor Kiichiro Jahana said of PD AeroSpace’s plan. “The space industry is a field with high future prospects and one that continues to grow around the world … This will have a positive ripple effect across the entire prefecture.”





https://archive.is/xRy0n/7fe1d311fbdd510abd58f61eabab0d4e5e0a93ed.png ; https://archive.is/xRy0n/df90d5daf40970542127a154b15fee6672efd4b4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172645/https://i.imgur.com/4z2Wjov.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
1. Pegasus vs New Sheppard & SpaceShip Two.


https://archive.vn/Ph47O/bc8f15784841f17c23601a66b657da329b3ac7bc.png ; https://archive.vn/Ph47O/dd873947322e38838c0593634ab74b328dd4deb0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172907/https://i.imgur.com/Y9cCHqt.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
2. Switchable Dual Combustion Mode engine.


https://archive.vn/BRXMq/7bc2cfeaed3c945e3c4b67a602af97d07a6e67da.png ; https://archive.vn/BRXMq/0530ce68e0b8bdb8f3d017a2443a904684bc88f8/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173146/https://i.imgur.com/N3JR5mo.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
3. From Jet Mode To Rocket Mode.


https://archive.vn/4s1W8/261dba9ecd863297e63c32b4e7a8a9e1f86b8b2f.png ; https://archive.vn/4s1W8/18cf4c37b99029ba2f7ce6283dbb81048031e5ed/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173543/https://i.imgur.com/Bka8GaX.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
4. PDAS-X06 & PDAS-X07 Demonstrators.


https://archive.vn/S8eC8/1febc34264ff647637d589719cd7f75e09eba8e9.png ; https://archive.vn/S8eC8/bac0598d7365caec07a2230392ca4320bd21ade2/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173805/https://i.imgur.com/ebJ3MMI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
5. Pegasus Suborbital Spaceplane.


https://archive.vn/Z78DD/47b4a9e6decd2caf1e508d70f339041fea20023b.png ; https://archive.vn/Z78DD/36ec61082e65e71bc59eac8ef3f6852f18682636/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173958/https://i.imgur.com/W5zx8PI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
6. Suborbital space flight profile.






:cool:🚬
 

Daniel808

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What is that for an analysis? Are you proud of yourself?

To only mention Japan's Interstellar, without even acknowledging that Chinese space tourists might well be riding en masse Japanese space planes by 2025 to reach space!
:hitwall:

Pakistani readers deserve to be informed, and not mislead when spending time browsing PDF!

Japan In The Manned Space Race

PD AeroSpace

Japanese startup PD AeroSpace aims for commercial space travel in 2023
2018/09/04/​
The startup PD AeroSpace Ltd. is developing a reusable spacecraft shaped like an airplane to carry paying customers into space by 2023.​
The Nagoya-based company plans to offer space flights up to an altitude of 110 kilometers using the craft, which is capable of carrying six passengers and two pilots, at a price of ¥17 million ($153,000) per person.​
Currently, 11 workers at a plant in Hekinan, Aichi Prefecture, are working to fly an unmanned test vehicle up to an altitude of 100 km.​
“We would like to open a new space era (with the spacecraft),” said Shuji Ogawa, the 48-year-old president of PD AeroSpace.​
Last summer, the company successfully carried out a combustion experiment with the spacecraft’s pulse detonation engine, which can switch from air-breathing mode, where propulsion is achieved through pushing out hot exhaust gases, to rocket mode.​
According to the company’s plan, the spaceship will change its mode of combustion at an altitude of 15 km to ascend further, and passengers will be able to enjoy a near weightless experience for about five minutes while staring down at Earth.​
By launching a reusable spacecraft from airport runways, PD AeroSpace aims to keep costs down compared to using nonreusable rockets.​
Ogawa founded the startup in 2007 after being inspired by Scaled Composites LLC’s SpaceShipOne, which in 2004 became the first privately owned piloted vehicle to reach space. It won the $10 million Ansari X Prize, established to encourage entrepreneurship in space travel.​
The space tourism industry at one point lost steam due to a series of accidents and a reluctance to invest in the field, but it appears to have regained momentum, with U.S. companies taking the lead.​
Backed by investments from firms such as ANA Holdings Inc., as well as support from some 40 expert volunteer workers, PD AeroSpace is trying to overcome numerous challenges, including the procurement of funds.​
“Space has the power to attract people,” Ogawa said.​

High-end tourists from China targeted as Japan’s new ‘space port’ prepares for lift-off
Published: 5:38pm, 14 Sep, 2020​
• Spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace is developing an airport on an island in Okinawa prefecture for space tourism by 2025​
• The company is eyeing wealthy adventure seekers, particularly those from China, for initial flights that are expected to cost around US$141,000​
Japan ’s first passenger “space port” is to be built on the tiny Okinawan island of Miyako Shimojishima, with spacecraft developer PD AeroSpace aiming to be aloft by 2025 as it seeks to attract adventurous travellers from across the region – particularly well-heeled thrillseekers from China.​
The company, based in the city of Nagoya in central Japan, has reached an agreement with the Okinawa prefectural government to develop the island’s little-used airport for use as the departure point for its state-of-the-art space plane, as well as landing facilities for returning tourists.​
“We plan to target people from across Asia and we believe there are a lot of people who would very much like to go into space if only the price of a flight was lower,” said Ryo Ojima from PD Aerospace’s business development department. He confirmed the company was “targeting people from China” for its flights, but said they would take anyone who wants to experience space.​
Ojima said initial flights would last for about 90 minutes and reach an altitude of 100km, which the World Air Sports Federation has set as the boundary between the atmosphere and space. For five minutes, passengers will be able to experience the weightless conditions of astronauts, while the journey will provide stunning views of the Earth.​
“We are aiming to reach 100km because that is what is known as the Karman line, or the ‘gateway to the universe’,” he said.​
The cost of a flight is expected to be around Ұ15 million (US$141,000), Ojima told This Week in Asia, or around 70 per cent of the cost proposed by similar space tourism ventures.​
“We selected Miyako Shimojishima for four primary reasons,” he said. “It has a 3,000-metre runway, it has a training airspace that is aligned north-south, it faces the ocean and the local authorities have been cooperative.”​
Tourism-dependent Okinawa has been hit by the Covid-19 pandemic, with people working in the local travel industry describing the outlook as “grim”. As such, experts say, the possibility of space tourism in the next five years could provide a much-needed boost for the prefecture.​
“Okinawa has felt the loss of the China market due to the coronavirus, so it makes complete sense that they would go after wealthy travellers from the big cities – Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong – as their passengers,” said Ashley Harvey, general manager of destination management firm Aviareps Japan.​
“All those cities have huge populations, large numbers of people with money to spend and easy access to Okinawa. These are people who have already travelled overseas and have seen many of the major attractions around the world, so they are going to be looking for something completely different, something that none of their friends have tried before.​
“An experience like this would be something special and something that enough people would want to try to make it a viable business.”​
In its first year of operations, PD AeroSpace expects to take around 100 people into orbit, but it plans to operate 200 flights a year – carrying 1,000 passengers – by 2030. It has big ambitions beyond these initial flights and ultimately intends to be involved in the construction of an orbiting space hotel.​
The company has tied up with All Nippon Airways (ANA) and domestic travel giant HIS, with a spokeswoman for HIS pointing out that a number of legal revisions need to be passed before space travel can become a reality.​
“We believe there will be strong demand, initially from Japan but very quickly after that from across the entire region [once that hurdle has been overcome],” she said.​
Miyako Shimojishima, which is nearly 300km from Okinawa’s main island, covers an area of just 10 sq km and is connected to neighbouring islands by bridges.​
Its airport was built in 1979 to serve as Japan’s sole pilot training facility for jet aircraft, with ANA and Japan Airlines​
using the facility until it became significantly cheaper to train pilots on simulators. The airfield is presently used for tourist flights.​
“It’s a very appealing and dream-inspiring proposal,” Okinawa prefecture vice governor Kiichiro Jahana said of PD AeroSpace’s plan. “The space industry is a field with high future prospects and one that continues to grow around the world … This will have a positive ripple effect across the entire prefecture.”​



https://archive.is/xRy0n/7fe1d311fbdd510abd58f61eabab0d4e5e0a93ed.png ; https://archive.is/xRy0n/df90d5daf40970542127a154b15fee6672efd4b4/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172645/https://i.imgur.com/4z2Wjov.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
1. Pegasus vs New Sheppard & SpaceShip Two.


https://archive.vn/Ph47O/bc8f15784841f17c23601a66b657da329b3ac7bc.png ; https://archive.vn/Ph47O/dd873947322e38838c0593634ab74b328dd4deb0/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914172907/https://i.imgur.com/Y9cCHqt.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
2. Switchable Dual Combustion Mode engine.


https://archive.vn/BRXMq/7bc2cfeaed3c945e3c4b67a602af97d07a6e67da.png ; https://archive.vn/BRXMq/0530ce68e0b8bdb8f3d017a2443a904684bc88f8/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173146/https://i.imgur.com/N3JR5mo.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
3. From Jet Mode To Rocket Mode.


https://archive.vn/4s1W8/261dba9ecd863297e63c32b4e7a8a9e1f86b8b2f.png ; https://archive.vn/4s1W8/18cf4c37b99029ba2f7ce6283dbb81048031e5ed/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173543/https://i.imgur.com/Bka8GaX.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
4. PDAS-X06 & PDAS-X07 Demonstrators.


https://archive.vn/S8eC8/1febc34264ff647637d589719cd7f75e09eba8e9.png ; https://archive.vn/S8eC8/bac0598d7365caec07a2230392ca4320bd21ade2/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173805/https://i.imgur.com/ebJ3MMI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
5. Pegasus Suborbital Spaceplane.


https://archive.vn/Z78DD/47b4a9e6decd2caf1e508d70f339041fea20023b.png ; https://archive.vn/Z78DD/36ec61082e65e71bc59eac8ef3f6852f18682636/scr.png ; http://web.archive.org/web/20200914173958/https://i.imgur.com/W5zx8PI.png ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/index.html ; https://pdas.co.jp/en/documents/Company_Outline_EN.pdf ; https://imgur.com/a/13KLAK2
6. Suborbital space flight profile.






:cool:🚬
So according to your claim, in 2025 Chinese will begging to japan in order to send their man to space? What a bullsh!t :D
Wake me up, when that happen


Anyway, your post really weird and confusing. I don't have time to read all your confusing crap post.

Your location flag is in North korea, you cannot access internet from there.

Fishy
 

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