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Al-Khalid tank (Type 90-IIM / MBT-2000) Information Pool


Jan 18, 2009
no spam thread! no disscussions thread! there are many alkhalid threads , not one of them covers all the details under 1 thread-- plz dont ask questions , only pool data , much like jft info pool thread

this is not 'anther' alkhalid thread , rather it will pool and unify data under 1 thread , for quick access



Type 90-II – Introduced in 1992

P3 – Prototype fitted with Chinese 125 mm gun and autoloader, Western fire-control system, Ukrainian KMDB 6TD-2 1200 hp diesel engine and French SESM ESM500 automatic transmission.

* Type 90-IIM, MBT-2000 – Type 90-IIM introduced in 2000 with Ukraine's KMDB 1,200 hp 6TD-2 diesel engine. Export version MBT-2000 introduced in 2001 at a defence exhibition in Abu Dhabi.[28] MBT-2000 selected by Peruvian Army in late 2009.[29] The contract was canceled in 2010[30]

* Al-Khalid – Based on P3 prototype, operational as of 2001. Has an ammunition capacity of 39 125 mm rounds, 500 12.7 mm rounds and 3,000 7.62 mm rounds.

o Al-Khalid I – Upgraded variant in testing as of April 2009.
Ammunition capacity increased to 49 125 mm rounds, 1,500 12.7 mm rounds and 7,100 7.62 mm rounds.
Incorporates modifications made to the fire-control system, sensors, IBMS, side-skirts, track pads, auto-loader (rate of fire increased to 9 rounds per minute), Ukrainian Varta electro-optical jammer (disrupts laser rangefinders, laser designators and anti-tank guided missile tracking systems)which is a Ukrainian modification of Russian Shtora APS system., Sagem third-generation thermal imagers and improved air conditioning system.Al-Khalid 1 is equipped with a newly developed indigenous ERA which is not only light weight, but also more resistant to APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FS rounds. ERA is developed by Global Industries and Defense Solutions (GIDS) Corporation

o Al-Khalid II – In early stages of development and believed to incorporate re-designed turret, upgraded modular armour package and sensors, improved ammunition and new powerpack developing 1,500 hp.




The existence of the NORINCO Type 90 MBT was first revealed in late 1991 and compared to earlier Chinese MBTs it has significant improvements in the three key areas of MBT design: armour, mobility and firepower. Under a contract signed in May 1990, the Type 90-II is also to be manufactured under licence in Pakistan and further development has resulted in the Khalid MBT which is tailored to meet the specific operational requirements of the Pakistani Armoured Corps. Additional details of the Khalid, the first prototype of which was completed in June 1991 and which is also referred to as the MBT-2000 or P-90, are given under Pakistan. In many respects the NORINCO Type 90-II is similar to the Type 85-IIM although the former is heavier with improved protection and is powered by 1,200 hp diesel engine. Early in 1997, additional information on the Type 90-II MBT was released by NORINCO and at the same time it was revealed that it was now being offered fitted with explosive reactive armour to its hull and turret for improved battlefield survivability. By mid-1997, volume production of the Type 9-II MBT had yet to commence. It is understood that this vehicle is for the export market and not for the People's Liberation Army.

The overall layout of the Type 90-II MBT is conventional with the driver's compartment at the front, fighting compartment in the centre and power pack at the rear. The hull is of welded steel construction with an additional layer of composite armour at the front. Explosive reactive armour has been added to the glacis plate and nose of the vehicle. The driver is seated in the centre and has a single-piece hatch cover that lifts and swings to the right and in front of this are three periscopes, the centre one of which can be replaced by a passive periscope for driving at night. The turret is in the centre and is of all welded steel armour construction to which a layer of composite armour has been added over the frontal arc. In addition, to the turret front, sides and forward roof has been added packs of explosive reactive armour. The commander is seated on the right and the gunner is seated on the left with both provided with single-piece roof hatches and vision devices. Main armament consists of a 125 mm smoothbore gun fitted with a thermal sleeve and fume extractor which is fed by an automatic loader which holds a total of 22 projectiles and charges which can be loaded at the rate of six to eight per minute. After the gun has fired it returns to an angle of 4 ° 15 ' for loading and then returns to the firing position.

Types of separate loading ammunition that can be fired by the 125 mm smoothbore gun include APFSDS (muzzle velocity 1760 m/s), HEAT (muzzle velocity 850 m/s) and HE-FRAG (muzzle velocity 950 m/s). According to NORINCO, the APFSDS-T projectile will penetrate 460 mm of steel armour at a range of 2,000 m. Barrel life is quoted as 500 rounds. A total of 39 projectiles are carried in the normal ratio of four APFSDS-T, three HEAT and three HE-FRAG. Mounted coaxial to the right of the main armament is a 7.62 mm machine gun while mounted on the commander's cupola is a 12.7 mm machine gun for engaging ground and aerial targets. The 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun has a cyclic rate of fire of 700 to 800 rds/min with a practical rate of fire of 250 rds/min. Effective range is quoted as 1,000 m. The 12.7 mm machine gun has a cyclic rate of fire of 650 to 700 rds/min with a practical rate of fire of 80 to 100 rds/min. Traverse is 360° with elevation from -4.5 to +70°. Effective range is quoted as 1,600 m.

The commander is provided with a two-axis stabilised panoramic sight while the gunner has a two-axis stabilised fixed roof-mounted sight. The image stabilised fire-control system (ISFCS) includes a laser rangefinder integrated into the gunner's sight, control panel, ballistic computer and a sensor for crosswind, tilt and angular velocity. This, together with the stabilised 125 mm gun and roof-mounted stabilised sights, enables the Type 90-II to engage stationary and moving targets while it is stationary or moving. If required, the tank commander can take over and lay and fire the main armament. According to NORINCO, Type 90-II has a 71 per cent hit probability on a moving target while the vehicle itself is moving. Target engagement time, stationary to stationary target is quoted as seven seconds, while on the move 10 seconds. Mounted either side of the turret is a bank of six electrically operated smoke grenade launchers which fire forwards and to the rear of this is a large stowage basket. When not required, the snorkel is normally carried in this stowage basket. The power pack consists of the engine, transmission and cooling system and can be removed as a complete unit in 30 minutes. The engine is a British Perkins (Engines) Shrewsbury CV12-1200 TCA diesel developing 1,200 hp coupled to a French SESM ESM 500 automatic transmission.

Suspension is of the torsion bar type and consists of six large dual rubber-tyred roadwheels with the drive sprocket at the front, idler at the rear and track return rollers. The upper part of the suspension is covered by a rubber skirt with the forward part on either side being covered by explosive reactive armour. Standard equipment includes an anti-neutron liner for the crew compartments, collective NBC system, explosion/fire detection and suppression system and infrared reflecting paint. It can also lay a smoke screen by injecting diesel fuel into the exhaust outlets at the rear of the hull.


A military vehicle is designed for strength, its armour affording protection to the crew and giving them the confidence to perform in battle. But the possibility remains that penetration of its fuel tanks or fuel and hydraulic lines can lead to a devastating fireball, causing severe burning and toxic gas poisoning within milliseconds. This threat inevitably affects crew morale and it is therefore important to give the crew a means of surviving in the battlefield environment. The crew bay system is able to sense the incipient hazard and recognise it as an explosive fire within 2-3ms and to effect complete suppression in approx 100ms. It uses fast response sensors and rapid acting high-rate discharge suppressors. Because suppression has taken place in a few tens of milliseconds, the radiation from the fireball is harmless, the temperature rise is minimal, the pressure increase is survivable and, most importantly, the amount of toxic gas generated is limited to safe levels. The vehicle and crew have survived to fight another day. Crew bay systems are fitted to a range of vehicles including Leopard 2, CRARRV, Tariq, Khalid, Marconi Marksman, T90, Leclerc, M1A1, M1A2, LAV25, C1 Ariete MBT and Chunma amongst others.


The engine compartment fire protection system has been designed to detect and extinguish engine fires caused by fuel leaks or overheating of the engine. Several seconds are typically available to suppress the fire and, generally, temperature detection is sufficiently rapid. A typical engine compartment system consists of a control unit, fire sensors (either continuous linear thermal or infrared optical fire/explosion) and an extinguisher distribution system. Engine compartments can be protected by installing linear thermal sensors, optical infrared sensors or an optical/thermal hybrid system to suit the specific application requirements. The control unit provides a warning signal if the fire is detected within the engine compartment. Extinguishing is achieved using an electrically or mechanically actuated high rate discharge system. AS90, CRARRV, Challenger, Leopard, T90, Khalid, C1 Ariete MBT and Chunma are just some of the vehicles which have been fitted with Kidde engine bay protection.

A source from the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) told KDR that the production of AL-Khalid MBT has been going on very smoothly. Apart from Pakistan, there are a number of other countries also interested in this MBT, including Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Iraq and Indonesia. Other sources from the Pakistani Army disclosed to KDR that the Pakistani Army ordered an initial batch of 300 Al-Khalid MBTs, and a total of 200 have already been produced.

There is a plan to further enlarge the production line to the scale of manufacturing 100 Al-Khalid every year. The Saudi Arabian delegations paid field visit twice to HIT and tested Al-Khalid. Saudi Arabia plans to have an Al-Khalid delivered in 2007 for further testing. A source from the Pakistani Army confirmed that China has participated in the promotion of Al-Khalid MBT to Saudi Arabia.

A source from French THALES told KDR that Pakistan has signed the contract of importing 900 sets of Catherine-FC thermal imaging systems to be fitted on the Al-Khalid MBTs of the Pakistani Army. Delivery of these thermal imaging systems is expected to start in March 2007. As an integrated plan, the same type of thermal imaging systems will also be used to upgrade the T85IIAP MBTs currently in service. A source from HIT told KDR that the reason they did not choose the Chinese-made thermal imaging systems was that they did not meet the demands of the Pakistani Army.

Kanwa has learned that even the latest upgraded 99G MBTs use mechanical scanning thermal imaging system. Catherine-FC thermal imaging system works at 8-12μm band, weight smaller than 5.5kg, image resolution 754X576, wide field of view (WFOV) 9ºX6.7º, and narrow field of view (NFOV) 3ºX2.2º. Catherine-FC has a detection range of 10,000m for tanks, recognition range 4,500m, and identification range 2,300m.

In order to promote Al-Khalid MBTs to Saudi Arabia, Pakistan has also used Matis thermal imaging system produced by French SAGEM for testing purpose, mainly because the armored forces of the Saudi Arabian Army are currently using Sagem’s thermal imaging systems. The third generation Matis thermal imaging system works at 3-5μm band, weight smaller than 4.5kg, WFOV 12ºX8º, NFOV 2.5ºX1.7º, detection range for tanks 11,000m, recognition range 5,300m. The identification range of the system is not yet revealed.

The Chinese tank experts told KDR that Pakistan has made rapid progress in tank design. The Chinese side is also very impressed by the new Integrated Battlefield Management System (IBMS) fitted on Al-Khalid. This IBMS is designed and produced by the Pakistani Integrated Defense Systems, and the system is already installed on some Al-Khalid command MBTs in effective service. With this IBMS, the battlefield situations between the two sides of confrontation can be transmitted through the video camera and unmanned aerial vehicle. This transmission system is capable of processing data and transmitting command orders as well as displaying different 3D topographical images and maps. The designer of the system stressed that they have also planned to connect the IBMS with satellite in the future.

An upgrading plan for Al-Khalid MBT is in the making. The first step will be replacing the engine system. Experts from HIT say that they are right now considering using the German-made 1,500hp engines to replace the Ukraine-made 6TD2 engines. (As good as the German engines may be, one has to consider the wisdom of using a more expensive, more sanction prone engine for our front line tank, but then we're considering U-214 as well!) For this purpose, Al-Khalid’s engine compartment has reserved a 1m space for the installation of greater power engine.
Meanwhile, Pakistan has decided to outfit active protection system on Al-Khalid, similar to the Russian Shtora system. Pakistan has obtained at least one such system respectively from Ukraine and China for testing purpose. The Ukrainian version Shtora has already been tested on one Al-Khalid MBT. This system is composed of the laser detection and IR detection subsystems.

In addition, Pakistan has also designed independently a laser detection system for Al-Halid for exercises and training. This system can perform laser beam detection and is composed of 8 units of laser detectors which are fitted on the two sides of Al-Khalid turret and on the front as well, providing a 180 deg forward-coverage.

Pakistan does not have a plan to fit gun launched ATMs on Al-Khalid MBT at the moment. The source also said that the plan of installing new engines and gun launched ATMs will be determined by the demands of respective clients, and Pakistan has the capability to undertake such upgrading for the clients.

Other sources from the Pakistani Army say that the plan of installing gun launched ATMs on the tanks of the Pakistani Army will be first tested on T80UD. Nonetheless, the Pakistani Army has much greater expectation for Al-Khalid MBTs than for T80UD. General Ehsan-ul-Haq, Chairman of Joint Staff of the Pakistani Military, says that Al-Khalid’s performance is much better than T80UD.

As it was mentioned above, the upgrading plan of T85IIAP is related to the installation of Catherine-FC thermal imaging system produced by Thales Company on Al-Halid MBTs. A source from the Pakistani Army stresses that in addition to outfitting thermal imaging system on T85IIAP, there are no other major upgrading plans. Pakistan once considered using the T serial tank upgraded thermal imaging system produced by the British Maconi Company. Since 2001, Pakistan has conducted winter and summer tests of the above two systems and Maconi eventually lost to Thales.

The upgrading of Al-Zarrar MBT has been going on very smoothly. A source from the Pakistani Army says that up to the present, they have finished upgrading 300 of them. The Army plans to upgrade a total of 611 T59 tanks so that they can reach the standard of Al-Zarrar. The direction of future upgrading of these T59 tanks will be the same as that for T85IIAP and Al-Khalid MBTs, i.e. to further upgrade the fire control system. For the A1-Zarrar upgrading project, Pakistan has chosen the THETIS thermal imaging system produced by Italian Galileo Avionica Company.
A source from Galileo Avionica told KDR that THETIS thermal imaging system originated from ARES gunner sight system, but THETIS did not include the laser range finder. The fire control system of Al-Zarrar is still made by China in order to lower cost, and Pakistan has only selected the Italian thermal imaging system. As a 2nd generation thermal imaging system, THETIS works at 8-12μm band and uses digital signal processing system. Other technical details of this system have not been revealed. The source told KDR that Galileo Avionica has delivered to Pakistan 10 sets of THETIS thermal imaging systems for testing purpose, a total of 200 such systems will be delivered, indicating that not all Al-Zarrar tanks will be fitted with THETIS. The full upgrading plan will start in 2007.
As for the engine system, Al-Zarrar is powered by the 730hp diesel engines. This 730hp engine can give a power to weight ratio of 18.3hp/t and a maximum speed of 55km.

In summary, the basic technologies of the Pakistani tank industry indeed came from China, but in the course of constant upgrading, Pakistan is now enjoying much greater independence. More western fire control systems have been fitted on the Pakistani tanks.


Crew: 3

Combat weight: 48,000 kg
Power-to-weight ratio: 25 hp/t

(main armament forwards): 10.067 m
(main armament rear): 9.687 m

(without skirts): 3.40 m
(with skirts): 3.50 m
Height (turret roof): 2.37 m
Firing height: n/avail
Ground clearance: 0.45 to 0.51 m
Track: 2.79 m
Track width: n/avail
Length of track on ground: 4.78 m
Maximum speed:
(1st gear, low): 9 km/h
(1st gear): 15 km/h
(2nd gear): 22 km/h
(3rd gear): 39 km/h
(4th gear): 62.3 km/h
Acceleration (0 to 32 km/h): 10 s
Maximum range: 450 km
(without preparation): 1.40 m
(with preparation): 5 m
Gradient: 60%
Side slope: 40%
Vertical obstacle: 0.85 m
Trench: 2.7 m

Engine: Type: 6TD2 (1,200 HP)

Transmission: ESM 500 hydromechanic with infinitely variable
hydraulic steering
Brakes: n/avail
Suspension: torsion bar
Electrical system: n/avail
Batteries: n/avail

(main): 1 x 125 mm gun 125mm Smooth Bore, Chrome Plated, Auto fret aged
Circular Carousel Type: (Cassette Type) 22 Rounds / Minute 6-8

FCS/GCS : Type: Image Stabilized (3rd generation director type stabilization), Optics: LASER protected (coaxial): 1 x 7.62 mm MG
(anti-aircraft): 1 x 12.7 mm MG
Smoke grenade dischargers: 2 x 6, can also lay smoke screen by injecting diesel into the exhaust outlets at the rear

GUNNER SIGHT : Type Integrated, Bi-axis Stabilized Day/Night, Tl, LRF
Magnification Dual, 3x & 1 Ox
Field of View 20° & 6°

Type Panoramic,
Bi-Axis stabilized,
LRF, 2nd Generation IIT
Hunter-Killer Capability
Magnification 7.5x
Field of View 7 . 5
Range200 ~ 5000m
AUTO TRACKER: Tracking Error < 0.1 mils Interfaced with Gunner Day Sight & Tl

PROTECTION: Armor Composite (Frontal Arc) ERA, Yes Optional

(main): 39
(coaxial): 3,000
(anti-aircraft): 500
Grenades: 16 (12 Smoke, 4 HE)
Gun control equipment
Turret power control: powered/manual
(by commander): yes
(by gunner): yes
Turret traverse: 360°
Gun elevation/depression: n/avail
Gun stabiliser: 2-axis
NBC: yes
Night vision equipment: yes


Jan 18, 2009

Apr 18, 2011
Pakistan Produces Indigenous 125 Millimetre Tank Gun For Al-Khalid Tank

A Pakistani Newspaper Monday said that the tank gun is ready to be delivered to the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) for Al-Khalid and Al-Zarar tanks. A tank gun is the main armament of a tank.

HIT used to earlier procure 125 millimetre 'blanks' from France for the army's two main battle tanks. Blanks are the final shape of the gun barrel before it is finished. It was then fitted into the tank at HIT.

While Al-Khalid - a joint venture between Pakistan and China - has been with the army since 2001, Al-Zarar is an upgraded T-59 tank.

The country's first blank was produced at the Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) in Taxila.

Dawn quoted an official as saying the army had given a go-ahead for the production of 50 125 mm barrels for the two MBTs.

A specialised weapons grade steel was used to manufacture the tank gun. A block of metal is pressed to become a five-metre-long square bar that is forged into a smooth bore 125 mm barrel.

The HIT has finalised a deal for Rs.200 million for the 50 barrels, which is slightly less than the cost of each barrel bought from France.

The official said that after delivering 50 tank guns, the HMC plans to produce artillery guns for the Pakistan Army.

Al Khalid MBT-2000 / Type 2000 Main Battle Tank

The Al Khalid tank is based on the Chinese Norinco Type-90-II Main Battle Tank (MBT). This a Pakistani built tank, all of it except its engine is made in Pakistan. The engine is is a Ukrainian 6TDF diesel developing 1,200 hp. engine the same used in T-80/84 tanks. Besides a low silhouette, it is considerably smaller as compared to other modern tanks, with a maximum weight of 46 tons. The Al-Khalid MBT has a crew of three. It had a combat range of 400Km and is fitted with thermal night-vision devices. It has a maximum speed of 65-70Km/hr with an acceleration of 0-32Km/hr in 10 seconds. It's armor is made of composite material as well as explosive reactive armor.

The Al Khalid is fitted with a smooth bore gun of 125mm which can also fire missiles. Al-Khalid's main gun is 125mm smooth bore with autoloader. The unique feature of Al-Khalid is that it is equipped with auto tracker system. It also has hunter killer capability which can track and engage more than one targets while on the move. The tank can operate fully even during night with thermal imagery systems. Tank's maximum speed is upto 70km per hour.

Pakistan's development of the MBT-2000 Al Khalid began in 1988, and in January 1990 an agreement was reached with China to jointly design, develop and manufacture system. The design is an upgrade from the original T902M and work had been going on at China's NORINCO for some years. Initial prototypes were produced in China and fielded for trials in August 1991. Pakistan's manufacturing plant at Taxila was completed in 1992. Since then development efforts focused on improving the design for Pakistan's terrain and high temperatures. The engine of the T90 2M is replaced by the Ukrainian 6TD 1200hp engine, and a newly developed thermal viewer system has been added to improve nocturnal fighting capability. US$20 million were reportedly spent on the indigenous development of the Al-Khalid tanks over a period of eight years.

Ukraine is a key partner in the production of the Al-Khalid tank which is a joint venture between China, Pakistan and Ukraine. Ukraine is also providing assistance to Pakistan in the Upgrade/Re-Build its T-59 tanks to the Al-Zarar Configuration, which is intended to match the T-80UD tanks. In February 2002 Ukraine announced that the Malyshev plant would provide another 315 engines for Al-Khalid tanks over three years. The contract's estimated value was $125-150 million.

Ukraine possesses one of the most reliable tank engines in the conditions of hot climate. It is the result of the strategy of tank building development. At one time Ukraine and Russia, as two great tank powers, took two different ways of tank engine development. Ukrainian constructors chose the Diesel direction, while Russian ones the gas turbine, like many other countries. Now, according to the words of the chief designer of Ukraine armored troops, head of the Kharkov machine-building design office lieutenant general Mikhail Borisyuk, when the principal prominent buyers of armored equipment are located in countries with hot climate, the stability of engines with the ambient air temperature higher than 50 degrees has become one of the key factors for tanks reliability. In the extreme conditions of hot climate gas-turbine engines of China and Poland, created on the base of B-1, B-2 engine types, Russian engines, having had serious problems during testing in India, started to receive transient errors. At the same time Ukrainian engines on the tanks T-80UD, provided to Pakistan, showed high reliability.

Heavy Industries Taxila started production of Al-Khalid in November 2000. The Chinese ground army has not made any purchase orders and will not use the same tank when it does decide to buy a next-generation armored vehicle. As of early 2002 Pakistan had about twenty Al-Khalid tanks in service. It had received its first consignment of 15 Al-Khalid MBTs in July 2001. Pakistan's Army reportedly hoped to produce a total of 300 more tanks by 2005. According to a 2001 report, Pakistan planned to add another 300 indigenous Al-Khalid tanks to its armored corps by 2007. On September 23, 2004, Pakistan received an additional consignment of Al-Khalid MBTs. In 2004 it was reported that the Pakistan army already had in its inventory 90 Al-Khalids fully operational. At that time the HIT was said to be "rolling out 50 Al-Khalids every year and by next year with additional allocations the production will be doubled." Pakistan plans to build a total of 600 Al-Khalid tanks for its armed forces. The production rate in 2004 was estimated by HIT to be 45-60 annually, dependent on budget allocation, and some 220 were in service as of May 2008. Development continues, with modifications in the fire control system and linkage [by the end of 2008 IISS thought that no more than the original batch of 45 tanks were in service].

During April 8-11, 2002, at DSA-2002 international exhibition of armament, Malaysian military and government officials considered the Al-Khalid tank as the best, and showed their interest in buying it from Pakistan. The UAE showed interest in 2003 in buying Pakistani military hardware including Al-Khalid main battle tank, Mushshak trainers and various other defence items that Pakistan can offer. In June 2003, Pakistan also decided to export Al-Khalid tanks to Bangladesh and to upgrade military-to-military relations with Bangladesh. In March 2006, Jane's Defence Weekly reported that Saudi Arabia was planning to evaluate the Al-Khalid in April 2006. Pakistani defense officials said the Saudi government may be interested in purchasing up to 150 Al-Khalid for $600 million USD.



Jan 18, 2009
Pakistani president pervez musharraf saidwhile giving first batch to army that these newly built "indigenous" mbt could be matched only by the german leopards. "with the highest power to weight ratio in the world, al-khalid has agility that can be matched only by the german leopard. "its ability to automatically track targets, similarly, is available only on the french leclerc. with hunter killer day-night sight and a state of the art fire control system, al-khalid is truly a world class tank,"
tank was built within eight years at a cost of $20 million

Individual details

1) Night firing capability through Thermal Imagers.

Night vision for the gunner and commander is achieved through a dual magnification thermal imaging sight. The powerful fire control system computer processes all the firing information, which includes inputs from its ten sensors and is integrated to both sights.

2) Auto-Tracking system.

The automatic ammunition handling system, with 24 round ready-to-fire magazine further supplements the Hunter-Killer capability of the tank which can load at a rate of 8 rounds a minute. The presence of automatic target tracking system enables the tank to achieve a very high first round hit probability even while firing on a moving target while moving itself.

3) 125mm (48 caliber) smooth bore, auto-frettaged and chrome plated gun which can fire APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS conventional ammunition and missiles.

4) Laser range finders for commander and gunner sights.

5) Fire control system and the FCS digital computer.

The ballistic computation time is less than one second. For accurate fire control, third generation gating facility has been provided. The result of such a modern fire control system is, routine first round hits on standard (8 ft x 8 ft) targets at ranges in excess of 2000 meters.
The tank with its 125mm gun has a remarkably stable platform, which is provided by a combination of soft recoil and an excellent suspension.

Wrapped around the fire control system are the ergonomic crew positions and controls. The tank commander, gunner and driver can virtually reach all their controls with little movement.

6) Electro-Hydraulic power drives.

7) Engine , mobility , suspension, transmission

The production model Al-Khalid is powered by a 6TD-2 liquid-cooled diesel engine, designed by the Kharkiv Morozov Design Bureau (KMDB) of Ukraine. The 6TD-2 is a supercharged 6-cylinder engine delivering 1,200 horsepower (890 kW). The 2-stroke design, with the pistons arranged horizontally in an opposed piston configuration, makes the engine very compact and therefore more suitable for being fitted into relatively small vehicles such as the Al-Khalid MBT.[24]

The 6TD-2 engine drives a French-designed hydro-mechanical automatic transmission, the SESM ESM500, also fitted to the Leclerc MBT. Capable of manual and fully automatic power-shifting, the transmission has 5 forward and 2 reverse speeds along with a braking system that incorporates carbon friction brakes and a secondary speed-retarding system. Gear shifts are controlled by a torque converter which is made more efficient by addition of an automatic lock-up clutch. There is also a mechanical back-up system for use in emergencies, able to shift 2 gears forward and reverse.

The suspension consists of torsion bars, hydraulic dampers and buffers, who's role is to provide a stable firing platform while the tank is moving at speed over rough terrain and as smooth a ride as possible to reduce crew fatigue. The tracks are mounted on six dual wheels with rubber tyres, a drive sprocket at the rear and an idler at the front. They are protected by side skirts, the forward sections of which can be fitted with explosive reactive armour, and track wear is reduced by replaceable rubber track pads.[3]

The Al-Khalid is fairly lightweight by Western standards, weighing 46 tonnes compared to the 60 tonne M1 Abrams and Leopard 2.[25] A power-to-weight ratio of 26.66 hp/tonne gives acceleration from 0 to 32 km/h (0 to 20 mph) in 10 seconds and a maximum speed of 70 km/h, the speed and agility also helping to improve survivability.

8) Armour.

Al-Khalid has modular composite armour and explosive reactive armour, nuclear-biological-chemical defences, an effective thermal smoke generator, internal fire extinguisher and explosion-suppression system. The infra-red signature of the tank is reduced by infra-red reflective paint.[3] Al-Khalid 1 is equipped with a newly developed indigenous ERA which is not only light weight, but also more resistant to APFSDS, HEAT and HE-FS rounds. ERA is developed by Global Industries and Defense Solutions (GIDS) Corporation. [26] Al-Khalid is also equipped with an Active protection system known as VARTA (guards) which is a Ukrainian modification of Russian Shtora APS system. HIT is also working on an indigenous APS system for future batches especially for Al-Khalid 2.

Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, plastics, ceramics or air. Most composite armour are lighter than their all-metal equivalent, but instead occupy a larger volume for the same resistance to penetration. It is possible to design composite armour stronger, lighter and less voluminous than traditional armour, but the cost is often prohibitively high, restricting its use to especially vulnerable parts of a vehicle. Its primary purpose is to help defeat high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) rounds.

An element of explosive reactive armour consists of a sheet or slab of high explosive sandwiched between two plates, typically metal, called the reactive or dynamic elements. On attack by a penetrating weapon, the explosive detonates, forcibly driving the metal plates apart to damage the penetrator. Against a shaped charge, the projected plates disrupt the metallic jet penetrator, effectively providing a greater path-length of material to be penetrated. Against a long rod penetrator, the projected plates serve to deflect and break up the rod.

The disruption is attributed to two mechanisms. First, the moving plates change the effective velocity and angle of impact of the shaped charge jet, reducing the angle of incidence and increasing the effective jet velocity versus the plate element. Second, since the plates are angled compared to the usual impact direction of shaped charge warheads, as the plates move outwards the impact point on the plate moves over time, requiring the jet to cut through fresh plate material. This second effect significantly increases the effective plate thickness during the impact.

To be effective against kinetic energy projectiles, ERA must use much thicker and heavier plates and a correspondingly thicker explosive layer. Such "heavy ERA," such as the Soviet-developed Kontakt-5, can break apart a penetrating rod that is longer than the ERA is deep, again significantly reducing penetration capability.

Explosive reactive armour has been valued by the Soviet Union and its now-independent component states since the 1980s, and almost every tank in the eastern-European military inventory today has either been manufactured to use ERA or had ERA tiles added to it, including even the T-55 and T-62 tanks built forty to fifty years ago, but still used today by reserve units.

ERA tiles are used as add-on (or "appliqué") armour to the portions of an armoured fighting vehicle that are most likely to be hit, typically the front (glacis) of the hull and the front and sides of the turret. Their use requires that the vehicle itself be fairly heavily armoured to protect the vehicle and its crew from the exploding ERA; usually, ERA cannot be mounted on the less heavily armoured sides or rear of a vehicle.

A further complication to the use of ERA is the inherent danger to anybody near the tank when a plate detonates (disregarding that a HEAT warhead explosion would already present a great danger to anybody near the tank). Although ERA plates are intended only to bulge following detonation, the combined energy of the ERA explosive, coupled with the kinetic or explosive energy of the projectile, will frequently cause explosive fragmentation of the plate. The explosion of an ERA plate creates a significant amount of shrapnel, and bystanders are in grave danger of serious or fatal injury. As a result, infantry needs to operate some distance from vehicles protected by ERA in combined arms operations.


Jan 18, 2009
9) NBC, an effective Thermal Smoke Generation, Automatic Fire Extinguishing and Explosion Suppression Systems.

10) GPS/INS guided Underwater navigation subsystem.

Navigation is assisted by an inertial navigation system (INS) and a GPS satellite navigation system.

11] IBS

The tank is equipped with the "Integrated Battlefield Management System" (IBMS), named 'Rehbar', a digital communications system developed domestically by HIT and CARE (Centre for Advanced Research in Engineering).[21] It comprises a flat-screen display mounted inside the tank which communicates with those of other vehicles, including command posts such as the HIT Sakb. It uses a data-link to facilitate secure communication of battlefield information between units, including tank video footage and information from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).


Category : Integrated Battle Field Management System (IBMS)
Manufacturer : GIDS/IDS

Integrated Battlefield Management System(IBMS) is designed for the operations of amour units in the field to meet the requirements of future battlefield. The user- friendly system provides battlefield awareness through comprehensive land navigation system based on GPS and digitized maps. It enables commanders in mission planning, modification and dissemination of plans, monitoring of battlefield at tactical and operational level, through safe and secure radio network. It facilitates integration of external sensors for data/information acquisition and showing it within the scope of C4I environments. IBMS also facilitates commanders in remote firing of AAMG by auto tracking the aerial and ground targets from inside the tank.

* Safe and secure information sharing through ad hoc networking of radios
* Remote operation of 12.7mm aamg from inside the tank
* Driver panel to facilitate driver to follow the correct route with the help of directional bars
* Auto target tracking for arial and ground targets
* Laser target indication to indicate location of the hostile elements and its engagement
* Rugged hardware to work in harsh environmental conditions based on military specifications


Desert Fox

Jan 16, 2010
Ukrainian VARTA Active Threat Protection System (similar to Russian Shotra-1) to be integrated on Al-KhalidI/II
Though electronic and other upgrades, such as increasing the rate of fire to nine rounds a minute, are not readily apparent, one visible modification is what HIT officials describe as the Active Threat Protection System. This is the Ukrainian "Varta'' electro-optical jammer, which bears a strong resemblance to the Russian/Ukrainian Shotra-1.

According to HIT, this system decoys anti-tank guided missiles and counters laser designators and range finders by causing false readings to disrupt tracking.

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Jan 18, 2009
12] Armament

Al-Khalid is designed with a 125 mm (length: 48 calibers) smoothbore, auto-frettaged and chrome-plated gun barrel which can fire the following types of conventional ammunition: APFSDS, HEAT-FS and HE-FS. Despite a common belief that the gun is Chinese, it was later changed to a modified variant of KBA-3 series of 125&#8239;mm smooth bore gun for Al-khalid mbt which provided compatibility with Ukrainian ATGMs such as Kombat. Gun-launched, laser-guided anti-tank guided missiles can also be launched and two types are believed to be in use on the Al-Khalid, the Russian-designed 9M119 Refleks (AT-11 Sniper) produced in China under licence and the Ukrainian-designed Kombat,[17] which may have been modified in Pakistan to incorporate a larger warhead.[18]

Al-Khalid also fires a Pakistani DU round, the Naiza 125 mm DU round (armor penetration: 550 mm in RHA at 2 km).[19] Al-Khalid is equipped with a muzzle reference system and dual-axis stabilization system. Elevation and azimuth control is achieved by electro-hydraulic power drives. The automatic ammunition-handling system for the main gun has a 24-round ready-to-fire magazine and can load and fire at a rate of eight rounds per minute.[20]

The tank is also equipped with a 7.62 mm-coaxial machine gun, a 12.7 mm externally-mounted air-defence machine gun that can be aimed/fired from within the tank and smoke grenade launchers.

The gunner is provided with a dual magnification day sight and the commander with a panoramic sight for all-around independent surveillance. Both sights are dual-axis image stabilized and have independent laser range-finders. The commander has the ability to acquire a target independently while the gunner is engaging another one thus giving it true hunter-killer capability. The automatic target-tracking system is designed to work when tank and target are both moving. Night vision for the gunner and commander is achieved through a dual-magnification thermal imaging sight. Both sights are integrated with the fire-control system.[20] The production Al-Khalid tank has a fire-control system of western origin. In the MBT 2000, the Chinese Norinco fire-control system has inputs from ten sensors. The ballistic computation time is less than one second. The manufacturer claims routine first round hits on standard 8 ft (2.4 m) square targets at ranges over 2,000 meters.

* Effective range: 200 to 7&#8239;000&#8239;m
* Sensor: laser ranging from 200 to 9&#8239;990&#8239;m
* French Auto-tracking, interfaced with gunner station, firing four types of munitions, gunner's thermal imaging sight, commander's image intensification night vision sight, gyro-stabilized and UPS power supply system.

13] datalink

14] navigation

15] advanced laser detection system

An advanced laser detection system from Al Technique Corporation (ATCOP) is present, the ATCOP LTS 1 laser threat warning system developed by Institute of Industrial Control Systems.[27] LTS 1 consists of a mast-mounted sensor and operator's control box, which includes a display showing threats 360 degrees around the tank. It can detect laser rangefinders and laser target designators as well as respond automatically by triggering acoustic alarms, smoke generators and other countermeasure systems. LTS 1 can detect laser devices operating in the 0.8 to 1.06 µm waveband, has a 360° field of view in azimuth (resolution of 15°) and a field of view in elevation of -15° to +90°. Operating voltage is 12 V or 24 V DC nominal with power consumption being 8 W nominal. The sensor head is 165 mm in diameter and 35 mm high while the control box is 80 x 130 x 55 mm in size. Laser Threat sensor LTS786P is an early warning device which gives audio and visual alarms of threat by sensing a laser beam aimed at it from any direction. The exact location of the threat (in-coming beam) is indicated by nine LEDs, covering all directions above horizon. It has the capability to differentiate between a laser Range Finder, Laser Target Designator or a Laser Target Tracker Signal. In addition, provision of sensor output signal, interfacing for appropriate counter-measures, is also available. It can be used on stationary or moving objects of any size or shape. Maximum operating Range is 10 km.

Response: Enhanced for Nd:YAG Laser Signal
Range: >10,000 m
Field of view: Capable of detecting any signal aimed towards LTS786P.
Detector type: Silicon Photodiode
Size (approx): 214 x 134 mm (sensor Head)
126 x 123 x 100 mm (Display Unit)
Weight 2 kg (sensor Head) (Approx): 1 kg (Display Unit)

16] Dynamic Integrated Training Simulator

D.I.T.S is 6DOF motion based Al-Khalid Tank Simulator developed for pakistan army. Its a complete training system capable of training driver, gunner and commander at same time.
DITS trains tank crew in

* All tank operating procedures
* Tactical decission making
* Battle scenarios
* Firing procedures
* Driving procedures
* Identifying and engaging the enemy targets
* Emergency situations
* Engaging enemy in different weather conditions
* Improve firing efficiency and firing time


Jan 18, 2009
AK Tank Simulator contin..

Hi all,

i had the privilege of working on the AKTS, it was developed by a private company in collaboration with MVRDE in Karachi. Initially the Base mechanical platform was acquired from US, but now the company is making its own platforms with complete 6 Degree-of-freedom. The simulator involved a pool of engineers from Electronics, mechanical and software side. A complete directx Graphics engine along with a physics engine was made. Motion cueing algorithm was implemented to simulate the motion of Al-khalid. Most of the software used was not off-the-shelf. HLA framework was used which we had molded for our own use.

The mechanical assembly was completely built in Pakistan giving the user a tank-like environment. Electronics team made their own circuits for interfacing the mechanics with software. Instructor has the option to construct his own environment using different terrains, enemy vehicles, tanks and objects.

I remember we were very fond of destroying arjuns....:no:

We also developed ASTT(Action Speed Tactical Trainer) for Pak Navy which was an achievement of its own kind.
Gun Chamber
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Jan 18, 2009
Pakistan to transfer composite armor technology to Turkey. --2006

Undersecretariat for Defense industries website announced that Pakistan will join Turkish MBT project to develop state of the art Turkish Battle Tank.

After Otokar, FNSS, MKEK, ASELSAN and HAVELSAN, the Pakistani firm producing the Al Khalid MBT will transfer the technological support for the production of advanced passive armor.

The Al Khalid, known for it's unique feature of automatic target tracking system used by the Tank is from the French MBT Leclerc. No other tanks have this feature. I also know that about 100 delegation large, Turkish engineers, politicians and businessmen traveled to Pakistan to discuss about defensive cooperation.

It is clear that Turkey would develop it's MBT with Pakistani assistance.

SOner 80 was a turk defense expert,
"The Al Khalid, known for it's unique feature of automatic target tracking system used by the Tank is from the French MBT Leclerc. No other tanks have this feature. I also know that about 100 delegation large, Turkish engineers, politicians and businessmen traveled to Pakistan to discuss about defensive cooperation. It is clear that Turkey would develop it's MBT with Pakistani assistance. "

Second generation evolved into........
1. type-85> 85II> 85 III (85IIAP)> t-88> 88C> Type 96, finally 96G...

2. Third generation began from Type-90> 90II> 90IIM> MBT2000. What is needed to understand here is, Type 90 is a third gen mbt that has off springs in shape of mbt 2000, AK, type 98, 99, 99A, 99G etc. Now type 96 is still a second gen tank that is heavily revamped version of baseline type 85-II, III and eventually ended up as the most advanced SECOND Generation Chinese MBT type 96G.



Category : Integrated Battle Field Management System (IBMS)


Jan 18, 2009
sorry for deleting some posts , i need 7-8 posts in continouity to post the info , as the pics / post are restricted to 8

Pakistan Pushes Armor Upgrades
Emphasizes Self-Protection, Situational Awareness

By Usman Ansari
Published: 20 April 2009

ISLAMABAD - Despite instability on its Afghan border and the growing threat of terrorism, Pakistan remains wedded to countering the existential threat from India. Therefore, improving conventional armor and mechanized warfare is still its primary focus as it strives for heavier tanks, broader situational awareness and greater self-protection.

The Pakistani main battle tank (MBT) fleet consists mainly of Chinese Type-59IIs upgraded to Al-Zarrar standard. This includes increased chemical/kinetic armor protection, thermal imaging sights, a new fire control system, a 125mm gun and an integrated battle management system (IBMS). The thermal imaging sights and the IBMS, which allow tanks within a formation to exchange target information, have increased detection and situational awareness capabilities, a cornerstone of the modernization efforts.

This is still viewed as a stopgap, however, with a new MBT considered the only viable long-term solution. The military also wants to move away from what are essentially first-generation Cold War MBTs to heavier tanks.

The indigenous Al-Khalid MBT program, which began entering service earlier in the decade, has experienced incremental upgrades, allowing it to fulfill this requirement for a heavier, more sophisticated vehicle.

According to defense analyst Usman Shabbir of the Pakistan Military Consortium, "The initial order was for 300 Al-Khalid MBTs. While these tanks were being built and delivered at a rate of 50 per year, improvements were already being worked on for the next version, the Al-Khalid I."

This, according to Shabbir, has been undertaken by the Advanced Armoured Research, Development and Integration Complex, which was set up by the manufacturers of the Al-Khalid, Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT). It is a dedicated body tasked with formulating upgrades for MBTs and other armored fighting vehicles. Shabbir said the Al-Khalid I is undergoing testing at HIT.

Shabbir claims the modifications made to the Al-Khalid I are mainly to electronic features, such as the fire control systems, the IBMS and sensors. "There are also improvements to physical features, such as side skirts, better track pads," he said.

Though electronic and other upgrades, such as increasing the rate of fire to nine rounds a minute, are not readily apparent, one visible modification is what HIT officials describe as the Active Threat Protection System. This is the Ukrainian "Varta'' electro-optical jammer, which bears a strong resemblance to the Russian/Ukrainian Shotra-1.

According to HIT, this system decoys anti-tank guided missiles and counters laser designators and range finders by causing false readings to disrupt tracking.

Another improvement is inclusion of a third-generation thermal imager from the French company Sagem. Night vision has been a traditional weakness of MBT fleets in South Asia, and both India and Pakistan are moving to rectify this shortcoming.

The Al-Khalid is also now fully air conditioned to resist summer temperatures in the southern deserts that can soar past 50 degrees Celsius (122 degrees Fahrenheit).

A further variant, termed the "Al-Khalid-II," is in its very early stages, and little information has been revealed.

However, Shabbir said the modular armor package is likely to be upgraded and the turret may feature a wedge shape, similar to that of the latest versions of the Chinese ZTZ-99/Type-99. Sensors and available ammunition types also are likely to be improved and the power-pack up-rated to a 1,500 horsepower unit, he added.

Efforts to increase situational awareness are not limited to modernization of the Al-Khalid. The Pakistani defense industry is developing a tactical reconnaissance capability to work in conjunction with armored units and be able to relay a local battlefield picture back to armored fighting vehicles within a formation over the IBMS. No officials were willing to comment publicly on such projects.

In the coming years, Pakistan's efforts to improve its armored quality and effectiveness through superior situational awareness are likely to become clearer. But at present, the public face of these efforts is improvements made to the Al-Khalid family of MBTs.


AK with a Shotra APS [Ukrainian version of Shtora infrared jammers known as Vatra (Guards) in Ukrainian.]?


Modified barrel for khalid tank, the one which was modified at HIT and diplayed at Ideas08

The gun looks like a standard Russian 2a46M1 series but actually it is not. It has been upgraded with Ukrainian KBA 3 48 caliber (6000 mm) series and is Chrome plated. In performance it is equal to Russia's latest 2a46M4 (as installed in t-90S) version which is slightly longer at 52 calibers (6600 mm). The KBA3 series is a very powerful gun and is preferred choice for Ukrainian BM Bulat (t-64 upgrade), t-80 ud, t-84 and the latest t-84 u main battle tanks.

Also add the COMBINED DRIVERS NIGHT VISION SIGHT or CODRIS-E in place of the replaceable standard driver day sight on the new Al-Khalid 1


A military vehicle is designed for strength, its armour affording protection to the crew and giving them the confidence to perform in battle. But the possibility remains that penetration of its fuel tanks or fuel and hydraulic lines can lead to a devastating fireball, causing severe burning and toxic gas poisoning within milliseconds. This threat inevitably affects crew morale and it is therefore important to give the crew a means of surviving in the battlefield environment. The crew bay system is able to sense the incipient hazard and recognise it as an explosive fire within 2-3ms and to effect complete suppression in approx 100ms. It uses fast response sensors and rapid acting high-rate discharge suppressors. Because suppression has taken place in a few tens of milliseconds, the radiation from the fireball is harmless, the temperature rise is minimal, the pressure increase is survivable and, most importantly, the amount of toxic gas generated is limited to safe levels. The vehicle and crew have survived to fight another day. Crew bay systems are fitted to a range of vehicles including Leopard 2, CRARRV, Tariq, Al-Khalid, Marconi Marksman, T90, Leclerc, M1A1, M1A2, LAV25, C1 Ariete MBT and Chunma amongst others.


Jan 18, 2009
Usman Ansari takes a look at Pakistan&#8217;s indigenous main battle tank.

Due to the threat from its larger neighbour India, Pakistan continues to maintain a large fleet of MBTs (over 2,000), whilst elsewhere in the world their number is falling. The best tank currently in service is the indigenous Al-Khalid produced by Heavy Industries Taxila, (HIT). In terms of induction of new MBTs it is set to be one of the most significant MBTs in the coming decade. It is a development of the NORINCO (China North Industries Corporation), Type 90-II, which first made an appearance in 1990, and was itself a further manifestation of the Chinese requirement to field an MBT superior to the Russian T-72, (also India's main MBT). It featured substantial improvements in mobility, protection, and firepower over previous Chinese MBTs though still has a traditional MBT layout.

The Al-Khalid project is the culmination of a four part upgrade programme for Pakistan's MBT fleet. It entailed:

- Upgrade of the Type-59.

- Assembly and manufacture of the Type-69II.

- Co-production of the Type-85II.

- Production of an indigenous MBT design MBT 2000/Al-Khalid.

The Al-Khalid features a composite armour package over a welded hull. The hull front has lugs for additional armour, ERA plates and a self-entrenching mechanism. Some spare sections of track are also usually attached. A number of Pakistani companies offer detachable attachments such as track-width mine ploughs or 'rollers' (which have had some export success), compatible with the Al-Khalid but the self-entrenching mechanism seems to be the standard fit. The almost horizontal glacis plate is totally covered by large ERA plates. The driver is centrally seated under a one-piece hatch. He has use of three periscopes, the second of which can be fitted with a passive night sight.

The centrally located welded turret is similar to the Type-85 from which the Type-90II/Al-Khalid family is developed. The composite armour over the frontal arc is of modular assembly to enable replacement of damaged sections or simple upgrade to more a modern type as it becomes available. ERA plates are again added to the roof, front and sides to improve the armour and ballistic protection of the turret. The commander and gunner are seated on the right and left respectively. The commander has use of a 12.7mm with 500 rounds for AA use. There are six electrically fired grenade launchers for smoke and HE rounds, either side of the turret and a large stowage basket towards the rear, which usually houses the snorkel. A meteorological sensor is also fitted towards the rear of the turret roof to warn the crew if the tank is being 'lased' by an enemy.

The main gun is a 125mm smoothbore fitted with a thermal sleeve and fume extractor mid way down the barrel. It is reported to have a life of 500 rounds and has an attachment at the base to facilitate a quick field change. It is fed by a Russian type carousel auto-loader that holds 22 separate loading rounds ready for use. The rate of fire is up to eight rounds per minute. A total of 39 HEAT, APFSDS-T, and HE-FRAG rounds are carried in a mission dependent ratio. The APFSDS-T will penetrate 460mm of RHA at 2,000m, which is unsatisfactory. A POF (Pakistan Ordnance Factories) developed DU round called 'Naiza' is thought to also be in service with the T-80UD/T-84 MBT fleet, but whether this has been adopted for use with the Al-Khalid has not been made public. A coaxial 7.62mm with 3,000 rounds is also mounted. Though Pakistan has purchased the AT-11 'Sniper' ATGM from Belarus for use with the PA T-80UD/T-84s it is not know if it can be fired from the Al-Khalid.

For targeting the commander has use of a bi-axis stabilised panoramic sight whilst the gunner's bi-axis sight is roof mounted. Pakistan has recently imported 200 more modern Italian thermal imaging devices for the gunner, details of which are unavailable. The FCS is image stabilised and incorporates a laser range finder with the gunner's sight, crosswind, tilt and velocity sensor plus ballistic computer. Able to track targets whilst engaging others it also incorporates a Pakistani produced data-link to share information with other tanks in the formation. The commander can override commands to the main armament.

The engine, transmission and cooling system can be removed in thirty minutes for a quick field change. Though the British Perkins CV12-1200 (as fitted to the British Challenger series) was evaluated it failed to cope with the harsh conditions of the Pakistani desert. The engine eventually chosen was the Ukrainian 6TD-2 six-cylinder 1,200hp multi-fuel diesel as it was more compact and robust and is coupled to the French SESM-500 automatic transmission. The six dual wheels have rubber tyres and torsion bar suspension with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. The track return rollers are usually covered by the side skirt, (the forward section of which can be covered with ERA plates). The rubber track pads are replaceable.

A full NBC system, crew bay and engine bay explosion/fire detection and suppression system, and infrared reflective paint are fitted as standard. It can lay its own smokescreen by injecting diesel into the exhaust at the rear.

A number of prototypes were made for evaluation and fall into four categories:

- Prototype 1: Chinese 125mm and auto-loader coupled to a Chinese FCS. The engine was a German MTU-396 diesel coupled to the LSG-3000 automatic transmission.

- Prototype 2: The same Chinese 125mm and auto-loader as 'P1' but coupled to a Western FCS. The engine was the Perkins 1200hp Condor diesel coupled to the French SESM-500 automatic transmission.

- Prototype 3: As 'P2' above but with a Ukrainian 6TDF diesel engine. This was type accepted into Pakistani service.

- Prototype 4: Designed primarily for export it has a NATO standard 120mm and Western FCS. It is powered by the German MTU-871/TCM AVDS-1790 diesel engine coupled to the LSG-3000 transmission.

Much emphasis is placed on agility and manoeuvrability. With a top speed of 70km/h and power to weight ration of 26.66hp/tonne it certainly fulfils that criteria. It also shares component commonality with the other MBTs in the PA arsenal (10 percent Type-59, 15 percent Type-69, and 20 percent Type-85), therefore helping to reduce running costs. Compared to the latest Western MBTs the Al-Khalid may lack their level of armour protection but is by no means under-armoured or unsuited for the modern battlefield. It's speed; agility and systems help ensure its survivability whilst its armament is powerful enough to deal with all potential opponents.

With 300 ordered for the PA production is currently running at fifty units per year but could easily be increased. The Al-Khalid has been heavily promoted in Pakistani defence shows such as IDEAS 2002, FUTURZ 2003 and IDEAS 2004 during the last few years which has seen the Al-Khalid and its stable mate the Al-Zarrar (an upgrade of the Type-59), receive much interest from potential customers. There has been considerable Saudi interest in the Al-Khalid during defence shows in Pakistan. The Saudis are looking to induct in the region of 100 new MBTs to replace their French AMX-30 tanks. Trials are to be carried out in Saudi Arabia in summer 2005 leaving HIT hopeful of it first MBT export order amid heavy lobbying in its favour. However, Ukrainian reluctance to supply the 6TDF diesel engine has meant the adoption of a German engine that does not generate the same high power/weight ratio as the Ukrainian one. For compatibility purposes the Saudis are likely to require a NATO standard 120mm main gun which can be supplied by POF. As it is in direct competition with other cheap export favourites such as the T-72 and T-80 series the unit price has to be competitive. Malaysia has already chosen the Polish PT-91 (a development of the T-72), rather than opt for the Al-Khalid.

Development is ongoing of the Al-Khalid II, (though the project name is actually 'Al-Khalid I'), which is targeted for production by 2008. It is unknown if there is to be any major change in the appearance of the tank. Key areas for improvement are said to be in the areas of armour protection by inclusion of more modern types of armour, and improved systems. This includes more efficient transmission system and modern night vision systems. A new electronic counter-measures fit is currently undergoing testing at HIT. Recently the possibility has arisen of using Ukraine's 6TD3 engine which generates 1500 hp though it remains to be seen if this shall be incorporated. Firepower is also to be upgraded if ongoing discussions for the Ukrainian 'Kombat' ATGM are successful. With a range of up to 5,000m it would give the Al-Khalid a useful reach against targets such as helicopters. Furthermore, an up-graded auto loader would enable the use of 'long-rod' ammunition as used by Western MBTs, as the Russian style unit cannot currently support them.

More details of developments are likely to be available during IDEAS-2006, as the bi-annual defence show is Pakistan's opportunity to be centre stage at a defence show.

With the Al-Khalid it finally looks like Pakistan has a tank capable of meeting both domestic and foreign needs enabling Pakistan to aim for a bigger slice of the lucrative global arms market.

An edited version of the above article appeared in the September 2005 issue of Classic Military Vehicle.

---------- Post added at 10:37 PM ---------- Previous post was at 10:36 PM ----------

thankyou , silent ninja -- i would need help in expanding post 4



Jan 18, 2009
HIT Al-Khalid

Notes: Also called the MBT-2000 (particularly during development), the Al-Khalid is touted as Pakistan&#8217;s first indigenous tank design, but is believed to incorporate much of its design from Type 90-IIs, Type 85s, and some other equipment supplied by China for analysis. Regardless of the origins of the Al-Khalid, it is essentially vehicle dissimilar enough to other tanks to be considered a new design, if not a completely independent one. The Al-Khalid was developed over the period from 1990-99, with production and fielding beginning in 2001. Most Western observers agree that the Al-Khalid is a surprisingly modern and effective design. Some 300 are in service with Pakistan, and they intend to being that total to 600. In addition, 22 Al-Khalids started being delivered to the Bangladeshi Army beginning in May 2008, and the Saudis are reportedly giving the Al-Khalid a hard look to supplement their M-1A2 Abrams tanks.

The design places the driver in the center front of the hull; he has a hatch which opens slightly upwards and to the left as to not interfere with turret rotation if the hatch is open. He has vision blocks giving him views to the right, left, and front; the frontal vision block can be replaced with an IR vision block. The gunner has his own hatch, as the Al-Khalid uses an autoloader instead of a loader crewmember, and has vision blocks that allow vision to the front, rear, and right side. The gunner is equipped with a full night vision suite, including a 2nd-generation thermal imager developed by France. The gunner also has an image intensification scope and a conventional telescopic sight; all of which are stabilized. The commander has his own thermal imager, image intensifier, and conventional telescopic sight, in a separate sensor head that gives the Al-Khalid a hunter-killer capability. The commander also has emergency controls for the main gun and coaxial machinegun. The Al-Khalid has a ballistic computer of French design, along with a laser designator of Chinese design.

The main gun is a version of the Chinese ZPT-98 gun, though the barrel has a length of 48 calibers. The gun is fed by an autoloader that has a capacity of 24 rounds, with additional ammunition being stored in the hull of the Al-Khalid. In addition to being able to fire indigenous and foreign 125mm rounds, the gun can also fire a Chinese license-produced version of 9M119 Reflecks (AT-11 Sniper) gun-launched ATGM. The autoloader is improved over that of the Al-Zarrar, able to handle newer long-rod penetrators. (ATGM rounds must be hand-loaded.) The laser rangefinder acts as a designator when the 9M119 ATGM is fired. The commander&#8217;s machinegun can be aimed and fired from under armor. On each side of the turret is a cluster of five smoke grenade launchers. The Al-Kalid has a feature found in most of the newest generation of tanks: a battle management system called Rabhar by the Pakistanis. This is a computerized system that not only monitors the state of the tank and feeds the appropriate information to the crew, but also plots the location of enemy and friendly units and keeps them updated as new information becomes available. It also passes orders from higher headquarters down and allows the commander to give orders to subordinate units, as well as providing any other intelligence and information the commander may require. This system also has GPS, with inertial navigation as a backup. The tank&#8217;s electronic systems are connected to large batteries for "silent watch" use.

In development, the Al-Khalid was powered by an MTU-396 diesel engine with a German LSG-3000 transmission. Germany placed an embargo on these items in the mid-1990s due to their stance on development of indigenous nuclear weapons, and this led to the Pakistanis fitting the Al-Khalid with a license-produced Ukrainian KMDB 6TD-2 1200-horsepower engine and a French SESM ESM-500 fully-automatic transmission. This engine had the virtue of being smaller than the German engine, yet provided the same 1200 horsepower. The Al-Khalid can carry auxiliary fuel tanks at the rear a la Russian/Chinese tanks, though in practice they are little used except in long road marches.

Armor protection is modular, allowing for quick battle damage repairs and improvement as more advanced armor becomes available or heavier armor is desired. Frontal armor is composite and of Pakistani design, with side armor being spaced; it is of a more modern design than that on the Al-Zarrar and lighter in weight. The turret front, turret sides, glacis, and hull sides have lugs for ERA. Attention was paid to land mine damage in the form of thickened floor armor. The ammunition is carried in armored bins, and virtually the entire vehicle has thick Kevlar anti-spalling blankets. The engine also has a thick bulkhead separating it from the crew compartment. An automatic explosion and fire suppression system is provided, and the crew has an NBC overpressure system; the engine compartment and ammunition bins have their own systems of the same sort. The Al-Khalid has a laser detection system that can automatically trigger smoke grenades to block the laser, and a radar warning system that can give the crew a chance to take evasive action.

Pakistani Tanks



Jan 18, 2009
Development of MBT-2000 (Al-Khalid)

An overview of Pakistan&#8217;s first indigenously designed and manufactured tank.

The MBT-2000 is a Pakistan-China project, which was initiated in 1990 for the joint development and manufacture of Tank AL-KHALID to meet the General Staff Requirement of Pakistan Army. Based on its strategic alliance with China, Pakistan decided to utilise Chinese infrastructure in the field of tank design/development. By adopting this approach, Pakistan Army aimed at developing a modern land system with minimum development expenditures in a reasonable time frame.

The development programme comprised a number of prototypes with following configurations:-


Configuration-1 Based entirely on Chinese systems viz the Chinese 125mm gun and auto-loader, fire control system (FCS), gun control system (GCS) and powerpack. The powerpack comprised a 1200 HP engine manufactured in China based on MTU-396 series engine under licence from MTU Germany coupled with LSG-3000 automatic transmission.

Configuration-2 Based on Chinese 125mm gun and auto-loader, the FCS, GCS and powerpack being of Western origin. The powerpack comprised Perkins 1200 HP Condor engine coupled with the French SESM-500 automatic transmission.

Configuration-3 Based upon a 1200 HP powerpack from Ukraine whereas the gun, autoloader, FCS and GCS are of Chinese and western origin.

Configuration-4 Based upon Western armament and powerpack comprising MTU-871/TCM AVDS-1790 engine with LSG-3000 transmission. This option did not materialise owing to difficulties in acquisition of these systems due to trade embargoes.

During planning stage, a thorough technical evaluation of hydro-gas suspension and Rank-304 transmission was carried out, but these were not considered feasible due to problems associated with maintainability, reliability and other limitations. At the same time due to high ambient temperatures and dust in the operational areas, special emphasis was laid on design and installation of high capacity cooling and efficient air cleaning systems.

The strategy adopted by Pakistan for development of its MBT requirement has been successful. Over a period of nine years a number of prototypes in different configurations have been subjected to trials and evaluation in difficult terrain environments having ambient temperatures upto 55o C and desert conditions with very fine sand/dust particles. The users and technical experts are fully satisfied with the trials conducted during peak summers of 1998 in the southern desert of Pakistan and subsequently in different regions of the country presenting different terrain environments.

After successful completion of final evaluation, the pilot production of the tank in configuration-3 is already under progress at Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT). HIT has already successfully undertaken manufacture of Chinese origin T-69IIMP/T-85I1AP tanks and US origin APC M113. It is understood that major up gradation and balancing of production lines has been underway at HIT for the last couple of years. This also includes establishment of CNC machining centres for precision machining of hull, turret and other critical parts to undertake manufacture of Al-KHALID.

HIT has been successful in developing special steel for tank guns and composite armour materials for use during series production. During successive trials, armour protection of the tank at hull and critical areas of the turret has been tested through live firing which defeated all types of 120/125 mm tank projectiles and other selected anti-tank ammunitions.

The development work of AL-KHALID programme has shown tremendous progress during the last ten years and AL-KHALID has matured as a modern contemporary tank at a fraction of the international cost. In this regard Pakistan has learnt a lot from the Indian experience on the ARJUN programme, which started in 1974, but the tank has still not achieved acceptability with the Indian Army.



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