A timeline of Pakistan's army chiefs through the agesHow many army chiefs have been appointed during Pakistan's 75 year-long history?
November 24, 2022
Pakistan's army chiefs through the ages
General Frank Messervy
1AUG 1947 - FEB 1948
Pakistan's first commander-in-chief retired from the post in less than one year. It is believed his resistance of Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah's orders was the main reason behind his retirement.
General Douglas Gracey
2FEB 1948 - JAN 1951
Like his successor, Gracey also refused Governor-General Jinnah's order to send troops to the Kashmiri front. He retired prematurely and was Pakistan's last British Army chief.
Field Marshal Ayub KhanJAN 1951 - OCT 1958
Ayub was Pakistan's first native four star General and only (self-appointed) field marshal. He became president following the 1958 coup and was army chief for over six years before appointing a successor.
General Muhammad MusaOCT 1958 - JUNE 1966
A loyal commander-in-chief to Ayub, Musa served two terms as army chief through Ayub's presidency. Ayub made him governor West Pakistan from 1967 to 1969 when he retired from service.
General Yahya KhanJUN 1966 - DEC 1971
Ayub appointed Yahya as army chief in 1966 and invited him to take over presidency in 1969. Yahya installed a military govt. He was put under house confinement after handing presidency over to Bhutto in 1971.
General Gul Hassan KhanDEC 1971 - MAR 1972
Appointed by then president, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Gul Hassan served as army chief for just over two months before he was deposed by Bhutto at the recommendation of the Hamoodur Rehman Commission.
General Tikka KhanMARCH 1972 - MARCH 1976
Appointed by then prime minister Bhutto, Tikka Khan served one term as Pakistan's first chief of army staff. He retired after his term expired and was made defence and security advisor in Bhutto's administration.
General Ziaul Haq
MARCH 1976 - AUG 1988
Appointed by prime minister Bhutto, Zia remained army chief for four terms. After declaring martial law in 1977, he became president from 1978 until his death in 1988.
General Mirza Aslam Beg
AUG 1988 - AUG 1991
Beg succeeded Zia and witnessed Benazir Bhutto become prime minister. He was denied an extension at the end of his term as army chief by President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and retired from service.
General Asif NawazAUG 1991 - JAN 1993
President Ghulam Ishaq Khan appointed Nawaz as COAS. His tenure was cut short when he died of a heart attack.
General Abdul Waheed KakarJAN 1993 - JAN 1996
As COAS, Kakar pressured President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and PM Nawaz to hand over their resignations, precipitating in the 1993 elections in which Benazir was elected PM. He retired at the end of his term.
General Jehangir Karamat
JAN 1996 - OCT 1998
Karamat was appointed COAS by PM Benazir Bhutto. He was forced to resign by PM Nawaz over differences with the civilian government and later became envoy to the US from 2004-2006 under Musharraf.
General Pervez MusharrafOCT 1998 - NOV 2007
Musharraf was appointed army chief by the Nawaz govt, and seized power in the 1999 coup. He served as defence minister and chief executive of Pakistan from 1999-2002.
General Ashfaq Parvez KayaniNOV 2007 - NOV 2013
Kayani served two terms as COAS after the Zardari govt approved his extension in 2010, citing continuity as the reason for doing so. When he retired from service, a successor was appointed by PM Nawaz.
General Raheel SharifNOV 2013 - NOV 2016
At the time of appointment, Gen Raheel was not among the favourites in the race for the post. After spearheading Operation Zarb-i-Azb however he quickly developed a strong following. He was the first army chief to retire on time in two decades.
General Qamar Javed BajwaNOV 2016 - NOV 2022
Gen Qamar Javed Bajwa was selected for the army chief's slot on Nov 26, 2016 by then-prime minister Nawaz Sharif. His tenure was extended for another three years in August 2019, after parliament legislated on the tenures of services chiefs on the orders of the Supreme Court.
Gen Asim Munir.....
A timeline of Pakistan's army chiefs through the ages
How many army chiefs have been appointed during Pakistan's 75 year-long history?