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It's very hard to say worth it or not. Russian Empire took China millions square kilometers land in Tsarist Russia era, Soviet helped us in 1950s. But when Soviet wanted China to follow him like west Europe in 1960s, Mao said big NO.
Our northern border is wide open, not much mountains. It's very hard to resist Russia pressure in 1960s when China has no nukes. Mao do not want to be a vassal state in any kind, we paid very high price to confront both super power in the same time. China almost rebuilt all the industry in south west(mountainous region) of China to resist Soviet military pressure. It's trillion dollar project nowadays.
The gain is huge too. But I would say it's unexpected gain. Nobody expected Soviet dissolution like this. The Central Asia reopened silk road benefit both China and Pakistan. Russia is not a big threat like Cold War era to Pakistan any more.
I have come to the view Leonid Breznev did the most stupidest thing to prop up the Afghan communist regime in 1979 and invading it the Yanks set up a elaborate trap in revenge for Vietnam
The break up of the USSR tho tied with Afghanistan was caused because Gorbachev was tricked by the West and their puppet Yeltsin wanted power and the hardliners which Deng was able to sideline by placing the Gang of Four in jail Gorbachev failed to do that via glasnost and perorstokia
Besides the only republics that wanted leave the USSR were in the Baltics, in fact the Central Asians and most Soviet Republics opted to stay but the coup with Yeltsin and the hardliners in August of 1991 killed that https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_of_Sovereign_States
Anyways my point was China, Pakistan and Muslim Countries and most countries were tricked that the Soviets were bad and expansionists but Communism just wasnt practical Khruschev tried steering it a lil bit,Breznev did it as well but Breznev screwed up with propping the Kabul regime
After 1991 its been dumpster fire the radical wahhabists folks got more powerful in the Muslim world, the EU/NATO expanded quickly in the late 90s and early 2000s in the Eastern Bloc,Iraq,Afg got invaded had the USSR reformed and not broke up in 91 I think there would be good check on world affairs
Mao has no choice, either tolerate U.S. on our border in Korean Peninsula, or had a war with U.S. just after New China founded.
Mao really want to focus on economy, but Mao chose the later, which benefit China for long run.
Mao did the right thing for China but the spilt caused the Western world to hold power longer
After Korean War, Soviet easily get China as an ally, which gave Soviet the best geopolitical advantage, most of the south, east border are safe, the north protected by ice as well. Only threat comes from west side.
Breznev really needs to be cursed at for being such a dunce
Imo, the biggest mistakes Soviet made are:
1, Nikita Khrushchev abandoned the strict traditions of Lenin and Stalin. Mao deeply distrusted Khrushchev.
2, Split with China.
3, Russian population ratio decline.
Again I am not a communist but I think Gorbachev was the last chance and the Soviet hardliners blew it he could have been Russian Deng Xiapoing
The Soviet political system failed to elect wise leaders. All leaders after Stalin are worse than US counterpart.
There are both cultural reasons and political system reasons I think.
In history, Russian Empire is not famous for cultural things. They can only run their country by whip.
Communism is a new thing to all of us, and any new thing will have flaws, it can only be perfected by time and practice.
The Islam practice was not built in one day, by one man. It took thousands years. So is communism.
Communism is nice fancy idea but Humans are too greedy and self centered besides Communism is anti religion to a extent but I prefer State based Capitalism in the west the Big corps are anti national and anti values only want nations to be consumrists shrills
I dont view Lenin positive tho he wanted legalize degenrate anti cultural values Stalin did roll back but he kept changing too many times his policies but then again the USSR was in tough place and time in history
In dialectical materialism, internal cause play a major role, and external cause is second. The Afghanistan thing is an external cause. The dissolution was caused by internal causes I think.
US spent much more in Vietnam than Soviet in Afghanistan.
Soviet may not win Cold War, but Soviet can avoid dissolution.
They were many factors Afghanistan was one, but also Saudi crashing the oil market per request of Reagan in 1985/1986, also the Baltic republics which more developed really wanted leave Moscow control as they felt they were paying into providing funds for poorer republics in the South and Central Asia
Also Reagan went on arms and defense spending which in the long run gave the US massive debt but it caused the Soviets to spend spend causing massive decline in funds plus with Gorbachev trying to reform not a good mix
What Lenin and Stalin did is right or wrong is the thing for historians.
How to evaluate Lenin and Stalin is purely political.
It's Cold War, the most important thing is holding your alliance. You must NOT lose. Once you lose, you lose everything.
Nikita Khrushchev criticized the policy of Stalin, it create numerous chaos in Communist Camp. And most importantly the split with China.
You mean the secret speech he gave in 1956