The Mughal Empire History

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  1. A1Kaid
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    This thread is dedicated to the history of the Mughal Empire. Please post images, videos, and information about the Islamic Mughal Empire here. Discussions on Mughal culture, religion, rule, leaders, weaponry, army, war, and overall history.

    a1769a593f320cc91bb2f7db169da061.png

    Muslim Mughal Empire Rulers of the Indian Subcontinent for a Thousand Years!

    Muslim City (Abandoned) of the Mughal Empire.

    This video presents Akbar the Great's endeavor to build an Islamic Mughal Capital larger than London itself.


    Mughal Siege of Chittor Fortress, An Epic Battle!

    The Turks and Mehmet II Are NOT the Only Conquerors for Islam!
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  2. A1Kaid
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    Battle of Panipat

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    Battle of Panipat I illustration

    b5c0dc184d1815096b1f2906844e7fd9.jpg
    The Second Battle at Panipat


    e9f6a55ae7149ffc5b7607ea90cd98fd.jpg
    The Third Battle at Panipat

    (1526, 1556, 1761), three military engagements, important in the history of northern India, fought at Panipat, a level plain suitable for cavalry movements, about 50 miles (80 km) north of Delhi. The first battle (April 21, 1526) was between the Mughal chief Bābur, then ruler of Kabul, and Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī of Delhi. Although the sultan’s army outnumbered the Mughals’, it was unused to the wheeling tactics of the cavalry and suffered from deep divisions. Ibrāhīm was killed, and his army was defeated. This marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India.

    Source: Battles of Panipat (Indian history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia




    Battle of Haldighati

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    Battle of Haldighati, June 15, 1876 C.E


    Excerpt:

    Rana Pratap Singh Sesodia ascended the throne of Mewar in February 1572—the fertile eastern half of his kingdom, commanded by the ancient forts of Chittor and Ranthambhor, had been occupied by the Mughal Empire. The new Rana thus had very few resources to continue the resistance against the Mughals—fortunately that year the Mughal Emperor Akbar began his conquest of Gujarat, and this gave Pratap time to consolidate his rule.

    After the conquest of Gujarat, the Mughals invaded the Rajput Kingdom of Dungarpur, south of Mewar and ruled by clan-brothers of the Sesodias. In June 1573, having received the submission of the Rawal of Dungarpur, Akbar's general Man Singh Kachwaha paid a visit to Rana Pratap. This embassy was a result of Akbar's belief that the new Rana, confined to a hilly corner of Rajasthan, was in no position to continue his father's resistance and would have to submit. The meeting between the two youthful warriors did not go well since Man Singh, overly proud of his conquests, expected to be treated as an equal by the Rana, even though he was then neither a king nor the head of his clan.


    Source: Airavat - Battle of Haldighati
    Last edited: Apr 9, 2009
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  3. Rafael
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    Well we hve got some mughals over here so we can ask them what went wrong with their uncles and aunts of that era....:P


    No offence!
  4. ThunderCat
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    The mughals were a Turko-Mongoloid people originating in the present-day country of Mongolia. Infact the word Mughal itself is a corruption of the word Mongol.

    The moons used on their flag(s) has little to do with islam, but infact a traditional symbol of Altaic peoples.

    Though the Mughals/Mongols adopted Farsi and later Urdu as their official language, their original language was of Altaic origin, meaning it was related to Uzbek, Turkish, Mongolian and other Altaic languages.

    Ethnicly they shared nothing in common with the people of Pakistan
  5. Coolyo
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    Babur was a Turko-Mongol, whose descendants integrated with other peoples! So the Mughals were more of a mixed group of people in their later days (I personally trace some of my roots to the Mughals)!

    And don't forget that the Ottoman Empire (Which is Turkic) has had a huge impact on Islamic History, so as Muslims there should be no harm in adopting a common Muslim symbol of flag!

    Pakistan and our forefathers had a lot of connections with the Ottoman Empire!

    Remember the Khilafa Movement, and the poetry of Allama Iqbal? Those are just some of the examples!
  6. IndiaNews98
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    IndiaNews98 FULL MEMBER

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    The First Video is wrong. The post-and-beam architecture of Fatehpur Sikri is not from Iran or Central-Asia, but is derived from Hindu construction styles.

    Read This:

    The city of emperors
    The city of emperors - Asia, Travel - The Independent

    In northern India lie the ruins of a centre of religious tolerance and enlightenment. William Dalrymple visits Fatehpur Sikri

    Saturday, 29 May 2004

    ...Yet for all this, the principles which guided Akbar in his project are still ones we recognise and respect today. He intended to translate his spiritual ideas into stone. As you walk down from the walls, your feet crunching on potsherds as you head past the goatherds and over the ruins of the city's domestic houses, you can still see what Akbar was trying to achieve. He consciously combined Hindu and Muslim elements in an innovative and highly syncretic fusion. This mixed the arch and dome of Islam with Hindu Indian elements such as delicate latticed screens, sharp chajja eves and chattri (umbrella) pavilions. He also had his new city filled with a fabulous efflorescence of wonderfully eccentric Gujarati-Hindu decorative sculpture, shipping over to the site a team of Hindu temple-carvers from the Gujarat region. All this he oversaw personally, camping in the building site and even helping to quarry the stone. He also made sure that his Hindu wives - who had also moved onto the building site - were not deafened by the construction work by ordering that the stone be finished at the quarry before being brought to the new city already prepared and fitted, like a sort of a vast IKEA self-assembly kit.

    The room where these discussions took place - the diwan-i-khas, or hall of private audience - still stands completely intact. It is covered with intricate interlaced designs that appear to have been transferred from the wooden architecture of Gujarat to the red sandstone of Fatehpur Sikri. At the centre of the room is a tall, highly decorated pillar on which rests a round platform; under it cascade the serpentine pendentives of one of the most elaborate capitals ever conceived or carved.
    _______________________________

    He is also reputed to be a very tolerant ruler, and the buildings at Fatehpur Sikri blended both Islamic and Hindu elements in their architectural style. One of the buildings even reflects the new sycretistic faith founded by Akbar, Din-e-ilahi, which though very short-lived remains a matter of controversy.
    Manas: Culture, Architecture of India, Fatehpur Sikri

    __________________________________

    The red sandstone architecture of the palace reflects largely Hindu architectural traditions. As one might expect, it is primarily in the great mosque that Islamic architectural forms dominate, although mixed with some traditional Indian decorative motifs.
    Images of Fatehpur
    Last edited: Sep 2, 2009
  7. EjazR
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    EjazR SENIOR MEMBER

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    I guess you need to revisit your History class. The Mughal empire was founded by Babur in the 16th century. So probably 400 years is a more accurate figure if we stretch it.

    Believe it or not, he actually fought against a muslim king Ibrahim Lodhi at Delhi. Infact almost all muslim rulers who invaded through Punjab and Sindh actually fought against muslim rulers of that areas except for three, Mohammed bin Qasim, Mahmud Ghaznvi and Mahmud Ghaouri.
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  8. Coolyo
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    @IndiaNews98... That is incorrect, these false claims made up by Hindutva extremists and fascists won't change the truth! These guys HATE admitting Islamic dominance in South-Asia so they try and mix their own history to make themselves feel better!

    A similar situation could be said about the Dictator of Spain during one of the world wars (don't remember his name), but he tried to twist history to mix Spanish elements in the history of Al-Andalus, but these claims have been exposed!

    The video is indeed correct in the way it portrayed the city! The video was also made by non-biased historians, not ignorance Fundamentalist-Hindus!
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  9. EjazR
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    EjazR SENIOR MEMBER

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    I think you missed the point. The moons used were a cultural symbol, not a muslim or Islamic specific. For example, for Arabs this has no meaning, hence the Saudi flag (or other arab flags) dont have star and crescents. So we can't take that as a common muslim symbol.

    Regarding the Khilafat movement, it was a emotional/politcal movement at that time but flawed. Even Jinnah had opposed it and that was the reason why he left the Congress in the first place.

    The Ottomon empire at the end of days was corrupt and the king was hardly a good muslim. Turkish sultans were living lives of luxury and enjoying wine and women without any care for Islam or being a good muslim.

    Sure it would be a emotional attachment and hence the poetry of Iqbal, but if you look at it closely, this (fall of the Ottomans) was bound to happeni.
  10. IndiaNews98
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    Its much lesser than 400 years. It was founded in 1526 and by the end of Auragzeb's disastrous reign in 1707, it was an empire only in name.
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  11. IndiaNews98
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    Check my sources.

    I'll list them out for you if you want:

    William Dalrymple, eminent Scottish historian.

    UCLA - University of California, Los Angeles

    University of Washington.


    Can you see any Hindutva here, or are you imagining it?
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  12. IndiaNews98
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    This is from Archnet - A site dedicated to the preservation of Muslim buildings. Check it out if you don't believe me.
    Fatehpur Sikri Palace Complex

    The overwhelming impression within is of a Hindu palace, with few indications of Islamic design. Immediately behind the Diwan-i Amm is a large courtyard in the centre of which a cross is marked out; this is a giant version of a Pachisi board which is an ancient Indian game. To the north of this courtyard is the most intriguing section of the palace, called the Diwan-i Khass. This is a square two-storey building with a balcony supported on heavy corbels above which is a chajja also supported on heavy corbels. On the roof there are domed chatris at each corner. Inside the building consists of a two-storey hall with a gallery at first-floor level. Bridges which run diagonally from the corners of the gallery connect to a balcony supported by a central pillar. The pillar is richly carved in the Hindu tradition with a mass of heavy corbels supporting the circular balcony above. This arrangement does not correspond to any other private audience room in a Mughal palace, nor is it encountered elsewhere in Mughal architecture. However, the arrangement of a square building with a central pillar may reflect some Hindu mandala whereby the central column represents the axis of the world; in this, if this was also the place where the emperor sat, he would be identifying himself as the axis of the world. In the context of his conquest of Gujarat Akbar may have been wishing to describe himself in Hindu terms of power.

    Akbar's interest in other religions may explain why he was prepared to have so much Hindu-style architecture in his palace, in particular the enigmatic form of the Diwan-i-Khass. The design of Fatehpur Sikri is unusual in Mughal architecture as a whole but may be regarded as characteristic of Akbar's reign. Other examples of Akbar's Hindu-style architecture are the Jahangari Mahal in Agra fort, the Ajmer fort in Rajasthan and Akbar's tomb at Sikandara near Agra.

    ________________________________________

    This is from the website Great Buildings Online
    Fatehpur Sikri - India - Great Buildings Online

    The instant city of Emperor Akbar. Hindu-style post and beams roofed with Muslim-style vaults and domes.
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  13. EjazR
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    EjazR SENIOR MEMBER

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    Well, although Aurangzeb is much maligned, he had the biggest area under the mughal empire and hence politcally the strongest. He had also infact commissioned some temples to be constructed and also announced that Cow slaughter should not be done in public in one of his firmans documented in the firmans of Aurangzeb for Benares Mansubdar

    The real end of the Mughal empire came after Bahadur Shah Zafar tried to fight and free India from the British in 1857-1860.
  14. IndiaNews98
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    I think his bad-name is well deserved. His cruelty far outweighs his few supposed good deeds. Akbar was the greatest, and perhaps the only great Mughal emperor worthy of respect.

    [edited]
  15. EjazR
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    EjazR SENIOR MEMBER

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    I think you don't have to look at it like that. The Mughal period was one of the glorious periods of Indian history where we saw flourishing of trade arts and architecture and culture. There was a distincly Indian flavour to this culture along with a mixture of Iranian and turkic culture, artisans and building techniques and styles.

    So for example Urdu is the true symbol of this Syncretism where persian, arabic, sanskrit and hindi all mixed to give birth to a new language. Similarly you have the Hindustani style of music. Claiming that the Taj Mahal is a hindu temple is something that Hindu fundamentalists would claim.

    Having said that, I think the first video was pretty balanced and the lattice structure could be a mixture of Iranian and local Indian styles. Particularly the use of domes and star shaped lattice work.