By Dr. Hussain Khan, Dr. David Orme-Johnson, Maj. Gen. (Ret.), Kulwant Singh, and Dr. David Leffler
“The purpose of the military is to keep war from happening — or to end it quickly if it does happen.”
—Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
Over the years “no-fly zones” have gained worldwide attention. Their goal is often to set up a “demilitarized zone in the sky” where military aircraft of a bellicose country are hampered from conducting military operations. Zones have also been established in various countries to protect important government buildings. Both India and Pakistan have created zones for this purpose. While no-fly zones might potentially save lives and prevent property damage, the authors propose that militaries use a scientifically-validated defense strategy that prevents hostility and conflict before it arises.
How does this preventative defense approach work? Social problems like war, terrorism and crime are human problems that require a human solution. The accumulation of collective social stress is a source of conflict and upheaval. If the stress driving these social problems could be toned down, then problems may be diminished or even ceased. No collective stress means no war, terrorism or crime. This represents the ideal of preventive defense.
This paper urges the militaries of India and Pakistan (as well as other countries) to jointly establish what might be coined as a military “yogic-flying zone” in the disputed border region of Kashmir. Once fully operational this ideal preventive defense system would create a ground of coherence in collective consciousness that would resolve deeply held differences, and create a lasting peace not only in Kashmir, but potentially worldwide as well.
Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a simple, easily learned meditation technique revived from the ancient Vedic tradition by the late Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Over six million people of all faiths worldwide have learned this non-religious practice. According to Dr. Frederick Travis, Director, Center for Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition at Maharishi University of Management, research shows that all meditation practices are not the same. Travis reports that “recent studies show meditation practices have been classified into three categories: Focused Attention, Open Monitoring, and Automatic Self-Transcending. Techniques in the Automatic Self-Transcending category transcend their own procedure – take the attention out of thinking, analyzing, controlling, or watching to a state of pure consciousness. The Transcendental Meditation technique is in this category. During TM synchronous alpha1 (8-10 Hz) activation is seen primarily in frontal executive areas as well as over the whole brain, indicating integrated functioning of the brain.”
Military units in Latin America, such as in Ecuador, have already implemented the TM technique and their military personnel are now also learning the more advanced and powerful TM-Sidhi program, which includes Yogic Flying. When used in a military context this preventative human resource-based defense technology is known as Invincible Defense Technology (IDT). Military units specifically setup to practice this technology of consciousness in large groups twice a day are known as “Prevention Wings of the Military.” Their goal is to create coherence in collective consciousness, which prevents enemies from arising. If a military has no enemies to fight, then, it becomes invincible. (For more information see: http://www.davidleffler.com/worldwide.html#Ecuador.)
Due to a successful Latin American military field test of IDT, one country is already planning to deploy a Prevention Wing of the Military comprised of 11,000 military personnel. The goal of this special unit will be to produce what scientists call the Maharishi Effect, not only in their home country, but also on a global scale. The Maharishi Effect is a phase transition to a more orderly and harmonious state of life, as measured by decreased crime, violence, accidents, and illness, and improvements in economic conditions and other social indicators.
In the tradition of naming scientific discoveries after their founder (e.g., the Doppler Effect, the Meissner Effect), the scientists who discovered this effect named it the Maharishi Effect (Borland & Landrith, Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 1, pp. 639-648, 1976) in honor of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the Transcendental Meditation program and the TM-Sidhi program. He predicted over 50 years ago that only a small fraction of the population participating in the Transcendental Meditation program would be sufficient to improve the quality of life in the whole society. Since then, this transformation of society has been documented scientifically, first at the city level, then at state and national levels, and then on a worldwide level – the Global Maharishi Effect.
It has been found that only a small segment of a society is needed to create the Maharishi Effect – 1% practicing the Transcendental Meditation program; or an even smaller proportion, the square root of 1% practicing the TM-Sidhi program, which includes Yogic Flying. This number is so small that the beneficial influence of the Maharishi Effect cannot be explained by the behavioral interactions of meditators within the social system. Instead, the results indicate a field effect – an influence of coherence radiating throughout society.
There have been over 50 studies showing that the TM and TM-Sidhi program improves the quality of life in the larger society. (See: Leffler, Kleinschnitz & Walton, Security and Political Risk Analysis, 1999, for a paper with a table that summarizes most of these studies, available online at: http://www.davidleffler.com/sapraalternative.html) The findings have been published in leading peer-reviewed scientific journals including The Journal of Conflict Resolution, Social Indicators Research, Journal of Crime and Justice, and Journal of Mind and Behavior as well as presented and published in the proceedings of professional conferences. Variables assessed in these studies include armed conflict, crime rate, violent fatalities (homicides, suicides, and motor vehicle fatalities), economic indicators, and broad quality of life indices which incorporate the above variables as well as rates of notifiable diseases, hospital admissions, infant mortality, divorce, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and GNP. Effects for each variable or for overall indices are in the direction of improved quality of life. This research has:
- statistically controlled for a wide range of demographic variables;
- used causal cross-lagged analysis methods, which have indicated that increasing numbers practicing the TM program are followed by improvements in society;
- employed time series analyses to control for seasonality, trends, drifts, and rival hypotheses, and to demonstrate temporal relationships among variables that support a causal model; and
- experimentally created large groups of TM and TM-Sidhi program participants in various populations to demonstrate positive changes on specific social indicators predicted in advance.
In addition, over 600 studies on the TM program support the Maharishi Effect, because they demonstrate improvements in individual life, which are at the basis of the improvements observed in society. The following sections of this paper summarize selected studies conducted on the Maharishi Effect:
Studies on Crime
• Decreased Crime Rate in 24 U.S. Cities: Crime trend was established by linear regression from 1967-72 for 24 cities that reached 1% of their population participating in the TM program in 1972 and for 24 control cities matched for total population, college population, and geographic region. The 1% cities were found to have a significant reduction in crime trend during the six-year experimental period from 1972-1977 compared to controls. The two groups of cities did not differ on a large number of variables known to affect crime: per capita income, percentage of persons aged 15 to 29, percent unemployed, and percent of families below the poverty level. Statistical control through analysis of covariance for three variables on which the two groups of cities did differ (median years education, stability of residence, and pre-intervention crime rate) showed reduced crime trends in the 1% cities when these variables were taken into account (Dillbeck, Landrith and Orme-Johnson, Crime and Justice, IV, 26-45, 1981).
• Crime Rate in 160 U.S. Cities: A study of a random sample of 160 U.S. cities found that increasing numbers of TM program participants in the cities over a seven-year period (1972-1978) was followed by reductions in crime rate (FBI Uniform Crime Index total), controlling through partial correlation for other variables known to affect crime, such as median years education, percent unemployment, per capita income, percent of families in poverty, stability of residence, percent over age 65, population size, population density, and ratio of police per population. Cross-lagged panel analysis supported a causal interpretation (Dillbeck, Banus, Polanzi, & Landrith, Journal of Mind and Behavior, 9, 457-486, 1989).
• Decreased Crime Rate in Washington, D.C. Another approach to assessing the causal structure of the relationship between variables is through the use of time series analysis. This approach allows inference to be made about immediate changes in crime on the basis of increases in the size of the group of meditators. Time series analysis controls for the possibility that increasing numbers of meditators is correlated with decreasing crime owing to common cycles and trends in both factors that are causally unrelated. A time series transfer function study of weekly data from October 1981 through October 1983 found that increases in the group participation in the TM and TM-Sidhi program at the College of Natural Law located in the District of Columbia was followed by reductions in violent crime. It was found that 76.6% of the decrease in violent crimes in the District over the two years can be attributed to the TM and TM-Sidhi program group. Changes in the percentage of young male adults in the population could not account for the results, nor could neighborhood watch programs or changes in police coverage (Dillbeck, Banus, Polanzi, & Landrith, Journal of Mind and Behavior, 9, 457-486, 1989).
• Decreased Crime in New Delhi, India: Another time series study found that a group of TM and TM-Sidhi program participants located in New Delhi from November 1980 to March 1981 produced an 11% decrease in total crime (136.34 fewer reported crimes per day) in the Union Territory of Delhi. (Dillbeck, Cavanaugh, Glenn, Orme-Johnson, & Mittlefehldt, Journal of Mind and Behavior, 8, 67-104, 1988).
• Decreased Crime in Puerto Rico: A time series study of monthly data in 1984 found 543 fewer crimes per month in Puerto Rico during months when a group of long-term TM and TM-Sidhi program participants exceeded the square root of 1% of the 3.4 million population of the island for two weeks or more during the month. In addition, the study found an increase in crime rate associated with the departure of the group. The result could not be attributed to a police vigilance program or to other causes. This study also observed an apparent attenuation of crime in Puerto Rico associated with a large assembly of 4000 TM-Sidhi program participants located at Maharishi International University in Fairfield, Iowa in July, 1984 (Dillbeck, Cavanaugh, Glenn, Orme-Johnson, & Mittlefehldt, Journal of Mind and Behavior, 8, 67-104, 1988).
• Decreased Crime in Washington, D.C. and Increased Support for the President: A critical demonstration on the effectiveness of this technology was experimentally tested on its ability to reduce crime and increase governmental effectiveness in Washington, D.C. in June and July of 1993. Washington has one of the highest levels of violent crime of any city in the world, providing a highly stressed collective consciousness for government to work in. In advance of the project, a research protocol was developed by an independent Project Review Board working with scientists at Maharishi International University. The protocol predicted decreased crime and specified time series methods, control variables, and specific statistical criteria of success for evaluating the project. In addition, the Protocol predicted improved public confidence in government. A group of 4,000 TM and TM-Sidhi program participants assembled in Washington from 82 countries. The dependent variables were daily violent crime in Washington, D.C. and weekly public opinion poll data on President Clinton. The experimental design employed Box-Jenkins time series transfer function analysis. The results showed that as the group size increased, there was a highly significant decrease in violent crime from predicted levels, reaching a 24% reduction when the group was largest; (p<2 x 10-9 for weekly data). Temperature, weekend effects, or previous trends in the data failed to account for changes. In addition, as predicted there was a highly significant improvement in President Clinton’s ratings in the public opinion polls; p<.00002 (Hagelin, Orme-Johnson, Rainforth, Cavanaugh, and Alexander, Social Indicators Research, 47, 153-201, 1999).
Studies on War and International Conflicts
• Reduced Armed Conflict and Improved Quality of Life in the Middle East: Using Box-Jenkins impact assessment, cross-correlation, and transfer function analyses, this study found that increases in a group of individuals in Jerusalem practicing Maharishi’s TM and TM-Sidhi program had a statistically significant effect on improving the quality of life in Jerusalem (reduced automobile accidents, fires, and crime), improving the quality of life in Israel (reduced crime, and increased stock market and national mood, measured by news content analysis), and reducing the war in Lebanon (fewer war deaths of all factions and decrease war intensity measured by news content analysis). The effects of high religious holidays, temperature, weekends, and other forms of seasonality were explicitly controlled for and could not account for these results. Cross-correlations and transfer functions supported a causal interpretation. This was a prospective experiment, in which the outcomes were predicted in advance. All the variables were publicly available data, and a list of the variables used in the study was posited prior to the experiment with an outside Project Review Board. (Orme-Johnson, Alexander, et al., Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32(4), 776-812, 1988; Orme-Johnson, Alexander, & Davies, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 34(4), 756-768, 1990). Hagelin, Achieving National Invincibility: A Scientific Approach. International Center for Invincible Defense website, (2007). Video link: http://www.invincibledefense.org/videos/2007_04_11_hagelin.html
• Decreased International Terrorism and Conflict: Three large assemblies of the Transcendental Meditation and Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi program participants were held from 1981-1985, ranging in length from 8-21 days, in which the group approached or exceeded the size predicted to create a global influence (approximately 7000). International conflict was measured daily for a period of time before, during, and after each of the three assemblies; the three time series analyses were generated from blind rating of news events in major international newspapers (New York Times for two assemblies, London Times for one) using a standard methodology for scoring international conflict events. A second variable studied was casualties and injuries due to international terrorism, which was received from the Rand Corporation data bank for 1983 to 1985 (aggregated in five-day periods). Capital International’s world index of stock prices was also obtained daily from mid-1983 to mid-1985 as a measure of global short-term economic confidence. Time series intervention analyses using the Akaike information criterion to objectively define optimal noise models indicated a significant decrease of 32% in international conflict during the three assemblies, a significant drop in international terrorism of 72% at five days (one observation) after the beginning of the three assemblies taken together. Control analyses conducted for previous years indicated that these results could not reasonably be attributed to year-end effects, the time of two of the assemblies. (Orme-Johnson, Dillbeck, and Alexander, Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36, pp. 283-302, 1989).
• Alleviation of Political Violence in the Lebanon War: Seven assemblies of the TM and TM-Sidhi program participants held within a two and a quarter year period in Lebanon, Israel, Yugoslavia, The Netherlands, and the U.S. were each found to have a highly significant impact on the Lebanon war, as indicated by a 66% increase in the level of cooperation among antagonists, a 48% reduction in the level of conflict, and a 68% reduction in war injuries. (Davies and Alexander, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17: 285-338, 2005).
The military’s role is to protect its country. Wise military leaders desire the most effective technology to gain a competitive edge. What other technology actually prevents an enemy from arising? This is why the authors request that the governments of India and Pakistan implement IDT in the Kashmir region and declare it a permanent International Military “Yogic-Flying Zone.” Such a zone could also be a memorial to all the brave warriors of all countries who fought and died there. Perhaps the United Nations could designate the Kashmir region as an “international territory” in which no one country would claim ownership.
Also, both governments would be responsible for creating and maintaining Prevention Wings of the Military practicing the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program (including Yogic Flying) in the Kashmir region. By practicing IDT together in a large group twice a day they would immediately create societal coherence and improve relations between their countries. Other militaries of the world could be invited to send their “Yogic Flying Defense Attachés” to also participate. Ideally, all countries would provide a combined total number of at least 15,000 IDT experts. This number is well over the square root of 1% of the world’s population. (For the current figure see the “Square Root of One Percent of the Population Calculator” available at: http://www.SquareRootOfOnePercent.org to check this figure as well as those for all countries). Such a large group would not only bring peace to this troubled region, but since it is well over the number of IDT experts needed to produce the Global Maharishi Effect – it lead to a phase transition to create lasting world peace.
What other solution holds such promise? IDT is a scientifically-verified and military field-tested strategy to prevent war, terrorism and crime. Decades of fighting over the Kashmir region show that a lasting peace cannot be created by standard military means alone. IDT has been proven to effortlessly and automatically settle differences in hot spots globally. Due to the danger of availability of weapons of mass destruction, India and Pakistan should immediately establish Prevention Wings of the Military to counter such threats by preventing the birth of enemies. Ultimately, all armed forces should deploy IDT in their home countries to eradicate the common enemy of collective social stress, the source of war, terrorism and crime. By these means, all countries can achieve true invincibility and create permanent world peace.
About the Authors:
Dr. Hussain Khan is a practicing advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan. He holds a Master’s degree in Philosophy and was conferred the Degree of Doctor of Laws by Maharishi European Research University, Switzerland. He completed a six-month Teacher’s training course in Switzerland and is since then a teacher of Transcendental Meditation. He is National Leader for Pakistan of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s worldwide Movement for Global Peace.
David Orme-Johnson, Ph.D. is one of the principal researchers in the world on meditation and its effects, having over 100 publications, mostly in peer-reviewed journals. He was asked to review the meditation research on chronic pain and insomnia by a National Institutes of Health Technology Assessment conference. For example, he has traveled to nearly 60 countries to speak about the research on meditation to scientific conferences, the public, the press, program directors, government officials, members of Congress, parliaments, heads of state, and the United Nations.
Maj. Gen. (Dr.) Kulwant Singh, U.Y.S.M., (Ret.) received his Ph.D. and M.Sc. in Defence Studies from Chennai University. He also has a postgraduate diploma in Human Resource Development from Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in New Delhi. Dr. Singh has a postgraduate diploma in Management from the Regional College of Management and Technology (RCMT). He qualified for the prestigious Higher Command Course at College of Combat and is a graduate of the Defence Service Staff College. He fought in combat and led India’s fight against its intransigent terrorism problem for nearly 30 years. Maj. Gen. Singh was awarded the Uttam Yudh Sewa Medal, the second highest decoration for senior officers during operations in Sri Lanka as part of IPKF (Indian Peace Keeping Force). Today he is leading an international group of generals and defense experts that advocates Invincible Defense Technology.
David Leffler, Ph.D. a United States Air Force veteran, is the Executive Director of the Center for Advanced Military Science (CAMS) http://www.StrongMilitary.org. Dr. Leffler later served as an Associate of the Proteus Management Group at the Center for Strategic Leadership, US Army War College. The Journal of Management & Social Science, a peer-reviewed journal published by the Institute of Business & Technology BIZTEK in Pakistan, recently published his paper: “A New Role for the Military: Preventing Enemies from Arising – Reviving an Ancient Approach to Peace,” about the strategic advantages of applying the Invincible Defense Technology. Dr. Leffler is a certified teacher of the Transcendental Meditation technique.