The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan

Discussion in 'Social & Current Events' started by Skeptic, Oct 24, 2009.

  1. Skeptic

    Skeptic SENIOR MEMBER

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    Recently I went through this report following a link provided by R.A.W. and Shrawan. Although quite relevant, It is yet to be discussed properly on the forum. The lack of interest might be attributed to it being a bulky (154 pages) document. So I decided to post in some excrepts relevant to the direction of discussion on this forum. To best describe the report I'll quote from it:
    I have split-up the report in smaller segment for easier reading. Pakistani Members are requested to read the content without looking at the flag under my name. Indian members are requested to maintain restrain from Anti-Pakistan rhetorics.

    The Subtle Subversion
    The State of Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan
    Editors: A. H. Nayyar and Ahmad Salim

    (Excrepts From Introduction and Preface)
    This report is the result of a study conducted by SDPI with the help of a number of educationists and concerned citizens of the country in the year 2002. The study looked into the then in force curriculum documents and school textbooks as well as those curriculum documents that were most recently formulated but had not been implemented yet. The objective of the study was to identify problematic contents of textbooks and to ascertain if the curriculum formulation was the source of such contents.

    Children’s identities and value systems are strongly shaped by the national curricula and textbooks in Social Studies, English, Urdu and Civics from Class I to Class XII. The responsibility for designing them lies with the Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education and the provincial Text Book Boards. The Curriculum Wing is mandated to design all pre-university curricula and issue guidelines to textbook writers and school teachers. Provincial Textbook Boards commission writing of textbooks and get them printed after their contents are approved by the Curriculum Wing.

    A close analysis by a group of independent scholars shows that for over two decades the curricula and the officially mandated textbooks in these subjects have contained material that is directly contrary to the goals and values of a progressive, moderate and democratic Pakistan.

    The March 2002 revision of curricula undertaken by the Curriculum Wing of the Ministry of Education did not address the problems that existed in earlier curriculum documents. In some cases, these problems are now even worse.

    • Our analysis found that some of the most significant problems in the current curricula and textbooks are:
    • Inaccuracies of fact and omissions that serve to substantially distort the nature and significance of actual events in our history.
    • Insensitivity to the existing religious diversity of the nation
    • Incitement to militancy and violence, including encouragement of Jehad and Shahadat
    • Perspectives that encourage prejudice, bigotry and discrimination towards fellow citizens, especially women and religious minorities, and other towards nations.
    • A glorification of war and the use of force
    • Omission of concepts, events and material that could encourage critical self awareness among students
    • Outdated and incoherent pedagogical practices that hinder the development of interest and insight among students


    ---------- Post added at 06:30 AM ---------- Previous post was at 06:29 AM ----------

    Hate Material

    Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam.131
    The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -- Hindus did not respect women...132
    Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places, where they worship idols. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. In our mosques, on the other hand, all Muslims can say their prayers together.133
    This division of men [among Aryans] into different castes is the worst example of tyranny in the history of the world. In course of time the Aryans began to be called the Hindus.134
    ‘the social evils of the Hindus’135
    “The Hindus lived in small and dark houses. Child marriage was common in those days. Women were assigned a low position in society. In case the husband of a woman died, she was burnt alive with his dead body. This was called ‘sati’. … The killing of shudras was not punished, but the murder of a Brahman was a serious crime. … However, the people of low caste were not
    allowed to learn this language. The caste system had made their life miserable.”136
    Muslim children of India wear shalwar kameez or shirt and pajama and Hindu children wear Dhoti also.137
    Hindus thought that there was no country other than India, nor any people other than the Indians, nor did anyone else possess any knowledge138. [Amazingly, this sentence, meant to denigrate Hindus, describes the response of the local people to Al Beruni’s visit to India. This is despite the fact that Alexander the Greek had come to this land many centuries earlier, that the rule of the Mauryas and the Guptas stretched to the lands from where Al Beruni had come, that the Arabs had conquered Sindh before Al Beruni’s visit, that the Arab conquest was also aimed against the Ismailis who had settled in the area around Multan much earlier, and that the Arabic mathematics was deeply influenced by the Indian mathematics, etc., etc.]
    Hindu pundits were jealous of Al Beruni. Since they could not compete against Al Beruni in knowledge, they started calling him a magician.139
    The Sultans of Delhi were tolerant in religious matters. They never forced the non-Muslims to convert to Islam. The Hindus embraced Islam due to the kind treatment of the Muslims.
    The caste system of the Hindus had made the life of the common people miserable. They were treated like animals. Nobody could claim equality with Brahmins.140
    The Hindus who have always been opportunists cooperated with the English.142
    The Hindus praised the British rule and its blessings in their speeches The Hindus had the upper hand in the Congress and they established good relations with the British. This party tried its best to safeguard the interests of the Hindus. Gradually it became purely a Hindu organization. Most of the Hindu leaders of the Congress were not prepared to tolerate the presence of the Muslims in the sub-continent. They demanded that the Muslims should either
    embrace Hinduism or leave the country. The party was so close to the Government that it would not let the Government do any work as would be of benefit to the Muslims. The partition of Bengal can be quoted as an example.143
    …but Hindus very cunningly succeeded in making the British believe that the Muslims were solely responsible for the [1857] rebellion.144
    The British confiscated all lands [from the Muslims] and gave them to Hindus.145
    In December 1885, an Englishman Mr. Humes … formed a political party named Indian National Congress, the purpose of which was to politically organize Hindus.146
    Therefore in order to appease the Hindus and the Congress, the British announced political reforms. Muslims were not eligible to vote. Hindus voter never voted for a Muslim, therefore, …147
    [A shear distortion, and a blatant lie that the Muslims were ineligible to vote]
    The height of Hindu-Muslim amity was seen during the Khilafat Movement, but as soon as the movement was over, the anti-Muslim feelings among Hindus resurfaced.148
    Nehru report exposed the Hindu mentality.149
    The Quaid saw through the “machinations” of the Hindus.150
    Hindus declared the Congress rule as the Hindu rule, and started to unleash terror on Muslims.151
    At the behest of the government [during the Congress rule], Hindu “goondas” started killing Muslims and burning their property.152
    The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilisation. Hindi-Urdu controversy, shudhi and sanghtan movements are the most glaring examples of the ignoble Hindu mentality.153
    The British, with the assistance of the Hindus, adopted a cruel policy of mass exodus against the Muslims to erase them as a nation The British adopted a policy of large scale massacre (mass extermination) against the Muslims The Muslim population of the Muslim minority provinces faced atrocities of the Hindu majority
    [The Muslims] were not allowed to profess their religion freely
    Hindu nationalism was being imposed upon Muslims and their culture All India Congress turned into a pure Hindu organisation
    The Congress was striving very hard to project the image of united India, which was actually aimed at the extermination of the Muslims from the Indian society
    The two Hindu organisations [Congress and Mahasabha] were determined to destroy the national character of the Muslims to dominate and subjugate them perpetually. 154
    While the Muslims provided all type of help to those wishing to leave Pakistan, the people of India committed cruelties against the Muslims (refugees). They would attack the buses, trucks, and trains carrying the Muslim refugees and they were murdered and looted.155
    The Hindus in Pakistan were treated very nicely when they were migrating as opposed to the inhuman treatment meted out to the Muslim migrants from India. (Musalmanon nein Pakistan se janay walay Hinduon ko her qissam ki sahulatein deen , lekin Baharat ke logon nein Musalmnon per bohat Zulm kiyay).156
    After the Cripps Missions, Congress raised the “Quit India” slogan, which meant the British should leave, handing over the rule to Hindus.157
    After 1965 war India conspired with the Hindus of Bengal and succeeded in spreading hate among the Bengalis about West Pakistan and finally attacked on East Pakistan in December 71, thus causing the breakup of East and West Pakistan.158


    131 Urdu Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 108
    132 Muasherati Ulum for Class IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1995, p 81
    133 Muasherati Ulum for Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1996, p 109
    134 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 59
    135 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 59
    136 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 67
    137 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, p 79
    138 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 82
    139 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 82
    140 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 109
    141 Urdu Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 221
    142 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 141
    143 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 143
    144 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 90
    145 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 91 [This is stated despite the fact that all the large feudal lords in the part that later formed Pakistan were Muslims]
    146 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 94
    147 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 94-95
    148 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 100
    149 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 102
    150 Social Studies Class-VII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, ?, p 51
    151 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 104
    152 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 104-105
    153 M. Ikram Rabbani and Monawar Ali Sayyid, An Introduction to Pakistan studies, The Caravan Book House, Lahore, 1995, p 12
    154 National Curriculum English (Compulsory) for Class XI-XII, March 2002, pp 6, 13, 31, 45, 7, 25, 8, 46, 48, 50
    155 National Early Childhood Education Curriculum (NECEC), Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, March 2002, p 85
    156 Social Studies Class- IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, p. 85
    157 Social Studies, Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 110
    158 Social Studies (in Urdu) Class- V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, p 112
     
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  2. Skeptic

    Skeptic SENIOR MEMBER

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    Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
    Insensitivity to the Religious Diversity of the Nation
    Curriculum documents state the following as the specific learning objectives:
    • The child should be able to] understand the Hindu and Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan98
    • Develop understanding of the Hindu Muslim Differences and need for Pakistan99
    • Hindu-Muslim Differences in Culture, .. India’s evil designs against Pakistan (the three wars with India)100
    • Identify the events in relation to Hindu-Muslim differences, which laid the foundations for Pakistan101
    The textbooks then respond in the following way to the above curriculum instructions:
    • Hindu has always been an enemy of Islam.102
    • The religion of the Hindus did not teach them good things -- Hindus did not respect women...103
    • Hindus worship in temples which are very narrow and dark places, where they worship idols. Only one person can enter the temple at a time. In our mosques, on the other hand, all Muslims can say their prayers together.104
    • ‘ … the social evils of the Hindus’105
    • Hindus thought that there was no country other than India, nor any people other than the Indians, nor did anyone else possess any knowledge106.
    • A story “The Enemy Pilot”, about a captured Indian pilot, presumably of Hindu faith] He had only been taught never to have pity on Muslims, to always bother the neighbouring Muslims, to weaken them to the extent that they forget about freedom, and that it is better to finish off the enemy. He remembered that the Hindus tried to please their Devi Kali by slaughtering innocent people of other faiths at her feet; that they regarded everybody else as untouchables. He knew that his country India had attacked Pakistan in the dead of the night to bleed Pakistani Muslims and to dominate the entire Subcontinent.107
    • The Hindus have always been opportunists cooperated with the English.108
    • …but Hindus very cunningly succeeded in making the British believe that the Muslims were solely responsible for the [1857] rebellion.109
    • Nehru report exposed the Hindu mentality.110
    • The Quaid saw through the machinations of the Hindus.111
    • Hindus declared the Congress rule as the Hindu rule, and started to unleash terror on Muslims.112
    • The Hindus always desired to crush the Muslims as a nation. Several attempts were made by the Hindus to erase the Muslim culture and civilisation. Hindi-Urdu controversy, shudhi and sanghtan movements are the most glaring examples of the ignoble Hindu mentality.113
    • While the Muslims provided all type of help to those wishing to leave Pakistan, the people of India committed cruelties against the Muslims (refugees). They would attack the buses, trucks, and trains carrying the Muslim refugees and they were murdered and looted.114
    • After 1965 war India conspired with the Hindus of Bengal and succeeded in spreading hate among the Bengalis about West Pakistan and finally attacked on East Pakistan in December 71, thus causing the breakup of East and West Pakistan.115

    98 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Classes K-V, Integrated and Subject Based, National Bureau of
    Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1995, p 151
    99 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
    (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    100 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
    (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    101 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education
    (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    102 Urdu Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 108
    103 Muasherati Ulum for Class IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1995, p 81
    104 Muasherati Ulum for Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, 1996, p 109
    105 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 59
    106 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 82. This sentence, meant to denigrate Hindus, describes the response of the local people to Al Beruni’s visit to India. It is obviously a concocted lie because of the fact that Alexander the Greek had come to this land many centuries earlier, that the rule of the Mauryas and the Guptas stretched to the lands from where Al Beruni had come, that the Arabs had conquered Sindh before Al Beruni’s visit, that the Arab conquest was also aimed against the Ismailis who had settled in the area around Multan even earlier, and that the Arabic mathematics was deeply influenced by Indian mathematics, etc., etc.
    107 Urdu Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 221
    108 Social Studies Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002: p 141
    109 Social Studies Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002, p 90
    110 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 102
    111 Social Studies Class-VII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, ?, p 51
    112 Social Studies, Class VIII – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2002, p 104
    113 M. Ikram Rabbani and Monawar Ali Sayyid, An Introduction to Pakistan studies, The Caravan Book House, Lahore, 1995, p 12
    114 National Early Childhood Education Curriculum (NECEC), Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, March 2002, p 85
    115 Social Studies (in Urdu) Class- V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, p 112


    ---------- Post added at 06:32 AM ---------- Previous post was at 06:31 AM ----------

    Urging the Students to Take the Path of Jehad and Shahadat

    Urging the Students to Take the Path of Jehad and Shahadat

    The themes of Jehad and Shahadat clearly distinguish the pre- and post-1979 educational contents. There was no mention of these in the pre-Islamization period curricula and textbooks, and the post-1979 curricula and textbooks openly eulogize Jehad and Shahadat and urge students to become mujahids and martyrs. The following examples illustrate the point.
    Learning Outcome: Recognize the importance of Jehad in every sphere of life116
    Learning outcome: Must be aware of the blessings of Jehad117
    Must be aware of the blessings of Jehad, and must create yearning for Jehad in his heart.118
    Concept: Jehad; Affective objective: Aspiration for Jehad119
    Love and aspiration for Jehad, Tableegh (Prosyletization), Jehad, Shahadat (martyrdom), sacrifice, ghazi (the victor in holy wars), shaheed (martyr), …120
    Simple stories to urge for Jehad121
    Activity 4: To make speeches on Jehad and Shahadat122
    To make speeches on Jehad123
    Evaluation: To judge their spirits while making speeches on Jehad, Muslim History and Culture124
    Concepts: Jehad, Amar bil Maroof and Nahi Anil Munkar125
    Importance of Jehad126
    Affective objective:Concepts of Ideology of Pakistan, Muslim Ummah and Jehad127
    Stories: eight lessons; Folk tales (mythical, moral, Islamic, travel and adventure, Jehad)128

    116 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
    117 Urdu Curriculum (Compulsory, optional and Easy course), Classes IX and X, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Islamabad, 1988, p 8
    118 Urdu Curriculum (first and second language) for classes VI-VIII, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1986, p 13
    119 Social Studies Curriculum for Classes VI – VIII National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Islamabad, Year 1984, p 16
    120 Social Studies Curriculum for Classes VI – VIII National Curriculum Committee, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Islamabad, Year 1984, p 21
    121 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 56
    122 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, p 154
    123 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 33
    124 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    125 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
    126 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 34
    127 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    128 Urdu Curriculum (First language) for Classes IV and V, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, March 2002, p 18


    Again, the repetition illustrates how insistent the curricula are on the inclusion of material on jehad and shahadat in textbooks and in classroom teaching.
     
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  3. Skeptic

    Skeptic SENIOR MEMBER

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    Historical Falsehoods and Inaccuracies

    In Pakistan, the impression one gets from textbooks on the subjects of Social/Pakistan studies is that students don’t learn history. Rather, they are forced to read a carefully crafted collection of falsehoods and fairy tales. . History has been used to churn out a mythology about the struggle that led to the creation of Pakistan.

    Mubarak Ali, A. H. Nayyar, Khurshid Hasanain, Pervez Hoodbhoy and Tariq Rahman have also looked into the distortion in History and Social Studies textbooks. For Tariq Rahman, history is mutilated in Pakistan’s textbooks to construct a mind-set that serves the broader polities of state. Young and impressionable minds are impregnated with seeds of hatred to serve the self-styled ideological strait-jacket:
    “The state’s major objectives - creating nationalism and support for the military - are attained by repeating a few basic messages in all the books. First, the non-Muslim part of Pakistan is ignored. Second, the borrowing from Hindu culture is either ignored or condemned. Third, the Pakistan movement is portrayed mostly in terms of the perfidy of Hindus and the British and the righteousness of the Muslims. After the partition, in which Hindus are reported to have massacred Muslims while Muslims are not shown to have treated the Hindus in the same manner, India is portrayed as the enemy, which is waiting to dismember Pakistan. The separation of Bangladesh in 1971 is portrayed as proof of this Indian policy rather than the result of the domination of the West Pakistan over East Bengal. Above all, the 1948, 1965 and 1971 wars are blamed entirely on India, and Pakistan is shown to have won the 1965 war. The armed forces are not only glorified but treated as if they were sacrosanct and above criticism. All eminent personalities associated with the Pakistan movement, especially M.A. Jinnah and Iqbal, are presented as orthodox Muslims and any aspect of their thoughts and behaviour which does not conform to this image is suppressed. Indeed, the overall effect of the ideological lessons is to make Islam reinforce and legitimise both Pakistani nationalism and militarisation.”162

    In these books, Muhammad-bin-Qasim is declared the first Pakistani citizen. In Social Studies for Class VI (Sindh Textbook Board, 1997), the story of the Arabs’ arrival in Sindh is accounted as the first moment of Pakistan with the glorious ascendancy of Islam. This textbook teaches the young sixth-class school children of Sindh that, “The Muslims knew that the people of South Asia were infidels and they kept thousands of idols in their temples”. The Sindhi king, Raja Dahir, is described as cruel and despotic. “The non-Brahmans who were tired of the cruelties of Raja Dahir, joined hands with Muhammad-bin-Qasim because of his good treatment.”
    According to this historical narration:
    “the conquest of Sindh opened a new chapter in the history of South Asia. Muslims had ever-lasting effects of their existence in the region… For the first time the people of Sindh were introduced to Islam, its political system and way of government. The people here had seen only the atrocities of the Hindu Rajas… the people of Sindh were so much impressed by the benevolence of Muslims that they regarded Muhammad-bin-Qasim as their saviour… uhammad bin-Qasim stayed in Sindh for over three years. On his departure from Sindh, the local people were overwhelmed with grief.”168
    “…. as a matter of fact, Pakistan came to be established for the first time when the Arabs led by Muhammad-bin-Qasim occupied Sindh and Multan in the early years of the eighth century, and established Muslim rule in this part of the South- Asian Sub-continent. Pakistan under the Arabs comprised the Lower Indus Valley.”169


    As far as freedom struggle and the contemporary history of Pakistan is concerned, all the textbooks are full of errors and false statements. The history in these books is claimed an unpunctured and smooth fabric and is presented exclusively in religious terms i.e., Hindus versus Muslims and no economic, historical, social or political causes given; two nation theory justified and all history of mutual co-existence denied. For example, a grave historical distortion appears when all resistance in 1857 is claimed for Muslims whereas the Hindus and Sikhs were also a part of it.172

    168 ibid
    169 A Textbook of Pakistan Studies, compulsory, by M.D Zafar, Lahore, p.4


    Civics textbooks carry on with many of the faults of social studies in that there is no coherent order of the contents. The ideological content is pervasive and the economic and political factors that led to the creation of Pakistan are ignored completely. In ‘Civics of Pakistan’, for class XI and XII as Rubina Saigol notes several statements are of the same nature.
    • A brief History and Ideology of Pakistan - history is immediately divided along communal lines by stating how badly the British treated the Muslims while they showered favours upon the Hindus. This is stated without referring to several extraordinary favours that Muslims received, like separate electorate, partition of Bengal, special job quotas, etc. (Page 1, Chapter 1)
    • The partition of Bengal is presented with a great deal of anti-Hindu sentiment and the bad treatment of the Muslims at the hands of Hindus; again history is missing form this History, creating a lot of religious prejudice. (Page 5)
    • All history is along religious lines while social, historical, material and economic causes
    • are missing. (Page 6)
    • Gandhi is throughout presented as a fundamentalist and extremist; Gandhi’s other side as a tolerant and peace loving leader is ignored.(Page 9)
    • Tone is again very anti-Gandhi; what is omitted unjustly is that Gandhi was killed by Hindu extremist groups for being too tolerant of the Muslims.(Page 15)
    • The bad treatment of Hindus towards Muslims is again repeated, this time in the context of Congress Ministries; the bad treatment was by some of the leaders but the impression created is that all Hindus treated all Muslims badly with no retaliation; this kind of falsification and denial distorts history. (Page 16 and 23)
    • Again a great deal of anti-Hindu sentiment; reference to ‘Hindu Machiavellianism’ to create negative images against Hindus. (Page 24)
    • India is accused of mass killing of Muslims which led to mass migration; the same happened on this side of the border, Hindu and Sikhs were also killed but only one side is blamed; students should do critical work on partition and how it led to mass bloodshed, dislocation and break up of families and violence; they should analyze why it happened and how it can be stopped; by blaming mass exodus on ‘Hindu India’ a very one-sided and uncritical picture is created; since no reasoning or causes or dynamic are presented it sounds very essentialist and biased. (Page 24)

    It is also noteworthy that wars with India are mentioned in patriotic not historical terms.
    In 1965, “the Pakistan Army conquered several areas of India, and when India was on the point of being defeated she requested the United Nations to arrange a cease-fire.”178
    There is no evidence whatsoever that India was on the point of being defeated by Pakistan or that it begged for peace or that it asked the United Nations to arrange a cease-fire. The war ended when the big powers intervened.179
    Similarly a critical and tragic event as the separation of East Pakistan is narrated in a skewed manner, on the one hand hiding the follies in policy making and on the other finding an easy scapegoat in Hindus to further the hate agenda.
    After the 1965 war, India, with the help of the Hindus living in East Pakistan, instigated the people living there against the people of West Pakistan, and at last in December 1971 herself invaded East Pakistan. The conspiracy resulted in the separation of East Pakistan from us. All of us should receive military training and be prepared to fight the enemy.180
    Another textbook puts it this way:
    “There were a large number of Hindus in East Pakistan. They had never really accepted Pakistan. A large number of them were teachers in schools and colleges. They continued creating a negative impression among the students. No importance was attached to explaining the ideology of Pakistan to the younger generation. The Hindus sent a substantial part of their earnings to Bharat, thus adversely affecting the economy of the province. Some political
    leaders encouraged provincialism for the selfish purpose of gaining power. They went round depicting the central Government and (the then) West Pakistan as hostile and exploiters. Political aims were thus achieved at the cost of national unity.
    ” 181
    178 Muashrati Ulum, Class V, NWFP, Textbook Board, Peshawar, n.d. p.93
    179 Ibid. 181 Pakistan Studies for secondary classes, Punjab textbook board, Lahore, May 1993, p. 39


    Zia’s decision to continue in power is defended in 3 lines:
    “It was announced that elections will be held within 90 days and power handed over to the representatives of the masses, but the elections scheduled to held in 90 days were postponed for unavoidable reasons”.183
    The phrase “unavoidable reasons” takes the cake for writing history.
     
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  4. Skeptic

    Skeptic SENIOR MEMBER

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    The objects of hate in Pakistani educational material are Hindus and India, reflecting both the perceived sense of insecurity from an ‘enemy’ country, and an attempt to define one’s national identity in relation to the ‘other’. The first serves the military and the second the political Islamists.
    Curriculum documents state the following as the specific learning objectives:

    [The child should be able to] understand the Hindu and Muslim differences and the resultant need for Pakistan189
    Hindu-Muslim Differences in Culture, .. India’s evil designs against Pakistan (the three wars with India)190
    Identify the events in relation to Hindu-Muslim differences, which laid the foundations for Pakistan191
    189 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Classes K-V, Integrated and Subject Based, National Bureau of Curriculum and Textbooks, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, 1995, p 151;
    National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    190 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35
    191 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p 35

    A very positive image of the military is created and its heroics are emphasized over those of any other section of the society. Examples of this will be given below, first from curriculum documents and then from textbooks.
    Curriculum documents
    The curriculum documents include specific instructions for syllabus making and textbook writing that ask for material that glorifies war, militancy and the military. Some examples of this are quoted below.

    A feeling be created among students they are the members of a Muslim nation. Therefore, in accordance with the Islamic tradition, they have to truthful, honest, patriotic and life-sacrificing mujahids.229
    Suggestions topics for lessons in textbooks
    (m) Stories about the Pakistan movement, eminent personalities of Pakistan, and martyrs of Pakistan
    (o) Simple stories to incite for jehad 230
    a. Objectives, contents and activities
    Activity 4: To make speeches on jehad and shahadat231
    Important personalities: contents: Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmood Ghaznavi,232
    Contents: Muazz Moavvaz (Razi Allah Unhum)
    Learning Outcomes: Describe in few words the heroic contribution of Muaz and Muavvaz (Razi Allah Unhum)233
    Concept: Jeihad234
    Contents: Importance of Jehad
    Concept: Jehad
    Activities: To make speeches on Jehad
    Learning outcome: Evaluate the role of India with reference to wars of 1948,1965 and 1971 A.D.
    Evaluation: To judge their spirits while making speeches on Jehad, Muslim History and Culture235
    Contents: Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmood Ghaznavi236
    National Objective
    The sense be created among students that they are members of the Islamic
    Millat. Therefore in accordance with the Islamic tradition, they ought to
    develop into true, honest patriot, servant of the people and Janbaz Mujahid (life giving mujahid).237
    Suggested subjects and topics for Class IV
    History of Islam: four lessons
    Heroes (The lion of Mesoor, Tipu Sultan)238
    Suggested subjects and topics for Class V
    History of Islam: four lessons
    Heroes (The true dream, Nuruddin Zangi)
    Famous women (The brave woman, Khaula binte Azur)
    Stories: eight lessons: Folk tales (mythical, moral, Islamic, travel and adventure, jehad)239
    Concept: Jehad
    Affective objective: Aspiration for Jehad240
    Affective objective: jehad, shahadat241
    Titles for Textbooks
    Personalities of Islam: Hazrat Sa’ad bin Abi Waqas (the story of his bravery in the war of Qadessiyah) Hazrat Salman Farsi
    Unforgettable events: The holy war at Badr
    Famous personalities: For example, King Faisal, Jamaluddin Afghani, Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi242
    Personalities of Islam: Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed (the contrast in the number of soldiers on the sides of Muslims and the infidels in the war of Moutah, exemplary commander, spirit of jehad, best example of discipline)243
    Unforgettable events: The holy war of Uhud244
    Detailed suggestions for textbooks: Class 6, second language National martyrs245
    Must be aware of the blessings of Jehad246

    Textbooks
    In response to such instructions, the textbooks contain (1) all the military heroes, (2)
    narrations of the specific battles in which the heroes had fought, (3) narrations of the glorious
    victories and victors from Islamic history, and (4) poems urging for jehad. A few chapter
    titles from textbooks are given below as sample.
    Teesri Darsi Kitab, for Islamabad and Federal Areas, Ministry of Education, Curriclum Wing, Islamabad
    Bahadur Sipahi: About Lance Naik Mohammad Mahfooz, Nishan-e-Haider
    Urdu for Class IV, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002.
    Kamsin Shaheed: About Rashid Minhas, Nishan-e-Haider
    Urdu for Class V, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002.
    Mera Watan: a nationalistic poem: Mere fauji jawan, jur’aton ke nisan; mera ik ik sipahi hai Khaiber shikan Agla Morcha: About Sawar Mohammad Hussain, Nishan-e-Haider
    Ghuzva-e-Badr:
    Urdu for Class VI, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002.
    Do kamsin mujahid, a story from Ghuzwa-e-Badr
    Major Tufail Mohammad Shaheed, Nishan-e-Haider
    Uth Mujahid-e-Watan, a poem
    Hazrat Sa’ad bin Abi Waqas, a commander in the early Islamic history, the conqueror of Persia
    Urdu for Class VII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002.
    Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed, a commander in the early Islamic history
    Ghuzwa-e-Uhd
    Raja Mohammad Sarwar, Nishan-e-Haider
    Azm-o-shujaat ka Paiker; about Lance Naik Lal Hussain
    Isar: a story about a war in the early Islamic history
    Urdu for Class VIII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore, March 2002.
    Nishan-e-Haider: about all the recipients of Nishan-e-Haider
    Shahid-e-Karbala
    Dushman Hawabaz

    Some specific observations of the material in textbooks is also given below.
    Social Studies Class I – Pakistan Textbook Depot. Author: Mohd. Tariq Malik. Pak
    Publishers, Urdu Bazaar, Lahore
    The cover is full of militaristic images showing a missile, Chaghi hills, and soldiers
    being trained
    Social Studies Class IV, Pakistan Textbook Depot, Lahore. Author: Mohd. Tariq Malik. Pak
    Publishers, Urdu Bazaar Lahore
    Page 81 – pictures of battle and fighting seem to glorify war
    Page 84 – picture of war and militarization
    Page 85 – defence expenditure justified by invoking enemy
    Page 87 – war glorified; militarism encouraged by saying we should always be
    ready to fight;
    Page 107 – picture of a battle
    Pages 112 to 113 – India and Hindus as all bad and started all wars, war
    pictures, idea of how bravely Muslims defeated them, war glorified

    Social Studies Class VII, Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. January 2002
    Page 22 – war and expansionism are promoted; ‘widen your range of conquest’;
    Page 28 - Conquest and war are glorified
    Civics Class IX and X – Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore. March 2001
    Page 114 – the military’s role in East Pakistan glorified
    Civics of Pakistan, Intermediate Classes – Author: Mazhar-ul-Haq. Fourth Impression, 2000. Bookland
    Page 218 – the defence of the country is described as the primary duty of the citizen;
    Page 240 to 241 – some lines here justify advanced weaponry and defence spending;
    Page 257 – the Makkah Declaration of 1981 is discussed and Jehad is pledged as a first principle;
    Page 234 – ‘national security’ is defined as a paramount objective and anti-India rhetoric is used.

    229 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, Urdu curriculum, Class IV-V, p. 41
    230 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, Urdu curriculum, Class IV-V, p.56
    231 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, Urdu curriculum, Class IV-V, p 154
    232 Curriculum Document, Primary Education, Class K-V, 1995, Urdu curriculum, Class IV-V, p 164
    233 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p. 19
    234 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p. 34
    235 National Curriculum, Social Studies for Classes I-V, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education (Curriculum Wing) Islamabad, March 2002, p. 35
     
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  5. Skeptic

    Skeptic SENIOR MEMBER

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    Participants in the project
    In alphabetical order
    1. Professor Syed Qamar Abbas, Department of History, Punjab University, Lahore.
    2. Sabir Afaqi, Professor of Pakistan Studies (retd), University of Azad Jammu and
    Kashmir, Muzaffarabad
    3. Hajra Ahmad, Principal, Khaldunia High School, Islamabad
    4. Dr. Syed Jaffar Ahmed, Professor, Pakistan Studies Centre, University of Karachi,
    Karachi
    5. Dr. Khalil Ahmed, Department of Philosophy, Government College of Education, Lahore
    6. Dr. Anis Alam, Professor of Physics, Punjab University, Lahore
    7. Mohsin Babbar, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Diplomatic Enclave,
    Islamabad.
    8. Kalpana Devi, Advocate, Mohallah Jarral Shah, Larkana
    9. Sibte Hasan, formerly with the Punjab Textbook Board, Lahore as author and editor of
    textbooks.
    10. Dr. Khurshid Hasanain, Professor of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
    11. Neelam Hussain, Simorgh, Lahore
    12. Ayesha Inayat, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Diplomatic Enclave,
    Islamabad.
    13. Dr. Sarfraz Khan, Professor, Area Studies Centre, University of Peshawar, Peshawar
    14. Arfana Mallah: ASR, Khurram Square, Saddar, Hyderabad.
    15. Aamna Mattu, Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Diplomatic Enclave,
    Islamabad.
    16. Fatima Mujtaba, Beaconhouse School, Islamabad
    17. Haroon Nasir, Christian Study Centre, Murree Road, Rawalpindi.
    18. Tahira Naqvi, Beaconhouse School, Islamabad
    19. Dr. A. H. Nayyar, Research Fellow, Sustainable Development Policy Institute,
    Islamabad.
    20. Dr. M. Pervez, Professor, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam University,
    Islamabad.
    21. Dr. Seema Pervez, Professor, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i-Azam
    University, Islamabad.
    22. Dr. Tariq Rahman, Professor of Linguistics, National Institute of Pakistan Studies,
    Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
    23. Professor Bahadur Khan Rodani, Director, Pakistan Studies Centre, Balochistan
    University, Quetta; former Vice-Chancellor, Balochistan University, Quetta
    24. Mahboob Sada, Director, Christian Study Centre, Murree Road, Rawalpindi.
    25. Dr. Zarina Salamat, Retired Historian from National Institute of Historical and Cultural
    Research, Islamabad.
    26. Ahmed Salim, Director Urdu Publications, Sustainable Development Policy Institute,
    Islamabad
    27. Dr. Rubina Saigol, Private Consultant, Gender, Human Rights and Education, formerly
    with Society for the Advancement of Education, Lahore
    28. Prem Shevani: THARDEEP, 58-B, PECHS, Karachi
    29. Nadeem Omar Tarar, Assistant Professor, National College of the Arts, Lahore
     
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  6. qsaark

    qsaark SENIOR MEMBER

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    The existence of Pakistan’s ruling elite class is dependant on disinformation. This non-sense started from the time of the dictator and self-proclaimed FM Ayub Khan and peaked during the time of Zia. It is always easier to divert the attention of the masses from the real and everyday problems to the anti-Muslim India and Hindu. Our entire nation is living in all sorts of denials and delusions. I guess there was a very nice and informative article “The myth of history” written by Dr. Shahida (a Professor in Karachi University) sometimes back in March, and was promptly rejected by many. It is an interesting read if you are interested.

    The myth of history -DAWN Magazine; March 27, 2005
     
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  7. ice_man

    ice_man SENIOR MEMBER

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    First, the non-Muslim part of Pakistan is ignored. Second, the borrowing from Hindu culture is either ignored or condemned. Third, the Pakistan movement is portrayed mostly in terms of the perfidy of Hindus and the British and the righteousness of the Muslims. After the partition, in which Hindus are reported to have massacred Muslims while Muslims are not shown to have treated the Hindus in the same manner, India is portrayed as the enemy, which is waiting to dismember Pakistan. The separation of Bangladesh in 1971 is portrayed as proof of this Indian policy rather than the result of the domination of the West Pakistan over East Bengal. Above all, the 1948, 1965 and 1971 wars are blamed entirely on India, and Pakistan is shown to have won the 1965 war.

    more or less this is true so what's the big problem.....here it is kind of a fact don't you think....in 1965 india crossed the "OFFICAL BORDER" regardless of what we did in LOC area....in 71 india got involved in a civil war......48 well the largerly muslim population wanted to decide but the maharaja went to india and INDIA ANNEXED kashmir just the way it did with HYDERBAD & DECCAN!! and at partition HINDUS did massacre the muslims trains came filled with dead bodies to lahore....however, this was in return followed by pakistanis doing exactly the same!


    The Muslims knew that the people of South Asia were infidels and they kept thousands of idols in their temples”. The Sindhi
    king, Raja Dahir, is described as cruel and despotic. “The non-Brahmans who were tired of the cruelties of Raja Dahir, joined hands with Muhammad-bin-Qasim because of his good treatment.”


    again true....if not then why wasn't islam expelled from these lands just like it was from SPAIN...


    n these books, Muhammad-bin-Qasim is declared the first Pakistani citizen.


    This is just silly & nonsense!


    # Gandhi is throughout presented as a fundamentalist and extremist; Gandhi’s other side as a tolerant and peace loving leader is ignored.(Page 9)
    # Tone is again very anti-Gandhi; what is omitted unjustly is that Gandhi was killed by Hindu extremist groups for being too tolerant of the Muslims.(Page 15)


    well this is debatable....but i guess gandhi might have been "good" from the indian perspective but not from a pakistani perspective....we saw what happened in 1934 election congress came into powers and unleashed atrocities! hence this lead to the rise of PML.....so yes under GANDHI congress actually was despotic & not as utopian as indians would wish....if it was the PML would have never become so famous!

    and why should we tell the good in gandhi infact i feel if it wasn't for NEHRU & GANDHI the mass killings of partition days could have been avoided!!!

    There were a large number of Hindus in East Pakistan. They had never really accepted Pakistan. A large number of them were teachers in schools and colleges. They continued creating a negative impression among the students. No importance was attached to explaining the ideology of Pakistan to the younger generation. The Hindus sent a substantial part of their earnings to Bharat, thus adversely affecting the economy of the province. Some political
    leaders encouraged provincialism for the selfish purpose of gaining power. They went round depicting the central Government and (the then) West Pakistan as hostile and exploiters. Political aims were thus achieved at the cost of national unity.” 181



    very silly on the text book writers point of view!!!


    BUT HAVING SAID ALL THIS I GUESS OUR TEXTBOOKS are wrong they need to be corrected but INDIAN MEDIA CURRENTLY is spreading all the hate from across the border!
     
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  8. warlock

    warlock BANNED

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    nice link!

    i request every Pakistani member to read this once...
     
  9. ice_man

    ice_man SENIOR MEMBER

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    i read the link & these so called "MYTHS" well they are not being refuted by any facts are they? so from my point of view these "myths" are more or less not as distorted!

    & why shouldn't we discuss indian curriculum which after all shows NEHRU as a good guy only to be refuted as evil by the blue eyed boy of BJP in his new book!
     
  10. ice_man

    ice_man SENIOR MEMBER

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    the problem in your article is that these "myths" are stated & nothing has been backed up by evidence to refute them!
     
  11. AgNoStiC MuSliM

    AgNoStiC MuSliM PDF Veteran

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    The situation on textbooks and the 'myths' article have been discussed on several other threads. Please look them up.

    Historical distortions are nothing specific to Pakistan - after all most Indians go around repeating the 'Pakistan lost all wars with India', Pakistan started all wars with India, 'Genocide in East Pakistan and millions killed' canards ad infinitum.

    In addition, the impact of the inaccuracies in Pakistani textbooks does not seem to be reflected in the polling data, or else the Indians have similar issues, since opinion polls on the attitudes of Pakistanis towards Indians, and Indians towards Pakistanis are almost identical, with Pakistanis having slightly more favorable views of Indians.
     
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  12. warlock

    warlock BANNED

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    lol:rofl:

    Sir! Plz Excuse the language but i cant stop myself from saying that...
    this "Gimme Proof" disease is endemic in Pakistan... and i guess you are not the only one with that problem...
    How can you reject straight facts... and come up with... "gimme proof"???

    We have seen it time and again... from recent Mumbai attacks (where i guess you needed a Pakistani passports of the ppl responsible in pakistan in those dead terrorists pockets to accept that they were indeed involved)... to since i donno when...

    Coming back to that article...
    1. Its anyways a factual discussion... stating facts you can cross check with just a lil bit of googl-ing... and not just Wikipedia... (For example: see myth 1... telling that there exists remains of mohenjo daro.. alexander did invade... et al..---- now if you deny that as wel then... :cheesy:)

    2. Its written by a pakistani Professor... in a pakistani magazine... not an Indain (No RAW-Mosaad conspiracy)
     
    Last edited: Oct 24, 2009
  13. MilesTogo

    MilesTogo SENIOR MEMBER

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    I suggest people to watch "Enemy Imagined" on you tube's dawn-news channel. It is relevant to above discussion.
     
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  14. qsaark

    qsaark SENIOR MEMBER

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    There lies the problem, “if we are wrong, so are the Indians”. We are so much into this India-phobia that even though we know we are wrong, we try to justify our wrong by comparing it with the wrongs of the Indians instead of simply accepting the fact and trying to rectify it.

    If the logic “I am wrong so is he” is correct than all the judicial and law-&-order institutions must be closed down. Everyone can getaway with his wrongdoings by simply comparing himself with another. I am a liar so what, Mr X is also a liar…I am a murderer so what, Mr X is also a murderer…I am distorting history so what others are doing the same...So there is basically no possibility of fixing up things – So is this a news for Pakistanis? Why are we in the current state of turmoil? Is it because of the Indians or the Americans or because of our own fantasies and habit of living in denials?

    Until and unless we get rid of this India-phobia, we will never be able to fix things and our descent into chaos will continue.
     
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    Last edited: Oct 24, 2009
  15. Khajur

    Khajur BANNED

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    U should read the article again to figure out how clearly that those myths are refuted.

    And if u dont trust the writer of that article...u can read books on Sub continental history by international historian for detailed study..In this age of internet it wouldnt be difficult.