Pakistan Army Information

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    Info-Thread on the Pakistan Army. it will cover the following areas:

    Summary.
    Assessment.
    Deployments, Tasks and Operations.
    Army Aviation Corps.
    Recent and Current Operations.
    Command and Control.
    Organization.
    Divisions and Brigades.
    Operational Concept.
    Order of Battle.
    Corps and Subordinate Formations
    Strategic Forces Command.
    Army Aviation Orbat.
    Special Forces.
    Para-Military Forces.
    Reserves.
    Operational Art and Tactical Doctrine.
    Bases
    Training
    Main Military Schools, Training Centers and Depots.
    Army Procurement.
    Equipment in Service.
    Artillery.
    Anti-Tank Weapons.
    Air-Defence Weapons.
    Infantry Weapons.

    Summary.
    STRENGTH: 520,000 (Plus Reserves of some 500,000)

    INFANTRY:
    Infantry Division x 19
    Force Command Northern Areas (Division Equivalent) x 1
    Mechanized Infantry Division x 2
    Independent Infantry / Mechanized Infantry Brigade x 6

    ARMOUR:
    Armoured Division x 2
    Independent Armoured Brigade x 7
    Independent Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment x 8

    ARTILLERY:
    Artillery Division x 2

    ENGINEER:
    Brigade x 7

    SPECIAL FORCES:
    Battalion x 3

    AIR DEFENCE:
    HQ x 1
    Brigade x 8

    ARMY AVIATION:
    Squadron x 13

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Assessment.
    The Army is large, well trained, reasonably well equipped and has good morale. Senior Leadership is of a high quality and there is no evidence of religious extremism among senior officers, largely due to tight monitoring of promotions and selection boards by successive army chiefs, although it appears there may be some extremists in junior ranks.
    The army's weaknessesses include a shortage of high-quality officers, lukewarm co-operation with the Pakistan Air Force (PAF), insufficient appreciation that Indian tactical airpower is probably its major threat, and difficulty in retraining to meet the military/insurgency threat in the western regions. Some planning has been based on unrealistic assessments of achievement of local air superiority over the forward edge of the battle area (although, given IAF difficulties in maintaining air superiority capability, the situation is not now as critical as it was in the late 1990s). There is emphasis on ground Air-Defence (AD) by surface-to-air missiles (such as the Swedish RBS70 and US Stinger) and extensive gun systems. Both strike corps have considerable AD assets intended to be deployed rapidly during obstacle crossings and breakout, and mechanization has been steadily improving.
    Following the 1989 excercise Zarb-i-Momin (Believer's Blow), it was made clear to commanders that logistics mattered, that resupply was not to be considered "out of excercise" or "notional" and that all excercises had to have a credible logistics plan. Analysis of Zarb-i-Momin resulted in considerable restructuring, including the creation of Air Defence Command and Artillery Divisions. It was assessed that Command, Control, Communication, Computers and Intelligence (C4i) had serious defects, especially in the passage of tactical information from higher HQ to unit level, but improvement in this aspect has been slower than desired, mainly because of financial constraints. With the injection of US equipment, this situation is expected to improve.
    Some use is made of satellite communications. Although it is accepted these are insecure, there have been notable advances in the development and production of secure systems, but these do not appear to be available other than its strike formations and special and independent forces. Subsequent excercises have tested the development matrix generated by Zarb-i-Momin, but budget limitations have precluded conduct of trials on the scale necessary to test, prove, and modify doctrine and procedures to the extent desired by commanders and GHQ.
    On 3 November 2007, former Pakistani President and Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf imposed emergency rule and suspended the country's constitution by putting into effect a Provisional Constitution Order (PCO). The military high command remained on side with Musharraf until he stepped down as the commander of the military amid domestic and international pressure on 28th November 2007. General Ashfaq Kayani was appointed his successor.

    Deployments, Tasks and Operations.

    Pakistan Army Corps:

    I Corps, Mangla - A "strike" corps, it commands 6 Armoured Division, 8 Independent Armoured Brigade and two Mechanized Infantry Divisions (17 and 37). some elements have been deployed to North West Frontier Province (NWFP) to assist in countering militancy and securing the border with Afghanistan.

    II Corps, Multan - A "strike" corps with a Mechanized Infantry Division (40), an Infantry Division (14) which was deployed to South Waziristan in 2007, an Armoured Division (1) and an Independent Armoured Brigade.

    IV Corps, Lahore - The corps "mission" is to defend the area of Punjab province opposite Amritsar in India. it has two Infantry Divisions (10 and 11). two Independent Infantry Brigade Groups (partly mechanized), and one Independent Armoured Brigade Group.

    V Corps, Karachi - The corps defends eastern and southern Sindh province. it has two Infantry Divisions (16, 18 partly mechanized) and three Independent Armoured Brigade Groups.

    X Corps, Rawalpindi - Responsible for local security in the event of an emergency (the task of 111 Independent Infantry Brigade, Rawalpindi), and for Northern Pakistan and Pakistan-Administered Kashmir. HQ Force Commander Northern Areas (FCNA) is under administrative command of 10 Corps and opcom from GHQ. FCNA commands four Brigades with their HQ in Skardu, Astor, Siachen Glacier and Gilget. most infantry units are Northern Light Infantry Battalions (13), the three Infantry Divisions (12,19,23) have a total of 12 Brigades along the Line of Control (LOC).

    XI Corps, Peshawar - Two Infantry Divisions (7 and 9) responsible for North West Frontier Province (NWFP), the Afghan Border, and for reinforcement of eastern formations
    as required. currently involved in counter-insurgency operations, and heavily reinforced by units and formations from eastern corps.

    XII Corps, Quetta - Two Infantry Divisions (33 and 41) responsible for western Sindh, the Afghan border, and for reinforcement of eastern formations as required (as took place during the India-Pakistan confrontation in 2002). also committed to internal security operations against the separatist Baloch National Army (BNA).

    XXX Corps, Gujranwala - Two Infantry Divisions (8 and 15), two Independent Armoured Brigade Groups. responsibility for defence of the eastern front, south of IV Corps boundaries.

    XXXI Corps, Bahawalpur - Provides depth defence and available for exploitation and counter attack. Commands 26 Mechanized Division and two Infantry Divisions (35 and 40), of which elements have been redeployed to the west.

    Note: - Independent Armoured and Infantry Brigades are capable of extended operations without necessarily being reliant on a higher HQ for short-term logistic or intimate support. They can be used in counter-attack, exploitation of an advance, or rapid movement to reinforce formations under pressure.


    Army Aviation Corps.

    VIP Flight Squadron, Rawalpindi - SA-330, KING-AIR 200, CITATION V, CESSNA 421, COMMANDER 690, COMMANDER 840, H-500 (special duties)

    Aviation School and Centre, Rawalpindi (Qasim) - MUSHSHAK, ALOUETTE III, SCHWEIZER 300, BELL 206B, other on attachment.

    2 Squadron, Lahore - MUSHSHAK, UH-1H.

    3 Squadron, Multan - MUSHSHAK.

    4 Squadron, HQ at Qasim (formerly known as Dhamial), - south of Rawalpindi. detachments at Rahwali, Gilget, Samugli (Quetta) - Mi-17.

    5 Squadron, Qasim - ALOUETTE III.

    6 Squadron, Qasim - UH-1H, Mi-17.

    7 Squadron, Shahrae-Faisal - CESSNA O-1, MUSHSHAK.

    8 Squadron, Qasim - SA 315/316 LAMA.

    9 Squadron, Peshawar - CESSNA O-1(?), MUSHSHAK, ALOUETTE III

    13 Squadron, Qasim - CESSNA O-1(?), MUSHSHAK, Y-12.

    21 Squadron, Multan - PUMA, UH-IH.

    24 Squadron, Multan - PUMA

    25 Squadron, Dhamial (detachment at Gilget) - PUMA

    31 Squadron, Multan - AH-1F COBRA ANTI-TANK.

    32 Squadron, Multan - AH-1F COBRA ANTI-TANK.


    Recent and Current Operations.

    Internal Conflicts

    The Pakistan Army maintains a high level of readiness in anticipation of any renewed conflict with India, but current military operations have focussed mainly on internal security and, more markedly, counter-insurgency operations.

    Counter-terrorism/counter-insurgency operations are being carried out in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the Afghan border, where over 100,000 army and Frontier Corps troops are deployed in North West Frontier Province (NWFP). The low level insurgency in Balochistan, while primarily confronted by the paramilitary Frontier Corps, also involves the army's X Corps, HQ Quetta (temporary).

    UN Contributions:

    As of August 2008, Pakistan has over 10,000 troops on UN peacekeeping service, contributing troops or military observers to 12 missions:

    BINUB (Berundi) - one military observer.

    UNOCI (Cote d/Ivoire) - ten military observers.

    UNISOL (Sierra-Leone) - one military observer.

    MINURSO (Western Sahara) - eight military observers and

    MINUSTAH (Haiti) - one troop

    MONUC (Democratic Republic of Congo) - 3,500 troops and 53 military observers.

    UNMEE (Ethiopia/Eritrea) - two military observers.

    UNMIK (Kosovo) - two military observers.

    UNMIL (Liberia) - 16 military observers.

    UNMIT (Timor-Leste) - four military observers.

    UNOMIG (Georgia) - 11 military observers and

    UNMIS (Sudan) - 18 milirary observers and 1,562 troops


    Command and Control

    Minister of Defence: Chaudhry Ahmad Mukhtar

    Chief of Army Staff: General Ashfaq Pervez Kayani

    Vice Chief of Army Staff: Vacant

    The Pakistan Army is commanded by the Chief of Army Staff (CoAS). he is assisted by a Vice Chief (position vacant from November 2007) and six Principal Staff Officers (PSOs) who are all three-star generals:

    Chief of the General Staff (CGS)

    Adjutant General (AG)

    Quartermaster General (QMG)

    Master General of Ordanance (MGO)

    Inspector General Training and Education (IG T&E)

    Military Secretary (MS)

    Within the army the most influential deliberative body is the Corps Commanders Conference chaired by the CoAS and also attended by the Vice and Deputy Chiefs and the three-star PSOs.

    GHQ Pakistan Army, at present located in Rawalpindi, is reported to move to a new complex on the outskirts of Islamabad within the next two years.


    Organization:

    The army is structured in a conventional fashion, akin to that of the British Army before its series of reorganizations, and has not found it necessary to change for the sake of appearing modern. A drawback to the present system is that the span of higher command is too wide to effect continuous control by GHQ in Rawalpindi. There have been proposals create two intermediate HQ to command the corps on the eastern border, but the costs in funding and high-quality manpower would be prohibitive.

    Some manpower savings have been effected by reducing the number of logistics and other support personnel, especially in officer's messes. but with the army heavily committed to operations in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Balochistan in addition to carrying out normal training, it is unlikely these savings will be translated into an actual reduction in overall strength.

    Given the recently arisen imparitives of counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency and continuining dialouge and reduction of tensions on the eastern border, it is assessed that the army's basic organization will not alter, although they will continue to be rotational deployment of formations and units to the west.

    Divisions and Brigades

    The composition of fighting formations varies according to roles and tasks, with the aim of maintaining a balanced and flexible divisional groupings capable of accepting reinforcements of, for example, a further independent brigade under command for a particular operation. Ongoing mechanization, following resumption of M-113 (variant) production, has resulted in both armoured divisions achieving greater mobility, and the mechanized infantry divisions having appropriate allocations of armour and tracked support, given the delivery of more SP-109s from the US infantry divisions in the two strike corps have re-equipped almost entirely with Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs), but will not receive SP artillery in the short term. Brigades are conventionally structured, as far as possible in square formation, and the independent armoured brigades in V Corps (HQ Karachi) are to all intents an armoured division. Force Command Northern Area (FCNA), a mountain division in all but name, is lightly equipped and has no armour. Within combat divisions, logistics brigades have been formed to command support elements. This has resulted in promotion opportunities for officers of the support services that otherwise would not have been available.

    Operational Concept

    Of Pakistan's nine corps HQ, six are sited close to the indian border. Those in Peshawar (II Corps) and Quetta (XII Corps) are heavily involved in internal security and counter insurgency operations in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Balochistan. X Corps HQ, Rawalpindi commands formations along the Line of Control (LOC).

    In Karachi, V Corps (with some elements at present involved in internal security operations in Sindh and Balochistan Provinces), has the role of countering a thrust by India intended to cut the main Karach-Lahore road. This important road is being complemented by the new indus highway leading up the center of the country, an initiative prompted by economic and strategic considerations. the corps is also responsible for countering possible landings by indian marines or special forces.

    The three heavy infantry formations, IV, XXX, and XXXI Corps are tasked with countering indian thrusts in their immediate areas.

    Both I Corps (Mangla) and II Corps (Multan) are armour heavy "strike" corps, which would implement the doctrine of the riposte.

    Army Strategic Forces Command is regarded as a corps and commanded by a lieutenant general with his HQ in Rawalpindi. it is responsible for training, deployment and activation of nuclear missile assets.

    Order of Battle
    The Pakistan Army does not make its Order of Battle public. the table below is based on a number of sources.

    Corps and Sub-ordinate Formations with Locations.

    Strategic Forces Command, Rawalpindi.
    2 Missile Group, Probably Sargodha.
    ? Missile Group, n/a.

    I Corps, Mangla
    6 Armoured Division, Kharian.
    17 Mechanized Infantry Division, Kharian
    37 Mechanized Infantry Division, Gujranwala.

    II Corps, Multan
    1 Armoured Division, Multan
    14 Infantry Division, Okara (deployed to South Waziristan Agency 2007)
    40 Infantry Division, Okara

    IV Corps, Lahore
    10 Infantry Division, Lahore
    11 Infantry Division, Lahore
    3 Independent Armoured Brigade
    212 Independent Infantry Brigade

    V Corps, Karachi
    16 Infantry Division, Hyderabad
    18 Infantry Division, Hyderabad
    Three Independent Armoured Brigades, Malir (?), Pano Aqil (?), Hyderabad (?)

    X Corps, Rawalpindi
    Force Command Northern Area, Gilget (equivalent of a division, possibly five infantry divisions)
    12 Infantry Division, Murree
    19 Infantry Division, Jhelum
    23 Infantry Division, Gujrat
    111 Independent Infantry Brigade, Rawalpindi

    XI Corps, Peshawar
    7 Infantry Division, Mardan
    9 Infantry Division, Kohat

    XII Corps, Quetta
    41 Infantry Division, Quetta
    33 Infantry Division, Quetta

    XXX Corps, Gujranwala
    8 Infantry Division, Sialkot
    15 Infantry Division, Sialkot

    XXXI Corps, Bahawalpur
    35 Infantry Division, Bahawalpur
    34 Infantry Division, Pano Aqil
    105 Independent Brigade Group, Bahawalpur(?)

    Special Forces
    The Special Services Group (SSG) is headquartered at Cherat and has a base at Attock. it is also responsible for the Airborne School at Peshawar. it consists of three battalions each of four companies.

    Other SSG elements include:

    Akbar Company (Combat Diver Unit)
    Zarrar Company (Counter-terrorism)
    Iqbal Company (Communications Unit)


    Army Aviation Order of Battle

    Unit, Base, Type and Role

    1 Sqdn, Dhamial, JetRanger II/III, Liaison/Training

    2 Sqdn, Lahore, UH-IH Iroquois, Mushshak, Liaison

    3 Composite Sqdn, Multan, Mushshak, Liaison

    4 Sqdn, Quetta, Mi-17, Support
    Detachment of 4 Sqdn, Rahwali, Mi-17, Support

    5 Sqdn, Dhamial, Alouette III, Observation/Liaison

    6 Sqdn, Dhamial, Bell 412, Mi-17, Support
    Emergency Relief Cell, Dhamial, AB-205A-1, Disaster Relief

    7 Composite Sqdn, Faisal, O-1 Bird Dog, Mushshak, Liaison

    8 Sqdn, Dhamial, SA-315B Lama, Observation/Liaison
    Detachment 8 Sqdn, Skardu, Mushshak, Alouette III, Bell 412, Support

    9 Composite Sqdn, Peshawar, Mushshak, Alouette III, Miscellaneous

    13 Sqdn, Dhamial, Cessna 412, Commander 680/840, Y-12, VIP Transport

    21 Sqdn, Multan, SA 330J Puma, UH-IH Iroquois, Support

    24 Sqdn, Multan, SA 330J Puma, Support

    25 Sqdn, Dhamial, SA 330J Puma, Helicopter Support
    Detachment, Gilget, SA 330J Puma, Helicopter Support

    31 Sqdn, Multan, AH-1F HueyCobra, Jet Ranger III, Attack/Liaison (deployed to FATA)

    32 Sqdn, Multan, AH-1F HueyCobra, Jet Ranger III, Attack/Liaison (deployed to FATA)

    Aviation School, Rahwali, Mushshak, Schweizer 300C, Alouette III, Bell 47G/OH-13S, JetRanger II/III.


    Paramilitary Forces
    Pakistan's paramilitary forces - in the main subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior in peacetime (but to GHQ in war) - number some 100,000 and free the army and navy from most of the responsibilities of policing borders and economic zones. their officers are provided by the regular forces. the army's already severe shortage of junior officers is exacerbated by this requirement and consideration should be given to creating an officer corps solely for paramilitary elements such as the Pakistan Rangers (who police the border with India) and the Frontier Corps (responsible for the western border with Afghanistan and Iran). In war, some of the higher calibre units would provide reinforcement for the army, as formed body of troops of company or even battalion size.

    The Frontier Corps consists of 14 units based in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and 13 units based in Baluchistan, with HQ based in Peshawar and Quetta.

    The Pakistan Rangers HQ is in Sialkot with subordinate HQ in Sialkot, Bahawalpur and Rahim Yar Khan. The Rangers are responsible for low level border security but can be deployed elsewhere as required by the internal security situation.


    Reserves
    There is an army reserve of 500,000 whose members have a triennial attendance obligation to the age of 45. Refresher training is as adequate as can be expected of a three week period, but reserve service seems popular. The 180,000 strong National Guard would be useful in guarding vulnerable points. It consists of the Mujahid Force of 60,000, organized in battalions, some with light air defence capability. the Janbaz Force of 100,000, whose members are intended to serve close to their homes; and the National Cadet Corps in universities and colleges. these elements have some value in providing poorly trained but enthusiastic reinforcements for rear area units.


    Operational Art and Tactical Doctrine
    From the time of the 65 war, through that of 71 and until the Indian Army excercise Brass Tacks in 1987, emphasis was on static defence of the LOC and the border. Penetration of Indian territory would be undertaken only on an opportunity basis. the doctrine was flawed, mainly because of lack of strategic depth in Pakistan, but no alternative was given serious consideration until it was realised that a "stand and fight" doctrine would probably result in deep penetration by Indian forces without Pakistani forces being able to manoeuver effectively. the Indian army would have gained and retained the initiative, enabling it to destroy Pakistani formations piecemeal as they reacted to Indian thrusts.

    The "Riposte" is simple in concept: it is intended that the two strike corps conduct a limited advance along narrow fronts with the objective of occupying indian territory near the border, probably to a depth of 40 to 50 km. Pakistan considers that international pressure would result in a ceasefire after a maximum of three weeks of conflict, enough time to gain some territory to be used in subsequent bargaining. there would be acceptance of Indian penetration, which would be inevitable given the comparitive lack of mobility within the Infantry heavy divisions. Independent Armoured and Mechanized Brigades are intended for quick counter attack and exploitation and would add considerable weight to advances by the strike corps.

    The "Riposte" is practiced at all levels. Major excercises involve the crossing of water obstacles and minefields at night with emphasis on subsequent break-out and rapid advance. So far as has been seen, the concept has been adequately translated into workable plans which are continuously being refined. However, complete mechanization of the strike corps and other formations was slowed by the effects of US sanctions and it will take some time for them to achieve desired mobility, although US army surplus equipment is now being rapidly delivered, and local manufacture and rebuilding of US supplied AFV/APC has received considerable impetus, thus improving the mechanization process.

    The army took great interest in the Indian army/airforce excercise Vajra Shakti (Thunder Power, conducted in Punjab from 1-10 May 2005). in view of its emphasis on maintaining mobility while operating closed down against nuclear attack. Pakistan's own counter - nuclear preparedness is patchy, and it is doubtful that even the strike corps could fight through a nuclear battlefield.

    India's doctrine of "Cold Start" involving swift penetration of Pakistan with the aim of isolating, destroying or capturing vital points (such as nuclear stores and other installations has resulted in some modification to the Riposte, in that acceptability of penetration could be fatal to counter-penetration plans. in the event of an indian advance reaching or crossing the line of the main Lahore-Karachi highway, it is likely there would be consideration of employment of tactical nuclear missiles.

    Bases
    Major Army bases are located at:

    Karachi

    Mangla

    Lahore

    Multan

    Peshawar

    Quetta

    Rawalpindi

    Bahawalpur


    Training
    Training is the overall responsibility of the Inspector General, Training and Evaluation (IG T&E) in GHQ. The army relies largely on the efficient regimental system whereby each infantry regiment has its own training center, as have other arms and services. Initial training of officers (now including females in other than the Medical Corps) is conducted mainly at the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul, Abbotabad. Standards are adequate, although the course is too short, and emphasis has to be placed on instruction in the English language.

    Regimental and special-to-arms and -services training is of a high standard but there is much learning by rote, which tends to reduce initiative. Instruction at army schools (such as the School of Infantry and Tactics at Quetta) is impressive and courses are conducted efficiently. This also applies to the Command and Staff College. Directing staff are high quality and the syallabus is sound. However, the culture of chappa- an anxiety to conform, resulting in emphasis on obtaining "correct" solutions from former students - produces careful, but imitative papers. Despite this, topic discussion is energetic, and the product is generally good.

    Advanced technical training and graduate/post-graduate studies are carried out under the aegis of the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), which involves the Colleges of Medicine, Signals, Military Engg and Electrical and Mechanical Engg. These are linked with civilian, naval and airforce institutions and with Michigan State (US) and Cranfield (UK) universities.

    Advanced courses for officers are conducted at National Defence University in Islamabad, of which the two main courses (August to June) are the National Defence Course (brigadiers and equivalent) and the Armed Forces War Course (lieutenant colonels and equivalent). Instruction is world standard.

    Individual and collective training in units is conducted in an annual cycle, usually dictated by the timing of higher-level excercises. Sub-unit and unit excercises generally held in summer, with brigade and divisional manoeuveres after the harvest and in winter.
    There has been emphasis on computer-based war gaming, with consequent improvement in staff work, especially in logistics. In the 1965 and 1971 wars, few formations were far from base facilities and supply dumps and it is only comparitively recently that battlefield recovery and practice in forward supply have been alotted the importance they deserve. Much training focuses on obstacle crossing, as there are extensive natural and manmade water barriers on both sides of the border, especially in Punjab.

    Since 2001, following the invasion of Afghanistan, there has been a gradual than accelerating requirement to counter terrorism and insurgency, especially in, but far from limited to, Baluchistan and North West Frontier Province (NWFP). As the main task of the army was defence of the eastern border, and low level border control was almost exclusively the responsibility of the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps (the latter assisted by tribal irregulars), there was no particular emphasis on instruction in counter insurgency. When it became necessary to deploy formation HQ and units to the western regions it became apparent that such instruction was essential, and unit and sub-unit training was undertaken concurrently with modification of syllabi in army schools such as the School of Infantry and Tactics. It is expected that this emphasis will be maintained, given the senstivity of the western border regions and the decreasing likelihood of conflict with India (?).

    Main Military Schools, Training Centres and Depots
    School/Centre/Depot, Location

    Baloch Regimental Centre, Abbotabad
    Frontier Force Regimental Centre
    HQ, School of Mountain Warfare (mobile detachments, elements in Skardu)
    Pakistan Military Academy
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Azad Kashmir Regimental Centre, Attock
    Special Service Group (SSG) (also at Cherat and the Parachute School, Peshawar)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Corps of Military Police Centre, Dera Ismail Khan
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Punjab Regimental Centre, Mardan
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Schools of Army Education, Logistics and Intelligence Murree
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Schools and Centres of Armour, Artillery, Service Corps, Nowshera
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Parachute School (SSG) Peshawar
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Sindh Regimental Centre, Petaro
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Command and Staff College Quetta
    School of Infantry and Tactics
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Aviation Centre and School Rawalpindi
    Military College of Electrical & Mechanical Engg
    Army Medical College
    Military College of Signals
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Military College of Engineering Risalpur
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


    Army Procurement

    Main Battle Tanks

    Al-Khalid
    Pakistan's efforts to develop its own indigenous tank, the Al-Khalid, suffered initially from difficulties over the supply of power/transmission packs from a European source, As a result of co-operation with Ukraine over the T-80 Main Battle Tank (MBT), the Ukranian Malyshev Plant sold engine and gearbox units for the Al-Khalid to Pakistan in September 2000, and was contracted to provide a total of 315 packs. In November 2000 Pakistan announced that the Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) facility would build a pre-production batch of Al-Khalids in co-operation with the China North Industries Corporation (NORINCO). The first 15 Al-Khalids appeared in July 2001. The production rate in 2004 was estimated by HIT to be 45-60 annually, dependent on budget allocation, and some 220 were in service as of May 2008. Development continues, with modifications in the fire control system and linkage.

    Upgraded T-59
    Though superseded by the Al-Khalid as the Pakistan Army's first line MBT, the Phase III Al-Zarrar version of the Type 59 has been upgraded and is adequate for training and emergency combat use. The program is centered on fitting a 125mm smoothbore main gun, an upgraded computerised fire control system and ATCOP TR3 laser range-finder, together with DNS 3 image intensifier. Both Thales and Sagem night vision equipment is under trial. Improved armour protection has also been fitted in the shape of an external anti-mine plate on the chassis and Explosive Reactive Armour (ERA). Unlike the Al-Khalid MBT, the 125mm main gun is not fitted with an auto-loader, so the Al-Zarrar has a fourth crew member for this purpose. The army has ordered 400 upgraded tanks of the holding od some 1,000, with the remainder being phased out as the Khalids enter service. The first batch of 80 was handed over in February 2004. it is unlikely Pakistan will seek to purchase MBTs from other sources in the forseeable future, and that it will concentrate on continuing close cooperation with China in this as in other aspects of military development.

    Armoured Personnel Carriers

    HIT has developed a number of M113A1 variants for the Pakistan Army. These include:

    1. The Maaz is a modified M113A1 fitted with a Baktar Shikan anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW). The shape of the M113A1 has been modified, extending its nose slightly and adding additional diesel fuel tanks on the back.

    2. Mouz - Modified M 113 fitted with RBS 70.

    3. Talha - Modified M 113 APC.

    4. Saad - Modified M 113 APC.

    5. Al-Hamza - Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) (25mm cannon).

    6. Al-Qaswa - logistics vehicle.

    7. Sakb - Command post vehicle.

    8. Al-Hadeed - Recovery vehicle (modified Talha)


    Artillery / Anti Tank
    The country is developing its own MLRS system, the Azar (probably in conjuction with China), and it appears to be successful. The army urgently requires more self-propelled medium and heavy artillery pieces, and ageement with the US has been reached for supply of 115 M109A5 155mm SP guns at an estimated cost of US$ 56 million(deliveries underway). Its indigeneous anti-tank missile, the Baktar Shikan is in production but cannot be said to be a technological advance on existing systems. it is however cheap and easy to handle.

    Pakistan is seeking to procure self-propelled mortar systems to equip mechanized infantry battalions with indigeneous firepower to complement the recent improvement in Pakistan's self-propelled artillery formations. This capability is seen as a requirement given the planned increase in the number of fully mechanized formations, but both the Artillery Directorate and Strike Corps are more concerned with the effectiveness of self-propelled howitzers and hence mortar procurement is likely to take second place and be based around converted M 113s or similar systems.


    Army Aviation
    The need to improve tactical mobility led to the induction of 10 additional Kazan/Mil Mi 17 medium transport helicopters and 26 Bell 412EP multirole medium helicopters. These have been supplemented by 20 refurbished AH 1F Huey Cobra close support/attack helicopters from the US. The first 8 were handed over in Feburary 2007 and deliveries continue.

    In October 2008, the Bush administration notified US Congress of its plans to provide as much as US$ 116 million in upgrades for eight of the Pakistan Army's AH 1F Cobra helicopters, which are being used in counter-insurgency operations in the country's tribal regions.

    Since 2003, the US has provided Pakistan with upto 32 surplus Cobras, which are supposed to be used to provide surveillence, attack and close air support to ground forces engaging the Taliban and fighters linked to Al Qaeda based in Pakistan's federally administered tribal areas (FATA) and northwest frontier province (NWFP). The proposed Cobra refurbishment will include associated equipment and services as well as warranties, transportation and logistics support.

    Prime contractor for the upgrades is US Helicopter in Ozark, Alabama, will send staff to join serving US personnel in Pakistan for three weeks to ensure delivery and operability of the upgraded equipment. A three person field office will also be established for three years to provide technical assistance for the upgrades to the Pakistan Army.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)
    In March 2006, the army finalised an order from Germant for the EMT Luna short-range battlefield reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition UAVs. Three or four systems are likely to be obtained but complete details are yet to be known.

    In July 2006, Pakistan and Turkey signed a deal for the joint production of six to seven tactical UAVs, according to turkish and pakistani defence industry sources. During a visit to Turkey, Chief of the Air Staff, Pakistan Air Force, ACM Tanvir Mahmood Ahmad confirmed to Jane's that the two countries would co-operate on UAV production but declined to give further details. The decision to co-build UAVs came after months of study in the two countries.

    In May 2008, following a visit to Pakistan by Australia's Chief of Defence Force, that Pakistan had expressed interest in acquiring the Scan Eagle pilotless reconnaissance aircraft built by Boeing Australia.


    Air Defence
    Tactical air defence has been improved by the introduction of indigenously produced Anza MKI manportable surface to air missiles (SAMs)(based on the China Machinery and Export Corporation HN 5 series) and the Anza MK2 SAM based on the CPMIEC QW 1 Vanguard SAM).


    Equipment in Service
    Armour

    Type: Al-Khalid
    Manufacturer: HIT
    Role:MBT
    Original Total:220

    Type: Type 59/59M (including Zarrar)
    Manufacturer: HIT
    Role:MBT
    Original Total:600

    Type: Type 69 (PRC improved version of Type 59. 100mm gun. Not battle survivable)
    Manufacturer: Chinese State Factories
    Role:MBT
    Original Total:350

    Type: Type 85 IIAP
    Manufacturer: Chinese State Factories
    Role:MBT
    Original Total:300 (local assembly of kits and manufacture of some components. 125mm gun but fire-control system basic in early versions (upgrade in progress)) total planned production unknown. further acquisition unlikely.

    Type: T 80UD
    Manufacturer: Malayshev Plant, Ukraine.
    Role:MBT
    Original Total:320

    Type: M 113A1/M 113A2
    Manufacturer: HIT.
    Role:APC
    Original Total: 2,000

    Type: UR 416
    Manufacturer: Rheinmetall Landsystems GmbH.
    Role:APC
    Original Total: 35

    Type: Type 531
    Manufacturer: n/a.
    Role:APC
    Original Total: 100

    Type: BTR 70/BTR-80 (UN Service)
    Manufacturer: n/a.
    Role:APC
    Original Total: 120

    Equipment in Service
    Artillery

    Type: 105mm M101
    Manufacturer: Rock Island Arsenal
    Role: Towed Howitzer
    Original Total:300

    Type: 105mm Model 56 Pack
    Manufacturer: Oto Melera SpA
    Role: Towed Howitzer
    Original Total:110

    Type: 122mm Type 54
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Towed Howitzer
    Original Total:400

    Type: 155mm M 198
    Manufacturer: Rock Island Arsenal
    Role: Towed Howitzer
    Original Total: 124

    Type: 155mm M 114
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Towed Howitzer
    Original Total: 144

    Type: 155mm M 109A2
    Manufacturer: BAE Systems, Ground Systems
    Role: Towed Self-Propelled Howitzer
    Original Total: 200

    Type: 155mm M 109A5
    Manufacturer: BAE Systems, Ground Systems
    Role: Towed Self-Propelled Howitzer
    Original Total: 115 ( on 16 December 2005, DSCA notified Congress of a possible FMS of M109A5 155mm SP Howitzers plus associated equipment and services to Pakistan. This order was confirmed in May 2006 with deliveries expected during 2007/2008.)

    Type: 203mm M 110A2
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Towed Self-Propelled Howitzer
    Original Total: 50

    Type: 130mm Type 59-1
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Field Gun
    Original Total: 400

    Type: 130mm Type M46
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Field Gun
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 155mm M59
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Medium Gun
    Original Total: 30

    Type: 107mm Type 81
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Multiple Rocket System
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 122mm Type 83 (Azar)
    Manufacturer: Institute of Industrial Control Systems
    Role: Multiple Rocket System
    Original Total: 45


    Equipment in Service
    Anti - Tank Weapons

    Type: AT 11 Sniper / 9MM 119
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Anti-Tank Guided Weapon
    Original Total: 600 (part of the deal for T-80UD tanks)

    Type: Green Arrow (PRC Red Arrow)
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Anti-Tank Guided Weapon
    Original Total: 700 (estimated)

    Type: Baktar Shikan
    Manufacturer: Institute of Industrial Control Systems (IICS)
    Role: Anti-Tank Missile System
    Original Total: 250

    Type: TOW2A
    Manufacturer: Raytheon
    Role: Anti-Tank Missile System
    Original Total: 100

    Type: 75mm Type 52
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Recoilless Rifle
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 106mm M40A1
    Manufacturer: Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Ltd
    Role: Recoilless Rifle
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: RPG 7 40mm
    Manufacturer: Pakistan Machine Tool Factory Ltd
    Role: Portable Rocket Launcher
    Original Total: n/a


    Equipment in Service
    Air Defence Weapons

    Type: 40mm M1
    Manufacturer: Bofors Weapons Systems
    Role: Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: 100

    Type: 57mm Type 59
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: 100

    Type: 37mm (Twin) Type 55/56
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: 700

    Type: Oerlikon Contraves Skyguard - Twin 35mm
    Manufacturer: Oerlikon Contraves AG (Rheinmetall Defence)
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: 200

    Type: Twin 23mm ZU 23-2
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 14.5 mm ZPU-2
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 14.5 mm ZPU-4
    Manufacturer: Norinco
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: 12.7mm (Quadi) M55
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Towed Anti-Aircraft Gun
    Original Total: 45

    Type: RBS 70 (Plus Giraffe Radars)
    Manufacturer: Saab Bofors Dynamics AB
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: 200

    Type: FIM 92A Stinger
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: HN 5A
    Manufacturer: n/a
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: 30 (probably no longer in front-line service - either obsolete or in reserve)


    Type: Anza Mk 1
    Manufacturer: Institute of Industrial Control Systems (IICS)
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: Anza Mk 11
    Manufacturer: Institute of Industrial Control Systems (IICS)
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: n/a

    Type: Anza Mk 111 (in development. probably based on the Chinese Qian Wei-2 man portable SAM)
    Manufacturer: Institute of Industrial Control Systems (IICS)
    Role: Man Portable Surface to Air Missile System
    Original Total: n/a


    Equipment in Service
    Infantry Weapons

    Type: 9mm Walther P38
    Role: Pistol

    Type: 9mm Sterling
    Role: Sub-Machine Gun

    Type: 9mm H&K MP5
    Role: Sub-Machine Gun

    Type: 7.62 mm G3
    Role: Assault Rifle

    Type: 7.62 mm Type 56
    Role: Assault Rifle

    Type: 7.62 mm AKM
    Role: Rifle

    Type: 7.62 mm RDP
    Role: Light Machine Gun

    Type: 7.62 mm MG1A3
    Role: Machine Gun

    Type: 0.5 in Browning M2 HB
    Role: Heavy Machine Gun

    Type: 12.7mm Type 54
    Role: Heavy Machine Gun

    Type: 60mm PMT
    Role: Mortar

    Type: 81mm PMT
    Role: Mortar

    Type: 120mm PMT
    Role: Mortar


    Army Aviation

    Type: AH 1F/S Huey Cobra
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Attack
    Original Total: 28

    Type: AH 1S Huey Cobra
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Attack
    Original Total: 6

    Type: Y 12 (II)
    Manufacturer: HAI
    Role: Transport
    Original Total: 4

    Type: Y 12 (II)
    Manufacturer: HAI
    Role: Transport
    Original Total: 4

    Type: 206B Jetranger III
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Observation
    Original Total: 12

    Type: O 1 Bird Dog
    Manufacturer: Dhamial (Cessna)
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: n/a (10 surviving)

    Type: Mushshak
    Manufacturer: PAC
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: n/a (120 surviving)

    Type: Super Mushshak
    Manufacturer: PAC
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 42 (stated requirement - none delivered so far)

    Type: Mi 17 Hip H
    Manufacturer: Mil
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 37

    Type: SA 330J Puma
    Manufacturer: Aerospatiale
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 32

    Type: SA 315B Lama
    Manufacturer: Aerospatiale
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 24

    Type: 412EP
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 26 (first delivered in 2004)

    Type: 412EP
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 25 (delivered 2007)

    Type: 407
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 40

    Type: 205A-1
    Manufacturer: Augusta Bell
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 10

    Type: 421 Golden Eagle
    Manufacturer: Cessna
    Role: Utility
    Original Total: 1

    Type: 690C Commander Jetprop 840
    Manufacturer: Gulfstream Aerospace
    Role: VIP Transport
    Original Total: 2

    Type: 206B Jetranger II
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Trainer
    Original Total: 15

    Type: 300C
    Manufacturer: Schwiezer (Hughes)
    Role: Trainer
    Original Total: 10

    Type: 47G/OH-13 Sioux
    Manufacturer: Bell
    Role: Trainer
    Original Total: n/a (10 surviving)

    Notes: Locally developed Anza SAM may arm AH 1S in air-to-air missile role. Chinese HJ-8 (built locally as Baktar Shikan) may arm other helicopters.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Type: Luna (Germany)
    Manufacturer: EMT
    Role: Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
    Original Total: 4

    Type: Falco (Italy)
    Manufacturer: Finmeccanica
    Role: Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance
    Original Total: 4


    Missiles

    Type: BGM 71 TOW
    Manufacturer: Raytheon
    Role: Anti-Armour

    updated to May-2008
    Jane's World Armies, 24th issue, Dec-08.
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  2. qsaark
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    qsaark SENIOR MEMBER

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    Good to see the reference. Its a practice all of us should follow.
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  3. Xeric
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    Xeric PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    130 mm is not a Field Gun!
    Atleast Pak Artillery is not utilizing it as a field gun, it falls under the Medium category,
    Last edited: Aug 21, 2009
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  4. JK!
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    JK! PROFESSIONAL

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    Nice figure more believable than fanboy lists from wikipedia.

    Just one thing though there are two entries for the Bell 412EP so how many does Pakistan actually have?

    I'm guessing 25 but 51 would be great.
  5. fatman17
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    fatman17 PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    yeah surprised me too. this stuff is pretty verified ~95% correct!
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  6. satishkumarcsc
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    satishkumarcsc SENIOR MEMBER

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    Can you get the same for the Indian army too? Please.
  7. ejaz007
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    ejaz007 SENIOR MEMBER

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    Thanks, great post.

    Just wanted to add one thing all M-109 A5 have been delivered. Last delivery happened in december 2008.
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  8. fatman17
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    fatman17 PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    if you ask nicely!
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  9. wave69
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    Good job fatman,
    Keep this info coming in.
  10. wave69
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    wave69 FULL MEMBER

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    Reading the article above reminds me few things about PA, All the books I have read on PA one things has been said again and again, That this army does not understand the concept of logistics properly nor do have right appreciation of Inter-service co-ordination. Modern war fare has evolved to be very challenging which requires very close understanding of each others objectives.. hope they will get soon...
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  11. fatman17
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    this remain the key for the 3 services to have a joint action plan. the army and airforce relationship is cordial at best. this is not because they are jealous of each other but it stems from the priorities both have to face if hostilities break out. eg.

    PAF's prime objective would be to deny the enemy air superiority over pak skies and the forward battle areas. for this most of its assets are engaged. when the PA calls for ground support for its formations under pressure or strike corps counter-attacking, the PAF does not have enough assets available to support due to the aforementioned reasons. thus the mind-set of the commanders to "do it alone" and the subsequent "hesitancy" of formation commanders to expose themselves to enemy retaliation.

    Now if the PAF had the requsite numbers of dedicated ADF and CAS aircraft then the co-ordination issues would subside to a great extent. now the PAF is working towards this with its ambitious plan of inducting 250 JF-17 multi-role aircraft which would be dedicated for various roles like ADF, CAS, NavAttack etc. this would leave the F-16s and the F-20s dedicated for the prime purpose. flying top cover.

    now i am not a air strategist but this is how i see it.

    i was talking to a naval officer attending a war course at NDU and there the navy is proposing that it should have its own naval air arm (PAF pilots deputised to the navy. the navy commander would write their annual ACRs) for the same reasons i have mentioned above.
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  12. Kasrkin
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    Kasrkin PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    Yes !!! The Indian Army pages would be great!:tup:

    Wonderful Fatman17, we can't thank you enough.:yahoo:
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  13. fatman17
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    fatman17 PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    i will start the info-thread in the indian section starting monday next!
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  14. Xeric
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    Xeric PDF THINK TANK: CONSULTANT

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    i dont agree with what you have said in your second paragarph!
    We are not the US military which can dedicate any number of assests at any point of time at any place of application!

    We and many others have to priortize and sort out the theaters, objective, times and mission where certain assests and support would be required inevetively!!

    The tri services do has plans to cater for this eventuality. Or i must say procedure are there to sift through the situation in order to provide the most critical theater of war with the most critical resources in order the bring out the best.

    An example to this can the Strike Corps Operations..where 'things' are available when are where required! (nothing more is coming out from on this:))

    A very valid point has been brought out by you...but i must tell you things have changed manifolds now...Kargil and stuff has taught us alot!!:pakistan:
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  15. wave69
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    Thanks for the feedback, (Kargil) !! This is the point , going back to 71 war any one remembers loogewala Battle?? The operation conducted by PA in this sector was not only incompetent but right down STUPID!! The Indians might have glorified this by their movie.. Border... but once again PA did not learn... (Kargil) episode point in case... PA got hammered in Logewala becus NO AIR COVER !! === inter-service co-ordination..
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