Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

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    5 July 1984
    Pakistan's allocates $35 million for PAEC projects, including $10 million for the Chashma nuclear power project, in its budget for the year 1984-85. Pakistan's Planning Minister Mahboob-ul-Haq indicates a lack of progress in the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant since no major supplier has submitted bids for the project. Other budget allocations include $13 million for a classified re-processing plant, $4.5 million for a nuclear mineral survey, and $1.5 million for an on-going uranium exploration project in Dera Ghazi Khan.
    --Shahid0ur-Rehman, "Pakistan's Budget for 1984-85 Provides $35 million," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1984, Vol. 25, No. 27, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 - 13 July 1984
    11 Western suppliers of nuclear technology meet in Luxemburg to strengthen nuclear export control regulations. One of the important issues that forced the group to convene is Pakistan's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The Luxemburg meeting represents the first meeting, since 1977, for most of the members of the 15-member of the London Suppliers Club.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Nuclear Nations Agree to Tighten Export Controls," New York Times, 16 July 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 July 1984
    A federal grand jury indicts three Pakistani nationals Nazir Ahmed Vaid, Salim Ahmed Mohamedy, and Ilyas Ahmed Mohamedy on charges of providing false statements to US Customs officials, violating US export laws governing munitions, and conspiracy. Mr. Vaid is in custody with a bond amount of $200,000. The other two charged persons are arrested and the bond amount for bail is set at $100,000. US Assistant Attorney Sam Longoria and Defense Attorney William Burge refuse to comment on the case citing a gag order issued by the judge.
    --"Pakistanis Accused of Moving Nuke Parts," United Press International, 17 July 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 July 1984
    Reagan administration officials state that China's assistance to Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is a major road-block in consummating the nuclear cooperation agreement signed between China and the United States during President Reagan's China trip in April. US officials express serious concern over the presence of Chinese officials at the Kahuta enrichment facility and indicate that the situation is being closely observed. US officials believe that China and Pakistan are engaged in a mutual agreement wherein China will assist Pakistan in overcoming the technical hurdles for building uranium enrichment centrifuges and in return China might get access to the advanced centrifuge designs stolen by Pakistan. Other reports also suggest that China transferred a quantity of weapons grade highly enriched uranium (HEU) sufficient for a few nuclear devices. Some US officials, however, express doubts over the report.
    --Simon Henderson and Alain Cass, "Washington May Freeze Nuclear Pact with China," Financial Times (London), 17 July 1984, Section 1, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 July 1984
    Canada convicts 2 Pakistanis of attempting to export US-made equipment to Pakistan without obtaining the required permits. The company Serabit Electronics Ltd. is also convicted. Canada arrested 3 men, Salam Elmenyawi, Mohammad Ahmad, and Abdul Aziz Khan in August 1980 while attempting to illegally export electrical components to Pakistan. Salam Elmenyawi and Mohammad Ahmad are fined $3,000 each on a minor technical charge. The third man, Abdul Aziz Khan, believed to be the prime suspect is acquitted of charges. Abdul Aziz Khan is acquitted after he convinces the Canadian jury over the harmless nature of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan's research work. The evidence produced by the Canadian prosecutors against Abdul Aziz Khan included letters written by Dr. A.Q. Khan inviting Abdul Aziz Khan to work on a project of "national importance", ambiguous letters explaining the progress of research, and letters explaining the problems faced by the research program. Abdul Aziz Khan also claimed ignorance of the article, explaining uranium enrichment, which was seized during his arrest. Abdul Aziz Khan also claimed during the trial that the inverters (confiscated during the time of his arrest) were intended for use in a textile plant and a food processing plant.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 July 1984
    The Information Minister at Pakistan's Embassy in London denies any Chinese assistance in Pakistan's nuclear program. The Minister reaffirms the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program and states that such allegations have been denied by both China and Pakistan. The Minister also deplores the criticism of Pakistan's nuclear program and points to the lack of such criticism for the nuclear weapons program of India, Israel, and South Africa.
    --"Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," Financial Times (London), 20 July 1984, Section 1, Letters to the Editor, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 July 1984
    A Pakistani embassy spokesperson Iqbal Butt indicates that a request has been made to the US State Department to allow a Pakistani official to visit the three Pakistanis indicted in Houston. The spokesperson denies that Mr. Vaid is representing the Pakistani government and states that the Pakistani embassy learnt of the affair only through the newspapers. The spokesperson also states that Pakistan's nuclear program is only geared towards peaceful purposes.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 August 1984
    According a Pakistani news agency, Pakistan succeeds in enriching graphite to over 99%, enabling its use in a nuclear reactor. The graphite is mined in the Neelam valley in the Pakistani part of Kashmir. Pakistani officials also believe that a graphite processing plant might be built in Pakistan controlled part of Kashmir where 0.5 million tons of good quality graphite is available. The pre-investment study was conducted by Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) and the pilot as well as laboratory studies for graphite purification have been successful completed. Graphite is used as a moderator in natural uranium fueled uranium reactors that can be used for producing plutonium. Pakistani officials did not provide information on the rationale for purifying graphite. Pakistan's sole nuclear reactor is moderated by heavy-water.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan Reports it is Working on Graphite Purification for Reactor Use," Nucleonics Week, 2 August 1984, Vol. 25, No. 31, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 August 1984
    A statement by the Pakistani Embassy in the United States reports that Pakistan's laboratory-scale plutonium reprocessing facility possesses limited capacity and states that it will take several decades for Pakistan to develop even a single nuclear weapon. The statement further states that Pakistan does not possess a team for designing nuclear weapons.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaffirms Peaceful Atomic Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 4 August 1984, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7713/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1984
    US State Department officials ask technical experts to examine the recent reports regarding Pakistan's efforts to purify graphite for use in nuclear reactors. A Congressional source indicates that Pakistan's ability to purify graphite will allow it to build a production reactor that can provide Pakistan with an un-safeguarded source of plutonium. The Congressional source also expresses doubts whether Pakistan possesses the technical expertise needed to operate a graphite-moderated nuclear reactor.

    Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) announces his intention to propose a legislation that will require a cut-off in the further sale of F-16 fighter planes to Pakistan unless Pakistan opens its nuclear facilities to IAEA inspections. Sen. Cranston also states that the proposed legislation will also require the US President to certify that Pakistan is not developing nuclear weapons. The Reagan administration indicates that it will oppose the proposed legislation, stating that such legislation will provoke Pakistan to proceed faster in its efforts to develop nuclear weapons.
    --Mike Knapik, "US State Department Officials were Apparently Unaware that Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 9 August 1984, Vol. 25, No. 32, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 September 1984
    US President Ronald Reagan sends a personal letter to Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq warning that Pakistan might lose American military aid if it persists to pursue its nuclear weapons program. The letter warns President Haq not to enrich uranium beyond 5% at the Kahuta enrichment facility. Certain reactors require 5% enriched uranium for operation and nuclear weapons usually require uranium enriched to over 90%. The enrichment level restriction is believed to be a new "marker" for Pakistan to receive American aid. The other markers include: not testing a bomb, not reprocessing plutonium, not assembling a bomb, and not asking other country to test a device on Pakistan's behalf.
    --David Ignatius, "US Pressuring Pakistan to Abandon Controversial Nuclear-Arms Program," Wall Street Journal, 25 October 1984, Pg. 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Simon Henderson, "US Warns Pakistan on Enriching Uranium," Financial Times (London), 7 December 1984, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 September 1984
    CIA officials brief members of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on the renewal of tensions between India and Pakistan. According to two members of the Committee, CIA officials informed the Committee that India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was urged earlier this year by some senior aides to attack Pakistan's Kahuta enrichment facility. The Committee's Chairman Senator Barry M. Goldwater (R-AZ) and Vice-Chairman Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY) express concern over the possibility of an Indian air raid on Pakistan's Kahuta enrichment facility.
    --Philip Taubman, "Worsening India-Pakistan Ties Worry US," New York Times, 15 September 1984, Section 1, Pg. 2, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 September 1984
    US officials term as alarmist the ABC news report which stated that India's Prime Minister is being urged by her military planners to launch a pre-emptive strike against Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Some officials say that the news report might be based on the CIA briefing provided to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on 13 September.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US sees India-Pakistan Rifts not as Signals of Imminent War," Washington Post, 15 September 1984, First Section, World News, A23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that Pakistan has taken steps to protect its nuclear facilities from an Indian attack. President Haq states that he is seeking further information on the reports, including the CIA briefing to the US Senate, stating the threat to Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan's President also rejects the reports as part of CIA's efforts to force Pakistan to provide leasing bases within Pakistan to the United States.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan has Taken Steps to Protect its Nuclear Installations from Attack," Nucleonics Week, 20 September 1984, Vol. 25, No. 38, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 September 1984
    In a report to the 28th session of the IAEA, China promises to undertake sufficient measures to ensure that other nations do not use Chinese technology to develop nuclear weapons. The leader of the Chinese delegation Jiang Xinxiong informs the IAEA that 'China will, in exporting its nuclear materials and equipment, request the recipient countries to accept the safeguards in line with the principles established in the agency's statute." China is suspected by the United States of assisting Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --"China Opposes Spread of Nuclear Arms," United Press International, 25 September 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 October 1984
    PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan states that Pakistan's graphite purification efforts are not related to its nuclear program. Mr. Khan insists that the work is done independently on an experimental level. Mr. Khan says that the graphite purification is not useful for Pakistan's nuclear program since its existing reactor is a heavy-water moderated reactor and its future reactors will be light-water reactors (LWRs). Mr. Khan indicates that no plans are formulated to expand the scale of the graphite purification effort. Mr. Khan also reveals Pakistan's decision to discontinue setting new dates for the submission of bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Mr. Khan indicates that the current plan involves bilateral discussions with the suppliers. According to Dr. Khan, Framatome and Kraftweek Union are being considered for the project.

    In his address to the IAEA, Munir Ahmad Khan reports that the KANUPP reactor is operating satisfactorily despite the imposition of embargoes on the plant. According to Dr. Khan, Pakistan managed to manufacture the fuel and necessary spare parts for the power plant. Dr. Khan mentions that the KANUPP facility has achieved the designed maximum burn-up of 7,000-8,000 Mw-Days per metric ton after several days of irradiation.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "Pakistan AEC Denies Graphite Purification to Aid Nuclear Program," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 25, No. 40, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 October 1984
    A news report in the Pakistani daily Nawa-i-Waqt states that US President Ronald Reagan, in a letter to President Zia ul-Haq, offered to place Pakistan under the US nuclear umbrella if Pakistan renounces its nuclear weapons program.
    --"Information: Latin, Caribbean News Agencies End Meeting," IPS-Inter Press Service, 15 October 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; William K. Stevens, "India Worried by US Links to Pakistanis," New York Times, 21 October 1984, Section 1, Part 1, Pg. 7, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; William Claiborne, "US Official Holds Talks in India on Aid Row; Arms Supply to Pakistan at Issue," Washington Post, 23 October 1984, First Section, World News, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 October 1984
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan, without revealing the specifics, states that Pakistan has undertaken "appropriate defensive measures" to protect its nuclear facilities from an Indian attack. Some US sources indicate that some Pakistani nuclear facilities have been moved under-ground as part of its defensive measures.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Pakistan Concerned about Attack on Atomic Plants; Possible Assault by India Regarded as 'Serious Threat,' Foreign Minister says," Washington Post, 12 October 1984, First Section, World News, A28; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 October 1984
    West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl says that West Germany cannot help Pakistan to develop atomic energy as long as it remains outside the NPT. Chancellor Kohl says "We fully understand Pakistan's goals, but there are a lot of problems. We and our friends in the European Community and in America wish that as many countries as possible would accede to the Nonproliferation Treaty." Chancellor Kohl is on an overnight visit to Pakistan after a 6-day visit to China.
    --'Kohl, Zia Confer," Washington Post, 15 October 1984, First Section, World News, Around the World, A12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 October 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that West Germany has provided training for Pakistan's nuclear reactor workers and has agreed to consider providing financial aid for the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant. President Haq mentions that Pakistan sought West German assistance during Chancellor Kohl's visit to Pakistan. According to President Haq, Chancellor Kohl wanted certain clarifications on Pakistan's nuclear program and promised to consider Pakistan's request for further cooperation in the $1.6 billion Chashma nuclear power plant project. West Germany does not respond on Pakistan's claim that West Germany provided training to Pakistani nuclear reactor workers.
    --United Press International, 17 October 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1984
    Retired Lt. Gen Faiz Ali Chishti claims that Pakistan possesses the capability to develop a nuclear weapon but lacks the technology to deliver the weapon. Lt. Gen Chishti states "what is required is ... a delivery system." The retired Pakistani Army General is believed to have assisted in obtaining nuclear techniques and security for Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Lt. Gen Chishti retired from the army in 1981.
    --"Says Pakistan can male A-Bomb, but can't Drop it," United Press International, 19 October 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 October 1984
    US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy says that the United States is convinced that India will not attack Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Mr. Murphy also denies that the United States offered to place Pakistan under its nuclear umbrella in return for Pakistan's renunciation of its nuclear weapons program.
    --"Other Reports; USA Denies Offer of "nuclear umbrella" to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 25 October 1984, Part 3. The Far East; A. International Affairs, a. General and Western Affairs, FE/7783/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 October 1984
    US State Department officials state that Pakistan is continuing its uranium enrichment effort and other efforts to purchase nuclear equipment despite recent warnings delivered by US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy. Mr. Murphy is believed to have delivered the message that continuation of the nuclear program "in certain areas" will endanger the security relationship between Pakistan and the United States.
    --"United States: Defends Military Support for Pakistan," IPS-Inter Press Service, 25 October 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; David Ignatius, "US Pressuring Pakistan to Abandon Controversial Nuclear-Arms Program," Wall Street Journal, 25 October 1984, Pg. 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27-28 October 1984
    A Congressional Research Service (CRS) report states that several countries are acquiring capabilities that might be used to develop nuclear weapons. The CRS report examines 23 countries of which 5 are identified with posing the greatest "proliferation threat." The 5 countries are Pakistan, India, Israel, South Africa, and Argentina. The report titled "An Assessment of the Proliferation Threat Today and Tomorrow" is prepared by Warren Donnelly for Senator William Proxmire (D-Wisconsin).
    --Brad Knickerbocker, "Worldwide Concern Sharpens on Issue of Nuclear Proliferation," Christian Science Monitor, 31 October 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Proliferation Dangers Cited in Two Publications," Nuclear News, Safeguards, Reports, Pg. 95; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1984
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid, a Pakistani arrested while attempting to export krytrons to Pakistan, pleads guilty to charges of attempting to illegally export 50 high-speed switches (krytrons) to Pakistan. US intelligence sources indicate that Pakistan also attempted to acquire precision-based explosives that are part of the triggering mechanism in a nuclear weapon.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 November 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq restates his proposal for mutual inspections of nuclear facilities between India and Pakistan. President Haq states that he had made the proposal 3 years ago and did not receive any response from India. President Haq states that "Pakistan and India should forget the rest of the world and appoint a joint commission to inspect each other's nuclear facilities." President Haq made the offer in New Delhi during his trip to attend the cremation ceremony of India's former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan's President General Zia-ul-Haq has Reiterated his Offer to India," Nucleonics Week, 8 November 1984, Vol. 25, No. 45, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 November 1984
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Yaqub Ali Khan presents President Zia ul-Haq's reply to President Reagan during a meeting at the White House. President Reagan wrote a letter in September warning President Haq against continuing Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. President Haq, in his reply, provides assurances that Pakistan will not enrich uranium beyond 5% as requested by President Reagan.
    -- Simon Henderson, "US Warns Pakistan on Enriching Uranium," Financial Times (London), 7 December 1984, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 November 1984
    The Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan Vitaly Simirnov announces that the Soviet Union will not participate in the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Mr. Simirnov does not specify the exact reasons for the rejection of nuclear assistance but alludes to Pakistan's alleged intervention in Afghanistan, anti-Soviet propaganda, and deteriorating relations between Pakistan and the Soviet Union.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Soviets say they will not Supply Pakistan with Nuclear Reactor," Nucleonics Week, 22 November 1984, Vol. 25, No. 47, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 November 1984
    Four US Senators - Senator Sam Nunn (D-GA), Senator John Glenn (D-OH), Senator James Sasses (D-TN), and Senator J. Bennett (D-LO) - urge Pakistan to sign the NPT. Sen. Nunn also states that the United States will not provide any aid for the Chashma nuclear power plant project.
    --"US Senators Urge Pakistan-India Cooperation," United Press International, 29 November 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 November 1980
    A report prepared for the Pentagon Nuclear Agency concludes that Pakistan could make at least 24 nuclear weapons by 1990. The report further states that Pakistan possesses 54 planes that can be configured for nuclear delivery. The report is prepared by Rodney W. Jones of Georgetown's University's Center for Strategic and International Studies.
    --Carl Hartman, "Report says Israel may have Extensive Nuclear capability," Associated Press, 30 November 1984, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 December 1984
    The Spanish architect-engineering firm Sener SA is expected to extend its contract with PAEC for another 2 years. The head of the firm's Power Department Mr. Francisco Albisu says that the firm is currently doing a "few tasks" in Pakistan, and Spanish engineers visit Chashma occasionally to brief local companies on the project. The firm recently prepared an environmental report for the project. Mr. Albisu states that all Sener engineers left Pakistan in later 1983 since no bids were submitted for the Chashma nuclear project. Sener was originally contracted to prepare specifications for the bidding procedure for the planned Chashma nuclear power plant.

    The Spanish government denies reports that a Spanish firm is negotiating the sale of uranium hexa-fluoride (UF6) shipment casks to Pakistan. A spokesperson for the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Industry Ministry says that such a transfer would require an authorization permit from the government and no request has been made by any firm for such a permit.
    --Susan Roberts, "Sener Extending Architect-Engineering Contract with Pakistan's AEC," Nucleonics Week, 6 December 1984, Vol. 25, No. 49, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
  2. Neo
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    1985

    14 February 1985
    Peter Tempus, deputy director general, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Safeguards, expresses satisfaction on the way in which the IAEA safeguards are implemented in Pakistan. Tempus states that "there are no problems for the IAEA in performing its safeguards inspections in Pakistan."
    --"Japan," Nucleonics Week, 14 February 1985, Vol. 26, No. 7, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1985
    Pakistan continues to maintain that it has no intention of developing a nuclear bomb and states that "all nuclear work has gone into research and development of technology for peaceful purposes."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 25 February 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1985
    In response to news reports that Pakistan "tried to get timing devices whose main function is to trigger nuclear bombs," the U.S. State Department says that the Pakistani government has given assurances that its nuclear program is "peaceful in intent."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 26 February 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1985
    U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Michael Armacost, travels to Islamabad in order to reaffirm Washington's determination to keep a lid on the Pakistani nuclear weapons program. More specifically, he seeks reassurances in Islamabad that Pakistan would refrain from enriching uranium above 5 percent-as requested in President Reagan's September 1984 letter to President Zia; and that it would not take other steps toward the manufacture of nuclear weapons.
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    14 March 1985
    Pakistani nuclear scientist A.Q. Khan gives a provocative interview in a small-circulation Urdu weekly, Hurmat. In the interview, Khan insists that Pakistan's nuclear program is entirely for peaceful purposes, yet he hints that the nation could carry out "an atomic explosion in a very short time, if required, without conducting any test."
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    25 March 1985
    The journal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) claims that Pakistan has joined the small group of countries that explore and mine their own uranium, as well as refine and upgrade it to the required specifications, fabricate it as fuel, and finally burn it in a commercial power reactor to produce electricity. Pakistan's top nuclear scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan, states that "Pakistan will supply its own fuel to its next nuclear power plant planned at Chashma." Furthermore, the journal of the PAEC states that "backed by extensive uranium exploration and mining, the fabrication of safe and satisfactory fuel bundles for the Karachi nuclear power plant has won for Pakistan, the distinction of mastering the technology of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle."
    --"AEC Journal Says The Nation Has Mastered Front End Of Fuel Cycle," Nuclear Fuel, 25 March 1985, Vol. 10, No. 6, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 March 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 March 1985
    The Associated Press of Pakistan reports that scientists of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) are modernizing the instrumentation and controls of the 5-megawatt research reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), which is under international safeguards.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 13, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1985, http://web.lexis-nexis.com.; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 28 March 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1985
    Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi communicates his concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program directly to the Pakistanis themselves. In an interview with Mushahid Hussain, editor of the Muslim, he categorically rejects the notion that nuclear weapons would stabilize Indo-Pakistani relations by creating a deterring "balance of terror." "I have never subscribed to the view that 'terror,' balanced or otherwise, would stabilize anything." Furthermore, Gandhi also states that "a nuclear arms race in the subcontinent would only subject both our peoples to the worst possible fate on earth."
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    25 April 1985
    French Ambassador Roger Duzer makes a short visit to Karachi. During the visit, the Ambassador says that France and Pakistan are still discussing the problem of France selling a reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The two governments have had on and off discussions in regards to this problem, which involves a breach of contract in 1977 for the supply of a reprocessing plant to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) by the French engineering firm Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN). Dozer mentions that many types of safeguards would be required for the transaction to occur.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 25 April 1985, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 25 April 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 April 1985
    Pakistan's Ambassador to India, Humayun Khan, quotes President Mohammed Zia ul-Haq as saying "we have succeeded in enriching uranium up to five per cent, but 90 per cent enrichment is needed to build nuclear weapons."
    --"Pakistan Ambassador On Uranium Enrichment," Patriot (Delhi) In English, 26 April 1985, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 26 April 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    2 May 1985
    The U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, Deane R. Hinton, categorically rules out the possibility of cooperation between the United Sates and Pakistan unless Pakistan signs the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or accepts full-scope safeguards on all of its nuclear facilities. During a press conference in Islamabad, Hinton faces an overwhelming amount of questions in regards to the U.S. opposition to Pakistan's nuclear program. He declares that the United States would be willing to cooperate with Pakistan in the peaceful use of nuclear energy only if Pakistan agrees to the NPT or full-scope safeguards.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 18, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1985
    Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi criticizes the idea, authored by a prominent Pakistani journalist, that if "both India and Pakistan develop nuclear capability, it would stabilize their bilateral relations through a nuclear 'balance of terror.' Gandhi says that "reports of the possible direction of Pakistan's nuclear programs were of serious concern to India and a nuclear arms race would only subject people of both countries to the worst possible fate on earth."
    --"India," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 18, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1985
    Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq tells the monthly magazine, Quami Digest, that "the United States, the Soviet Union, India, and Israel are part of a worldwide campaign to prevent Pakistan from getting nuclear technology." Zia also tells the magazine that "Pakistan had resisted the pressure and is determined to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes."
    --"Zia Charges Exists to Stop Pakistan From Getting Bomb," The Associated Press, 22 May 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    20 June 1985
    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Board of Governors approves the continuation of a program to help Pakistan modernize the control and instrumentation systems of its 137-MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The modernization consists of constructing a laboratory for precision calibration and testing.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 25, Pg. 17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 June 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 August 1985
    A United Kingdom engineering firm, Bankwood Engineering Ltd, wins a $270 million order from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for supply of an automatic conveyer system to handle nuclear waste drums. The firm overcame stiff international competition in order to win the award from the PAEC.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 33, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1985, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 15 August 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    Fall 1985
    At the United Nations General Assembly meeting in New York, Pakistan's President Zia, calls for India and Pakistan simultaneously to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), accept mutual fullscope safeguards and inspections, and renounce the acquisition of nuclear weapons. This proposal is duly endorsed by U.S. President Reagan but not by Indian Prime Minister Gandhi.
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.276.

    13 September 1985
    The Reagan Administration expresses its concern about the "possible development of a nuclear weapon by Pakistan and about overall tensions in the region." Administration officials say that the "underlying concern," in the region is "the danger of Indian retaliation against any nuclear developments in Pakistan."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 13 September 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 September 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 October 1985
    China confirms that it is cooperating with Pakistan and other nations in the field of nuclear energy, but asserts that the program is for peaceful purposes only. "Our cooperation in the field of nuclear energy with other countries, such as France, Federal (West) Germany, the United States, Brazil, Pakistan, and Japan, whether ongoing or under discussion, serves and will serve only peaceful purposes instead of any non-peaceful purposes."
    --"China Affirms Nuclear Links with Pakistan," The Associated Press, 24 October 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 October 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 October 1985
    The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) claims that India's Tribune newspaper reported that Pakistan has considerably sped up the preparation for nuclear tests in the past 10 months, putting two "enriched uranium production plants," into operation at the same time. The Tribune also allegedly reported that Pakistan is planning to test a nuclear explosive device in the Taklamakan Desert in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which will have about the same yield as the device exploded by the PRC in 1964.
    --"Pakistan Said Ready To Test Nuclear Device In PRC," TASS (Moscow), 30 October 1985; World Wide Report, 25 November 1985, Pg. 43; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 November 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 November 1985
    The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) announces that it has rendered its judgment on the French-Pakistani legal dispute over the breach of a contract by the French engineering company, Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), to build a 50-100 metric ton reprocessing plant at the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP). The Committee rules in favor of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).
    --"ICC Ruling Said To Favor Pakistan In Reprocessing Plant Dispute," Nuclear Fuel, Vol. 10, No. 23, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 December 1985
    Indian Prime Minster Rajiv Gandhi and Pakistani President Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq pledge not to attack each other's nuclear installations and to proceed with major new efforts to resolve several disagreements that have increased tensions between the two nations.
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 18 December 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 December 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
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    1986

    17 January 1986
    A high-ranking French delegation will arrive in Pakistan on February 11, 1986 under the leadership of the secretary general of the Ministry of Energy to discuss the sale of a nuclear reprocessing plant. The delegation will meet with Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq and Prime Minister Junejo.
    --"Talks On French Reprocessing Plant," Nawa-E-Waqt (Lahore) In Urdu, 17 January 1986, Pg.1; World Wide Report, 21 February 1986, Pg.60; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 21 February 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 February 1986
    The International Chamber of Commerce for Arbitration, based in Paris, rules that the French company, Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), is guilty and should pay damages to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for breaching a 1976 contract to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan under the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safeguards. However, the court finds that it was the French government that forced SGN to violate the contract.
    --"Court Battle Over Nuclear Contract," Nuclear Engineering International, February 1986, Pg.7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 1 February 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    2 March 1986
    U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Dean Hinton expresses doubts about Pakistan's nuclear program and asks the Pakistani leadership to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The Ambassador says that "if Pakistan wanted to pursue its nuclear program for peaceful purposes, it can get more aid from the U.S. and other countries."
    --"U.S. Ambassador Cited On NPT," Delhi Domestic News Service In English, 2 March 1986; World Wide Report, 26 March 1986, Pg.47; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 26 March 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 March 1986
    Libyan leader, Muammar al-Qadhafi, pledges that Libya will never help Pakistan acquire a nuclear bomb. Al-Qadhafi states that he considers nuclear weapons production a "fatal mistake against humanity."
    --"Al-Qadhafi Pledges Not To Produce Nuclear Bomb," Kuna (Kuwait), 12 March 1986; World Wide Report, 10 April 1986, Pg. 35; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 10 April 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 April 1986
    Pakistan Foreign Secretary Niaz A. Naik holds talks with his Indian counterpart, Mr. Venkateswaran, and makes it clear to India that his country has neither the intention nor capability for a nuclear weapon program. The foreign secretary also says that Pakistan "has made several proposals for a nuclear weapon-free zone in South Asia."
    --"Peaceful Aim Reaffirmed To India," Karachi Domestic News Service In English, 19 April 1986; World Wide Report, 19 May 1986, Pg. 50; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 19 May 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 April 1986
    Prime Minister Mohammed Junejo asks the United States and China to help Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program in order to tide over power shortages in the country. This is the first time that Pakistan publicly sought assistance from China on nuclear development. U.S. Ambassador Deane R. Hinton says the USA is willing to help Pakistan in nuclear technology, provided its peaceful uses are verified by international inspections.
    --"Pakistan Leader Asks US And China To Aid Nuclear Power Program," Nucleonics Week, 1 May 1986; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 1 May 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 June 1986
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agrees to provide the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) with technical assistance worth $450,000. This decision is made at a meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors in Vienna, Austria. The PAEC also mentions that a new console has been installed and made operational on the Pakistan Atomic Research Reactor (PARR). This marks the first step in the overall renovation of the Reactor.
    --"IAEA To Give Technical Aid To PAEC," Nuclear Engineering International, June 1986, Pg.13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 1 June 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 June 1986
    Dr. AQ Khan announces that Pakistan has a program to manufacture an indigenous nuclear reactor. He also declares that Pakistan's nuclear program is not weapons-oriented since President Zia ul-Haq has given a commitment not to allow uranium enrichment of more than 5%. Pakistan's efforts to set up a 900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma in Mianwali have not been very successful due to an embargo setup by the suppliers of nuclear technology on grounds that Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or accepted full scope safeguards.
    --"Pakistani Efforts For Indigenous Reactor, Fuel Cycle Confirmed," Nucleonics Week, 26 June 1986, Pp.1-3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 26 June 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    July 1986
    U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz and Pakistan Foreign Minister Yaqub Khan sign an agreement to transfer advanced U.S. technology including mainframe computers and communications equipment with the condition that Pakistan cannot transfer the equipment to a third country and may not use it in any nuclear weapons program.
    --"An Assertion That Pakistan Is Not Building Nuclear Weapons," Nuclear News, August 1986, Pg.29; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 1 August 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    16 July 1986
    Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo assures the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee that Pakistan has no plans to build a nuclear bomb and is abiding by President Reagan's guidelines that the enrichment plant at Kahuta be limited to no more than 5%, the highest enrichment necessary for civilian reactor fuel.
    --"An Assertion That Pakistan Is Not Building Nuclear Weapons," Nuclear News, August 1986, Pg. 29; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 1 August 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 July 1986
    Prime Minster Mohammed Khan Junejo visits Paris and meets with French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac and President Mitterrand to discuss the 1976 treaty whereby France would supply Pakistan with an atomic reprocessing plant.
    --"France Expected To Honor Atomic Plant Deal," Nawa-I-Waqt (Lahore), 29 July 1986, Pg.4; World Wide Report, 22 October 1986, Pp. 34-36; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 22 October 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    31 July 1986
    Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo returns from visiting four countries including France and announces (from Islamabad) that he and French Prime Minister, Jacques Chirac, have decided "to put an end to the dispute revolving around a 1974 contract for France to supply Pakistan with a reprocessing plant and components." The two prime ministers agree to name "experts," to resolve the dispute "by this fall."
    --"French And Pakistanis Will Try To Resolve Reprocessing Dispute," Nucleonics Week, 31 July 1986, Vol. 27, No. 31, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 July 1986, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 August 1986
    The Soviet ambassador to Pakistan warns Islamabad against going nuclear. This is the first time that the USSR adopts a public position on nuclear proliferation in South Asia. The USSR along with India and Israel, opposes the nuclearization of Pakistan.
    --"Commentary Discusses Implications Of Moscow's Warning," The Muslim (Islamabad), 3 August 1986, Pg. 4; World Wide Report, 12 September 1986, Pp. 53-54; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 12 September 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 September 1986
    Mr. Munir Ahmed Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that "while Pakistan currently relies on imported nuclear plants, it will gradually be able to make them locally." He also says that "Pakistan is planning to sign an agreement with a European country to obtain a reactor without signing the NPT." The reactor will be built at Chashma. Moreover, Pakistan says that it will not sign the NPT unless India does the same.
    --"AEC Chief Talks Of Plans For 'A Few' Nuclear Plants," Dawn (Karachi), 8 September 1986, Pg.9; World Wide Report, 3 November 1986, Pg.62; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 3 November 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 September 1986
    An agreement for bilateral cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy is concluded between Pakistan and the People's Republic of China (PRC). The agreement specifically mentions peaceful cooperation and puts all the materials and equipment under it to be covered by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Both sides also agree not to transfer any material or equipment to any third country without prior consent.
    --"Pakistan, China Sign Cooperation Agreement," The Pakistan Times, 21 September 1986, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 21 September 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 September 1986
    The Prime Minister of Pakistan reiterates that the agreement between Pakistan and China is exclusively for peaceful purposes. The agreement specifically says that "material supplied by China to Pakistan for the purposes of research and development would be governed by IAEA safeguards."
    --"Commentary Defends Nuclear Agreement with PRC," Karachi Domestic Service, 26 September 1986; World Wide Report, 26 October 1986, Pg. 33; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 26 October 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 October 1986
    Munir Ahmed Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), is elected President of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Board of Governors (BOG). This comes as part of the IAEA's elections of its new BOG officers.
    --"The IAEA's New Board Of Governors Elected Officers," Nucleonics Week, 30 October 1986, Pp. 10-11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 30 October 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    16 October 1986
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) develops a noise analysis surveillance system for its nuclear reactors. "The surveillance system can detect malfunctioning of reactor components such as control rod, fuel element, or grid plate vibrations at a very early stage." The system was tested on the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and was found to be satisfactory.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 16 October 1986, Vol. 27, No. 42, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 October 1986, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 October 1986
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) are pleased with the recent performance of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The Plant "has achieved near-record production during the first eight months of 1986." Furthermore, it has "generated 338,000 MW-hours, slightly over 42% nominal gross capacity, but PAEC sources said that plant availability has been at 84% and it has set a record of continuous operation of 104 days." The power plant runs on indigenously fabricated fuel and supplies the metropolitan city of Karachi.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 30 October 1986, Vol. 27, No. 44, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 October 1986, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1986
    Officials from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) claim that they have commissioned a uranium mill at Dera Ghazi Khan entirely through indigenous efforts. This information was made public at the "Atom for Development Exhibition-1986," begin held in Lahore, Pakistan.
    The PAEC's "Atoms for Development," exhibition highlights the commission's achievements in discovering uranium and refining it with indigenous efforts.
    --"Pakistanis Tell Of Indigenous U Mining and Milling Effort," Nuclear Fuel, 1 December 1986, Vol. 11, No. 24, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 November 1986
    The Reagan administration expresses "very serious concerns about Pakistan's unsafeguarded nuclear program," but the administration says that it has "no evidence that Islamabad had exploded a bomb."
    --"Reagan Administration Concerned Despite No Evidence of Pakistani Bomb," The Associated Press, 4 November 1986, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 November 1986
    The United States warns Pakistan that it will cut off aid if Islamabad continues its efforts to make a nuclear bomb. Nuclear experts believe that the People's Republic of China (PRC) had conducted a test for Pakistan in the Sinkiang desert. Also, The Washington Post reported that Pakistan had conducted heavy explosives tests in September, in order to develop an implosion trigger device.
    --"U.S. Dangles Aid To Halt Pak N-Efforts," The Times of India, 7 November 1986; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 7 November 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 November 1986
    Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq, formally directs the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) to begin work on the design and manufacture of an indigenous, inherently safe nuclear reactor to meet the country's growing energy requirements. The President also says that "Pakistan would welcome cooperation from any country in its nuclear program." Any new contemplated reactor would be a heavy water reactor like the one supplied by Canada for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    --"Zia Orders Pakistan AEC To Design Indigenous Nuclear Reactor," Nucleonics Week, 13 November 1986, Pp. 3-4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 13 November 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    27 November 1986
    Pakistan is cooperating with a number of Muslim countries in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and is willing to extend this cooperation with others. Pakistan has already concluded bilateral agreements with Niger and Malaysia.
    --"Pakistan Cooperating With A Number Of Muslim Countries In Peaceful," Nucleonics Week, 27 November 1986, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 27 November 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    December 1986
    Pakistan's Foreign Secretary Abdul Sattar, visits France to meet with the French foreign minister and to discuss the possible supply of a 900 MW French unit at the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP).
    --"Pakistan Holds Reactor Talks In France, Seeks Canada Safety Data," Nucleonics Week, 11 December 1986, Pp. 2-3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 11 December 1986, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    28 December 1986
    Senior Indian and Pakistani officials discuss plans for creating a treaty which would ban attacks by the two neighbors on each other's nuclear plants.
    --"India-Pakistan Talks," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 28 December 1986; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 December 1986, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    1987

    1 January 1987
    Indian Foreign Secretary K.P.S. Menon says that India will sign an agreement with Pakistan not to attack each other's nuclear installations despite concerns that Pakistan is manufacturing a nuclear device. Pakistani Foreign Secretary Abdul Sattar states that the two sides are currently drafting the agreement. The agreement is scheduled to be signed during Rajiv Gandhi's visit to Pakistan later during the year.
    --"Pakistan: Progress Reported On Pact With India," Nucleonics Week, 1 January 1987, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 January 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 February 1987
    Pakistan's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Zain Noorani informs the Pakistani Senate that Pakistan is the leading country in the Third World in generating nuclear energy. Furthermore, Noorani explains that the Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) "has achieved its objectives in nuclear technology for peaceful purposes." Moreover, despite a Canadian embargo on supply of parts, Pakistan has been able to operate a nuclear power facility for energy.
    --"Pakistan Said Third World Leader In Nuclear Energy," The Pakistan Times, 3 February 1987, Pg. IV; World Wide Report, 20 March 1987, Pg. 55; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 March 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 February 1987
    Pakistani nuclear scientist A.Q. Khan comments about the recent developments in the country's nuclear program. Khan says that "Pakistan's success in uranium enrichment is of tremendous economic significance as well as being for defense purposes." He also comments that President Zia "repeatedly made it clear that achievements in the nuclear sphere were for peaceful purposes."
    --"Khan Talks of Strides in Nuclear Technology," The Muslim (Islamabad), 6 February 1987, Pg. 3; World Wide Report, 2 April 1987, Pp. 54-55; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 April 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 February 1987
    A Pakistani foreign office spokesman says that Pakistan's nuclear program "is of a peaceful nature, which has been proved during the last six or seven years. Pakistan has no intention of carrying out a nuclear explosion and is ready to accept the control and safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)." The spokesman also refutes reports that France is ready to fulfill its commitment to set up a reprocessing plant in Pakistan. The two countries have held a dialogue on French compensation payments to Pakistan for violating the agreement.
    --"Spokesman Affirms Peaceful Nuclear Program," Karachi Domestic Service, 11 February 1987; World Wide Report, 20 March 1987, Pg.56; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 March 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 February 1987
    The solid state Nuclear Track Detection Laboratory at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) fabricates Chromium kF39, which is used in uranium exploration. This work has been done in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
    --"Pakistan: Pinstech Fabricates Sensitive Track Detecting Material," Nucleonics Week, 19 February 1987, Pg. 17; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 February 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 February 1987
    Senior US officials express new concerns that Pakistan is moving toward the development of a nuclear bomb, despite pledges from the Pakistani government that it has no such intentions.
    --"Pakistan's Nuclear Aims Worry U.S," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 20 February 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 February 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1987
    I. H. Usmani, former Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and former employee of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), endorses Pakistan's nuclear option only after all other types of energy have been tapped. Usmani explains that "Pakistan's centrifugal plants can only reach enrichment of 2.7%, far below the required standard for making a bomb." Furthermore, "if Pakistan achieved uranium enrichment capability, they must export the fuel as it is a landmark achievement to take credit for." Usmani points out that nuclear power is more costly than alternative energy sources and discounts reports that Pakistan has the capability to build an atomic bomb.
    --"Scientist Voices Disapproval Of Nuclear Energy Option," The Muslim (Islamabad), 26 February 1987; World Wide Report, 23 April 1987, Pp. 61-62; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 March 1987
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) plans to develop the country's nuclear capabilities which include the construction of a 600 MW reactor using enriched uranium and plutonium fuel. Also, negotiations are ongoing with a "European country," to build a projected 900 MW reactor, which will have a major "local" contribution to its design, construction, and manufacture of components.
    --"Pakistan Plans To Go It Alone But Still Looking For European Deal," Nuclear Engineering International, March 1987, Pg.18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    5 March 1987
    Pakistani Minister for science and technology Wasim Sajjad, says that Pakistan does not possess an atom bomb nor the desire to have one. He reiterates that the program is solely for peaceful purposes and that negotiations with France to comply with a reprocessing plant agreement are ongoing.
    --"Minister States 'No Desire' To Have Atomic Bomb," Karachi Oversees Service, 5 March 1987; World Wide Report, 2 April 1987, Pg. 52; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 April 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 March 1987
    US Senator John Glenn asks President Reagan to suspend military aid to Pakistan until it (Pakistan) offers convincing proof that it is not seeking to develop nuclear weapons.
    --"Glenn Cites Fear Of A Pakistani A-Bomb," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 6 March 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 March 1987
    Pakistan declares that it will continue its peaceful development of nuclear energy and will not bow to pressure from foreigners who fear that it may be building atomic bombs.
    --"Pakistan Says Its Work On Atom Will Not Stop," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 9 March 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 March 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 April 1987
    Pakistan's foreign affairs minister Sahabzada Yakub Khan requests Canada's advice on the safety of its (Pakistan's) CANDU power plant, which Canada constructed in the late 1960's.
    --"Canadian Help Sought By Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, April 1987, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 April 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 April 1987
    Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo says that Pakistan has neither the capability nor the intention to make a nuclear bomb. He says that Pakistan will improve atomic technology in order to overcome energy problems and will enrich uranium only for peaceful purposes.
    --"Junejo Claims No Intention To Make Nuclear Bomb," Karachi Domestic Service, 4 April 1987; World Wide Report, 23 April 1987, Pg. 49; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 May 1987
    India rejects Pakistan's proposal for a bilateral agreement for an inspection of each other's nuclear program.
    --"India's 'Double Faced' Policy On Nuclear Checks Scored," The Pakistan Times (Islamabad), 4 May 1987; World Wide Report, 2 June 1987, Pg. 51; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 June 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    5 May 1987
    The prosecutor's office in Cologne, Germany begins its investigation of Leybold-Heraeus, a company that is suspected of illegally exporting plans that may have helped Pakistan build a uranium enrichment plant that could be used in making nuclear weapons.
    --"Bonn Checks Report Of Smuggling Of Atomic Technology To Pakistan," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 5 May 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 May 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 May 1987
    Swiss authorities, aided by "friendly governments," reveal that components destined for Pakistan were designed to enrich uranium. Furthermore, the authorities believe that officials from the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) firm, Leybold-Hereaus GmbH may have masterminded the attempted exportation of the components to Pakistan in 1986. It is also revealed that in 1979, Swiss firms sold equipment to Pakistan designed for use in a centrifuge enrichment plant.
    --"Attempt Revealed To Export To Pakistan HEU-Capable Components," Nucleonics Week, 7 May 1987, Pp. 5-6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 May 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    14 May 1987
    Pakistan welcomes the May 7th offer by the French Foreign Minister, Jean-Bernard Raimond, to negotiate the supply of a nuclear power plant to Pakistan following the out-of-court settlement of the two countries' dispute over France's non-delivery of a reprocessing plant. However, a settlement of the claim is still far away primarily due to the "rather wide gap," which exists on the issue of compensation.
    --"Pakistan Says Nuclear Dispute With France Not Settled," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 18 May 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Information Bank Abstracts, 18 May 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 May 1987
    French Foreign Minister Jean-Bernard Raimond discusses French cooperation with Pakistani Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Khan. France agrees to cooperate with Pakistan in order to meet Pakistan's energy needs. A French official says that the nuclear power plant that might be constructed in Pakistan will fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
    --"France Proposes Nuclear Cooperation," Karachi Domestic Service, 7 May 1987; World Wide Report, 2 June 1987, Pg. 48; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 June 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 July 1987
    A Pakistani-Canadian businessman, Arshad Z. Pervez, is arrested in Philadelphia on charges that he tried to export material to Pakistan that could be used in making nuclear weapons. Pervez allegedly sought to buy and send 25 tons of a special steel alloy to Pakistan. This arrest follows a 20-month undercover investigation in which American business executives pretended to go along with the sale of the banned material and in which American and Canadian investigators assumed the role of company officials and Commerce Department licensing officers.
    --"Pakistani Seized By US In A Plot On A-Arms Alloy," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 15 July 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 July 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 July 1987
    The United States presses Pakistan for an explanation in regards to the apparent effort by Pakistani businessman Arshad Z. Pervez to illegally acquire US material for making nuclear weapons.
    --"U.S. Pressing Pakistan On Export Plot," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 16 July 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 July 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 July 1987
    US Attorney, David F. Levi, announces the indictments of two Americans and one Hong Kong businessman for illegally exporting "sophisticated instruments and advanced computer equipment," (which can be used to make nuclear bombs) to Pakistan. More specifically, Levi charges that Arnold and Rona Mandel along with Leung Yiu Hung "illegally exported $993,000 worth of equipment to Hong Kong in 1982 and 1983, some of which went on to Pakistan."
    --"US Indicts 3 In The Export Of Equipment To Pakistan," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 18 July 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 July 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 July 1987
    Pakistan's Prime Minister, Mohammed Khan Junejo, calls for a mutual inspection of the nuclear power plants in India and Pakistan but India rejects the proposal.
    --"Pakistani Nuclear Inspections Suggestion Rejected," Delhi Domestic Service, 24 July 1987; World Wide Report, 16 Septemeber 1987, Pg. 41; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 September 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 July 1987
    Pakistan initiates its own investigation on the apparent effort by Pakistani businessman, Arshad Z. Pervez to illegally export material from the United States to Pakistan that could potentially be used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. In this regard, the government in Islamabad issues an arrest warrant for Pervez.
    --"Pakistan Reports A Nuclear Inquiry," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 22 July 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 July 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 July 1987
    Arshad Z. Pervez, the Pakistani-Canadian and another Pakistani businessman, Imam ul-Haq, are, indicted in Washington DC, on charges that they illegally tried to export material to Pakistan that could be used to make nuclear weapons.
    --"2 Charged In Plan On Pakistani Arms," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 29 July 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 July 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 August 1987
    Pakistan states that its uranium enrichment program is for peaceful purposes and that it will accept safeguards for the South Asia Region. A Pakistani foreign office spokesman conveys to US Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Michael Armacost that Pakistan will not accept any discriminatory constraints on its nuclear program.
    --"Spokesman On Nuclear Program, Mecca Incident," Karachi Domestic Service, 4 August 1987; World Wide Report, 16 September 1987, Pp. 44; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 September 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 August 1987
    Pakistan rejects renewed suggestions that it allow inspections of its nuclear sites in order to demonstrate that it is not making nuclear weapons. However, Pakistan says that it will cooperate in investigating charges that a Pakistani businessman was involved in efforts to illegally acquire material from the US that can be used to manufacture nuclear bombs.
    --"Pakistan Rejects Atomic Inspection," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 6 August 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 August 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 August 1987
    Pakistani Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo reiterates his government's resolve to develop nuclear technology in order to meet the country's growing energy requirements.
    --"Prime Minister Affirms 'Peaceful' Nuclear Program," Karachi Domestic Service, 24 August 1987; World Wide Report, 4 November 1987, Pp. 41; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 4 November 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    28 August 1987
    Pakistan's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Zain Noorani says that Pakistan will not accept "biased controls," over its peaceful atomic energy program. He also says that Pakistan is enriching uranium in small quantities for peaceful purposes and that Pakistan will offer to open its nuclear facilities to Indian inspection if India would do the same.
    --"Noorani Reiterates Stand On Atomic Program, DRA," Karachi Domestic Service, 28 August 1987; World Wide Report, 4 November 1987, Pp.42; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 4 November 1987, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 September 1987
    US President Ronald Reagan meets with Pakistan's Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo at the United Nations (UN) and presses his Pakistani counterpart to open his country's nuclear installations to international inspection. This could possibly prevent the suspension of American aid to Pakistan by the US Congress.
    --"U.S. Presses Pakistan On Atom Plants," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 22 September 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1987, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 September 1987
    Pakistani Prime Minister, Mohammed Khan Juenejo, delivers a speech to the United Nations General Assembly in which he proposes "a nuclear-free zone and regional test ban treaty in South Asia." Junejo says that his government would accept a bilateral test ban between India and Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan Proposes Nuclear Test ban In South Asia," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 25 September 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 September 1987, http://web.lexis.nexis.com.

    18 December 1987
    A Philadelphia Jury finds Arshad Z. Pervez, the Pakistani-born Canadian businessman, guilty of conspiring to ship material to Pakistan that could be used to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Businessman Convicted In Pakistan Nuclear Plot," The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 18 December 1987, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 December 1987, http://web.lexis.nexis.com.
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    1988

    16 January 1988
    The West German firm Alkern denies that it exported nuclear materials in an illegal manner. A spokesman for the company says that "Alkem has never delivered fissile material to countries of the Third and Fourth World, and that includes Libya and Pakistan."
    --Firm Denies Sending Nuclear Supplies To Pakistan, DPA (Hamburg), 16 January 1988; Nuclear Developments, 14 March 1988, Pg. 24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 March 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    16 January 1988
    A second West German company, Transnuklear, is accused of delivering fissile material to Libya or Pakistan. However, Federal Environmental Minister, Klaus Toepfer states that "no new proof has been offered regarding accusations that Transnuklear, delivered fissile material to Libya or Pakistan."
    --Toepfer Says No New Proof Of Delivery To Libya, Pakistan," DPA (Hamburg), 16 January 1988; Nuclear Developments, 14 March 1988, Pg. 25; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 March 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    17 January 1988
    Belgonucleaire, a Belgian company, is accused by a West German newspaper of participating with two West German firms in the clandestine transfer of fissionable material to Pakistan.
    --Firm Denies Sending Nuclear Material To Pakistan," Brussels Domestic Service, 17 January 1988; Nuclear Developments, 14 March 1988, Pg. 5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 March 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    25 January 1988
    West Germany launches a full-scale investigation into the charges that Transnuklear and Nukem (two German firms) had been involved in the transport of weapons-grade nuclear fuel to Pakistan, Libya and Sudan.
    --Chemical Firm Degussa Takes Over After Shakeup Of Nukem Directorate," Nuclear Fuel, 25 January 1988, Pp. 1 & 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 January 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    February 1988
    Pakistan denies claims that it is constructing a second uranium enrichment facility in Golra Sharif. The information about the plant comes from U.S. space reconnaissance imagery, which monitored the construction of the facility over several months. The United States also reports that Pakistan's Kahuta facility has enriched uranium to 90%, which the Pakistanis deny and claim that the purpose of Kahuta is to enrich uranium for civil power reactors.
    --Existence Of Enrichment Plant Denied," Nuclear Engineering, February 1988, Pg. 7; Nuclear Developments, 28 April 1988, Pg. 19; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 April 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    25 February 1988
    A spokesman for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) reacts to allegations that Nukem (West German firm) illegally exported weapons-grade nuclear material to Pakistan. In response, the spokesman says that Pakistan received shipments of cobalt-60 under a license by Physikalisch Technische-Bundesanstalt (PTB), for use by the Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine in Lahore.
    --Pakistan's Government Says Only Medical Isotopes Received," Nuclonics Week, 25 February 1988, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 February 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    6 March 1988
    U.S. experts claim that in the early 1980's, Pakistan obtained "a reliable, tested bomb design," from the People's Republic of China (PRC), in exchange for Pakistan's modern uranium-enriching technology. The U.S. experts also say that the bomb design is "sophisticated," permitting Pakistan to make a bomb weighing less than 400 pounds.
    --Developments Of Concern For Horizontal Proliferation: Pakistan," New York Times Magazine, 6 March 1988; PPNN NewsBrief, July 1988, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    10 March 1988
    A spokesman for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that France has offered to supply a 900 to 1,000 MW nuclear power plant to Pakistan, if Pakistan agrees to drop its legal suit against the French failure to supply a contracted reprocessing plant in the late 1970's. The PAEC has the financing set up for a reactor purchase, but considers the nuclear option to be costly and impractical. France is offering to supply the reactor to Pakistan without demanding its (Pakistan's) signatures of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), as long as the plant is under safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
    --Pakistani Says French Could Swap Chashma PWR For Reprocessing UNI," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1988, Pp. 6-7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 10 March 1988,http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    28 March 1988
    India and Israel reportedly discuss the possibility of attacking Pakistan's nuclear facility at Kahuta. Both countries fear Pakistan's nuclear bomb manufacturing know-how for different reasons: India fears that Pakistan will use the bomb in a regional conflict and Israel fears that Pakistan will share its know-how with other Arab states. Israeli officials believe that financial barriers are the only thing preventing Pakistani bomb proliferation.
    --India, Israel Claimed Considering Attack," The Muslim (Islamabad), 28 March 1988, Pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 23 May 1988, Pp. 26-27; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 May 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    7 April 1988
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) begins to work on its pool-type research reactor which is located at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The work entails changing the reactor form 5 MW to 10 MW and converting its core from 90% enriched uranium to 20% enrichment. The reactor is being modified to keep pace with new requirements and also because the United States refuses to provide fuel of such high enrichment.
    --Pakistani Research Reactor To Be Converted To LEU," Nucleonics Week, 7 April 1988, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 April 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    28 April 1988
    Pakistan defers its negotiations with France over a reprocessing plant contract until after the French elections, when it (Pakistan) will resume them with a new (French) government. Pakistan wants a nuclear power plant as part of the settlement; while French officials maintain that they will not link aid for any project as part of the contract settlement. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that Pakistan should have a 5,000 MW generating capacity by the year 2000, but that goal appears unrealistic.
    --Pakistan Says French Negotiations Deferred," Nucleonics Week, 28 April 1988, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 April 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    June 1988
    A source at Iran's Atomic Energy Organization denies the allegations from the UK's Observer newspaper that Iran and Pakistan have signed a nuclear pact.
    --Iran Denies Signing Nuclear pact With Pakistan," Kayan International (Tehran), 14 June 1988, Pg. 2; Nuclear Developments, 10 August 1988, Pg. 22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 10 August 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    June 1988
    The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) announces that it plans to build up to five 900 MW light water reactors by the year 2000. The Pakistanis also deny a report that a second uranium enrichment plant was being built at Golra Sharif.
    --Pakistan: Still Planning," Nuclear Engineering International, June 1988, Pg. 28; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 June 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    13 June 1988
    The United Kingdom's Observer confirms that Pakistan and Iran signed a secret nuclear cooperation agreement in 1987, which would allow Iranian engineers to develop their skills in Pakistan. This agreement took place between Reza Amrollahi, chairman of the Iranian Atomic Energy Organization and his Pakistani counterpart, Munir Ahmad Khan.
    --Secret Agreement With Pakistan Revealed," Al-Watan (Kuwait), 13 June 1988, Pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 13 July 1988, Pg. 19; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 July 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    14 June 1988
    A Pakistani foreign office spokesman denies the allegation that Pakistan signed a secret nuclear pact with Iran. The spokesman claims that no Pakistani scientists have visited Iran's nuclear plant in Bushehr in recent years, nor have Iranian nuclear experts received additional training in Pakistan.
    --Spokesman Denies 'Secret' Nuclear Pact With Iran," Islamabad Domestic Service, 14 June 1988; Nuclear Developments, 21 June 1988, Pg. 24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 June 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    9 August 1988
    Pakistan draws up a comprehensive plan of action for indigenization of its nuclear program to achieve self-reliance in order to meet its needs for nuclear energy. This action is based on a lack of willingness by foreign countries to export nuclear supplies to Pakistan until it (Pakistan) signs the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) Pakistan's Minister for Justice states that Pakistan refuses to sign the NPT unilaterally, but will sign it if India does.
    --Nuclear Energy Self-Sufficiency Plan Prepared," Islamabad Domestic Service, 9 August 1988; Nuclear Developments, 2 September 1988, Pp. 19-20; in NTI nuclear and Missile Database, 2 September 1988, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    17 August 1988
    Pakistan acquires the essential technology for the exploration of uranium resources and other materials, production of uranium concentrate and oxide, and manufacture of nuclear fuel elements ready to be used in power reactors. This is part of Pakistan's comprehensive effort to develop self-reliance in its nuclear power program.
    --Plan For Nuclear Self-Reliance Developed," Islamabad Domestic Service, 17 August 1988; Nuclear Developments, 2 September 1988, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 September 1988, NIT - National Invitation Tournament.

    18 August 1988
    Pakistan's Minister for Justice and Parliamentary Affairs Wasim Sajjad tells the Pakistani Senate that Islamabad is now considering an offer from France to supply a 900-MW nuclear power plant under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards but without Pakistan signing the Non-Proliferation treaty (NPT). Sajjad notes that the acceptance of the French offer is contingent on the satisfactory resolution of the 1978 suspension of a contract between France and Pakistan, which would have supplied Pakistan with a reprocessing plant. The negotiations to solve the dispute in a mutually acceptable fashion are currently ongoing.
    --Pakistan Minister Says Deal For French Nuclear Unit Eyed," Nucleonics Week, 18 August 1988, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 August 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    27 August 1988
    Indian police officials seize 2 kilograms of radioactive material bound for Pakistan from Petlad, India. The material was en route to one of he most infamous smugglers of Kutch.
    --Radioactive Matter For Pakistan Seized In Gujarat," The Telegraph (Calcutta), 27 August 1988, Pg. 4; Nuclear Developments, 21 October 1988, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 October 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    2 October 1988
    The USSR trade representative in Pakistan, Yuri S. Ossipov states during a press conference that a Pakistani request for Soviet assistance on a 900-MW nuclear power plant at Chashma has not been answered by Moscow. Chashma is one of 14 projects on a list forwarded to the Soviet Embassy in June 1988 for possible future assistance. Ossipov also states that the USSR is still considering what action to take on the various Pakistani offers, but he believes that one of the reasons for the delay is because of the limitation of the USSR's export capacity due to already full export schedules.
    --Pakistan: Moscow Gives No Answer Of Nuclear Plant Aid," Nucleonics Week, 20 October 1988, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 October 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 October 1988
    The Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) develops a new technique for exploring and mining uranium and thorium, which exist indigenously in large deposits in Pakistan. Pakistan continues to back up its indigenous attempts with efforts to acquire technology from the West. Islamabad approaches France with a request for tritium, an element used to increase the power of nuclear warheads.
    --Significance Of Pakistan Nuclear Developments Described," The Telegraph (Calcutta), 4 October 1988, Pg. 3; Nuclear Developments, 23 December 1988, Pp. 14-15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 December 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 November 1988
    A United States Government report states that Pakistan's Kahuta enrichment plant may be able to produce enough weapons grade uranium to produce one to three explosive devices annually.
    --Developments Of Concern For Vertical Proliferation," Nuclear Proliferation In South Asia: Containing The Threat. A State Report; PPNN NewsBrief, November 1988, Pg. 5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    14 November 1988
    Pakistan denies allegations made by the UK's Observer newspaper that Iranians are being trained in Pakistan's atomic energy institutions.
    --Training of Iranians In Atomic Energy Denied," Islamabad Domestic Service, 14 November 1988; Nuclear Developments, 28 November 1988, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 November 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    30 November 1988
    A Pakistani foreign office spokesman rejects the report of a British daily that alleges that Pakistan is assisting Iran in the establishment of a atomic center at Kuzmin.
    --UK Paper's Claim Of Nuclear Help To Iran Denied," Islamabad Domestic Service, 30 November 1988; Nuclear Developments, 23 December 1988, Pg. 17; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 December 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 December 1988
    Two West German firms, Neue Technologien GmbH (NTG) and Physikalisch Technische Beratung (PTB), are under investigation for illegally exporting nuclear components and materials from Germany to Pakistan, India and South Africa. The illegal imports reportedly include both tritium and tritium processing equipment. NTG is being investigated for exporting components for fuel fabrication, a plant for processing of tritium and transport and storage containers for UF6 to Pakistan. PTB, the other firm under investigation, acknowledges that zircalloy cladding was sent to Pakistan for the KANUPP heavy water reactor.
    --German Prosecutors Cite Illegal Exports To Pakistan, India, And South Africa," Nuclear Fuel, 26 December 1988, Pp. 1, 9-11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 December 1988, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    1989

    10 January 1989
    The Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) states that it had authorized the firm Siemens AG, to export material to nuclear power plants in India and Pakistan. This claim is made as questions about sales have been raised in the FRG, following recent scandals over alleged illegal nuclear exports by other FRG firms to South Africa, India and Pakistan.
    --"Nuclear Sales By Siemens," Asahi Evening News, 10 January 1989; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 10 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 January 1989
    The Netherlands' Secret Service re-opens its file on a Dutch engineer, Hank Slebos, a suspected agent for Pakistan who has previously been accused of helping Islamabad develop a nuclear bomb. Slebos is believed to be the top agent for Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, director of nuclear research at Kahuta, Pakistan. Slebos was jailed for a year in July 1985 for exporting strategically sensitive material to Pakistan.
    --"Secret Service Reopens Nuclear Spy Case," AFP (Paris), 12 January 1989; Nuclear Developments, 25 January 1989, Pg. 30; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 January 1989
    The government of India says that there is no evidence that a nuclear test by Pakistan was taking place at the People's Republic of China (PRC) testing ground located at Lop Nor. However, India is aware that the PRC is providing nuclear material to Pakistan.
    --"No Evidence Of Pakistan Nuclear Test In PRC," Delhi Domestic Service, 13 January 1989; Nuclear Developments, 25 January 1989, Pg. 5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 January 1989
    A visiting US delegation to Pakistan led by Congressman Stephen Solarz is informed by Pakistani President Ghulam Ishaq Khan that Pakistan will set up its own nuclear power plants within the next ten years. Khan also suggests that the US should not resort to a "discriminatory policy," in regards to nuclear proliferation in South Asia.
    --"Editorial Urges Bold Policy On Nuclear Issue," Jang (Lahore), 17 January 1989, Pg. 3; Nuclear Developments, 28 February 1989, Pp. 19-20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 February 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 January 1989
    The Pakistani press reports that talks will resume between France and Pakistan on the construction of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. A senior French official denies any recent developments in French policy since May 1987, when France offered assistance in building a PWR. In addition, Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto, is planning a trip to the People's Republic of China (PRC), where she will continue the negotiation of supply of a research reactor from the PRC to Pakistan. Pakistani officials continue to reiterate their country's resolve for a peaceful nuclear program.
    --"French Nuclear Talks Rumored As Pakistanis Pursue Nuclear Aid," Nucleonics Week, 19 January 1989, Pp. 11-12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    23 January 1989
    The Federal Republic of Germany's (FRG's) Minister of Economics, Helmut Haussmann, states that the FRG federal cabinet is expected to tighten export controls on nuclear equipment and materials. These measures have been triggered by the involvement of several FRG firms in illegal exports of nuclear materials and equipment to Pakistan, India and South Africa.
    --"Bonn Announces Plans For New Controls On Nuclear Exports From West," Nuclear Fuel, 23 January 1989, Pp. 3-4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 January 1989
    Pakistan announces that it is planning to hold consultations with the US in order to convince the American government that its (Pakistan's) atomic program is only for peaceful purposes and its objective is to increase the production of electricity.
    --"Program For 'Peaceful' Use," Islamabad Domestic Service, 29 January 1989; Nuclear Developments, 6 February 1989, pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 February 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    31 January 1989
    Pakistan proposes a "nuclear pact," in which Pakistan would receive US-made nuclear reactors in exchange for safeguards that their (Pakistan's) nuclear program is used only for peaceful purposes.
    --"Nuclear Pact Proposed," Asahi Evening News, 31 January 1989; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 January 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 February 1989
    US Congressman, Stephen Solarz, mentions a proposal under which the US would sell an atomic reactor to Pakistan, if Pakistan would agree to accept total safeguards for all of its nuclear installations, including the existing ones. A Pakistani Foreign Office spokesman responds by stating that Pakistan needs atomic reactors in order to meet its energy requirements and that these reactors will come under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. IAEA safeguards are currently being applied to the Karachi nuclear power plant. However, Pakistan does not agree that it should sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), nor accept total safeguards, nor agree to verification or inspection of its nuclear installations. The spokesman adds that the cause of nuclear nonproliferation in the region can be carried forward "only through non-discriminatory and equitable measures."
    --"Reaction To Solarz Remarks On Nuclear Issue: Government Response," Islamabad Domestic Service, 3 February 1989; Nuclear Developments, 28 February 1989, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 February 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    5 February 1989
    India's Prime Minister, Rajiv Gandhi, states that the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) has provided Pakistan with atomic technology and the atomic material-tritium. Both Pakistan and the FRG deny this claim.
    --"Spokesman RAPS Gandhi Remarks On Nuclear Program," Domestic Service (Islamabad), 5 February 1989; Nuclear Developments, 28 February 1989, Pg. 22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 February 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    10 February 1989
    Pakistan's Ambassador to the People's Republic of China (PRC), Akram Zaki, denies the claim that Pakistan is developing nuclear weapons with help from the PRC. The Ambassador says that Pakistan is against the diffusion of nuclear weapons.
    --"Ambassador Denies Nuclear Help From PRC," Kyodo (Tokyo), 10 February 1989; Nuclear Developments, 28 February 1989, pg. 22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 February 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 March 1989
    The government of West Germany is investigating allegations that certain West German companies exported nuclear-related equipment to India, Pakistan and South Africa.
    --"The Panel Investigating The Transnuklear Scandal," Nuclear News, March 1989, pg. 88; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 March 1989
    The Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in West Germany (90% federally-owned) comes out and states that its cooperation with Pakistan is based solely on a 1974 cooperation agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The Center makes this comment in response to a news report about the export of nuclear weapons-related supplies from West German firms to Pakistan.
    --"Nuclear Center On Cooperation With Pakistan," DPA (Hamburg), 20 February 1989; Nuclear Developments, 20 March 1989, Pg. 32; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 March 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 April 1989
    The heavy water reactor at the Karachi Nuclear Power plant (KANUPP) leaks 30-35 tons of heavy water due to the failure of a gasket. The causes for the defect will be examined by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), in the near future.
    --"Spokesman On Leak," Islamabad Domestic Service, 14 May 1989; Nuclear Developments, 1June 1989, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database , 1 June 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    May 1989
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) shows a group of journalists the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant reactor (KANUPP), which leaked 30-35 tons of heavy water on April 18th. PAEC member S.M.N. Zaidi says that there are insufficient reserves of heavy water to refill the reactor. At the direction of Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, PAEC chairman Munir Ahmad Khan forms a high-level committee to investigate the reactor leak.
    --"KANUPP Leak Causes No Hazard But Will Keep Unit Off Line," Nucleonics Week, 25 May 1989, Pp. 2-3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 May 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 May 1989
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) examines the causes of the defect in a valve at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) which caused a heavy water leakage last month. The leaked water is collected and will be purified in the purification unit for reuse when the plant becomes operational after inspections and repairs.
    --"Defective Valve Responsible," Islamabad Domestic Service, 11 May 1989; Nuclear Developments, 1 June 1989, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 June 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 May 1989
    A 20-year program for nuclear power generation through reactors produced locally on the principle of "co-manufacturing," is drawn up by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Prime Minister Bhutto approves of the principle, in which private industries of Pakistan would collaborate with some foreign firms in the development of nuclear reactors. Moreover, being a private-sector venture, Pakistan would not be required to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which it is reluctant to do unless India does the same. Pakistan would have the capacity to generate about 6000 megawatts of nuclear power by the turn of the century.
    --"Nuclear Power Generation Program Outlined," Dawn (Karachi), 22 May 1989, Pg. 3; Nuclear Developments, 14 June 1989, Pp. 22-23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 June 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    June 1989
    Munir Ahmed Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), announces Pakistan's entry into the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and the Candu Owners Group (COG). PAEC officials say that the technical information exchanges through COG and WAND, will help enhance the operational safety of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), which suffered from a 35 ton heavy water leak earlier this year. Canadian officials air concern over Pakistan's entry into these two groups because this will allow Pakistan to exchange information with Canadian sources which would create a conflict with Canada's nonproliferation policies.
    --"Potential Conflict Seen Between Data Exchange, Nonproliferation," Nuclonics Week, 6 July 1989, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 July 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 June 1989
    Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto speaks to a joint session of the United States Congress and says that Pakistan is willing to throw open its nuclear installations to inspection if other countries in the region do the same. Furthermore, she also says that there is a need for a nuclear-free zone in South Asia and for Pakistan and its neighbors not to conduct a nuclear test. Islamabad once again makes it clear that it has no intention of manufacturing nuclear weapons.
    --"Editorial On 'Bold' Nuclear Offer To India," Dawn (Karachi), 10 June 1989, Pg. 7; Nuclear Developments, 14 July 1989, Pp. 19-20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 July 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 June 1989
    Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto assures the United States Congress that Pakistan "would not possess, nor do we intend to make a nuclear device." Despite assurances from the late President-Zia ul-Haq, Pakistan has apparently been conducting a nuclear weapons development project. US President George Bush informs Bhutto that US aid would be cut off if he finds that Pakistan possesses a nuclear weapon.
    --"Bhutto Denies Pakistan Has Weapons," The Christian Science Monitor, 9 June 1989, Pp. 7-8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 June 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    August 1989
    A delegation from Pakistan led by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's defense advisor, retired General Imtiaz Ali, visit the People's Republic of China (PRC) to discuss nuclear cooperation between the two nations. Pakistan is looking to obtain three 300-MW nuclear power plants from the PRC. Cooperation between the two countries may also extend to the supply and manufacture of research reactors.
    --"Pakistani Nuclear Delegation Visits China For Reactor Talks," Nucleonics Week, 3 August 1989, Pg. 12; In NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 3 August 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 August 1989
    Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), holds a press conference during which he notes that the "negative international attitudes," toward supplying Pakistan with nuclear technology is diminishing. Also, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visits France and discusses the possibility of purchasing a nuclear reactor. French President Francois Mitterrand is scheduled to visit Pakistan wither the end of 1989 or early 1990 in order to discuss the purchase of the reactor.
    --"Nuclear Reactor Construction Plan Approved," DAWN (Karachi), 17 August 1989, Pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 6 October 1989, Pp. 24-25; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 October 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 August 1989
    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) expects to return to operation next month after suffering a heavy water leak. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) assures the public that there is neither radiation damage nor did anyone receive radiation dosage. The PAEC exchanges information worldwide through the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Furthermore, the Pakistani government approves a five-year program to develop an indigenous capacity to design and manufacture nuclear power plants. This new nuclear power policy is meant to ensure that ultimately Pakistan will control its energy future.
    --"With Heavy Water Purified, KANUPP Is ready To Restart," Nucleonics Week, 24 August 1989, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 24 August 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 September 1989
    Pakistan's minister of state for parliamentary affairs, Dr. Sher Afghan, states that France has expressed an interest in selling Pakistan a nuclear reactor under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards without insisting that Pakistan should sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
    --"Senate Informed Of Nuclear Power Plans," Islamabad Overseas Service, 21 September 1989; Nuclear Developments, 6 October 1989, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 October 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 October 1989
    The Atomic Energy Commissions of India and Pakistan sign a "strictly limited," agreement between themselves and the CANDU Owners Group (COG) in order to share information on CANDU operations. The agreement covers only information in the public domain and non relating to new technology or the exchange of material and equipment.
    --"India, Pakistan Join COG," Nuclear Engineering International, October 1989, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 October 1989
    Pakistani Production Minister Shahid Zafar will hold talks with South Korean government and industry officials next week in South Korea, to explore the possibilities for cooperation in building nuclear power plants in Pakistan. South Korean firms have shown interests in the past, in regards to supplying nuclear power plants to Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan: Talks With South Korea," Nucleonics Week, 19 October 1989, Pg. 14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 October 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 November 1989
    Pakistan forms an agreement with The People's Republic of China (PRC) on the advancement of its (Pakistan's) nuclear program. The finalization of the agreement coincides with the visit of Chinese Premiere Li Peng to Islamabad. Under the agreement, the PRC will help Pakistan build a 300 MW nuclear plant and will provide fuel and spares for the plant. A senior official of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) states that the nuclear plant will be a pressurized water reactor guaranteed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for safety and that the construction will commence in 1990 after the formal agreement between the PRC and Pakistan is signed.
    --"Pakistani Official On Reactor," XINHUA (Beijing), 20 November 1989; Nuclear Developments, 26 December 1989, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 December 1989, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
  8. Neo
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    1990

    1 January 1990
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is currently redesigning its US-supplied research reactor which is installed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). This action will help double reactor capacity while decreasing its requirements for highly enriched uranium. Presently, Pakistan can enrich uranium to 5% by using centrifuge technology. To reduce the cost of fuel, the PAEC is considering other enrichment techniques.
    --"PAEC Research Reactor Redesigned," Nuclear Engineering International, January 1990, Pg. 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 January 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 January 1990
    Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Pakistan have agreed on the construction of a nuclear power plant at Chasma. The PRC will be supplying most of the technology and expertise. The agreement had been reached in principle during a visit by PRC premier Li Peng in January 1989. The PRC will also supply enriched uranium to the facility until Pakistan develops its own enriched uranium supply. Furthermore, the plant will be operated under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.
    --"Chinese To Begin Work At Chasma In 1990," Nuclear Engineering International, January 1990, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 January 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 February 1990
    A mini-reactor made by China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, the first such reactor exported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), has come online in Pakistan.
    --"Exports Of Nuclear Products Reported," CEI Data Base (Beijing), 13 February 1990; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 February 1990
    French President, Francois Mitterrand, announces (during his visit to Pakistan) that he has agreed to France selling a nuclear reactor to Pakistan. Pakistani Prime Minster, Benazir Bhutto also notes that complete safeguards will be provided for the French plant. Furthermore, Mitterrand and Bhutto also discuss the issue of a reprocessing plant.
    --"Pakistan: Details On Bhutto-Mitterrand News Conference," Islamabad Domestic Service, 21 February 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 February 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 February 2006
    The US Department of State expresses concern over the proposed sale of a nuclear power plant by France to Pakistan. A Pakistan Foreign Office spokesman responds and says that this concern is "groundless," and that France will stick to the deal. Furthermore, the spokesman also says that Pakistan is aware of the US concern about nonproliferation and stresses that its (Pakistan's) nuclear program is for peaceful purposes only. The Foreign Office spokesman also adds that the US expressed similar fears when China announced that it would provide a 300-MW nuclear plant to Pakistan.
    --"US Concern Over Nuclear Power Plant Baseless," Islamabad Domestic Service, 22 February 1990; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pp. 22-23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 February 1990
    Qazi Hussain Ahmad, head of the key Islamic party in Pakistan, says that Pakistan should fabricate a nuclear device to meet the threat from India.
    --"Foreign News: Pakistan," Near East and South Asia, 23 February 1990; Proliferation Watch, July 1990, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    23 February 1990
    Pakistan feels that it is capable of manufacturing the enriched uranium fuel required to operate the 900 MW nuclear plant offered recently by France and the 300 MW plant offered by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in December 1989.
    --"Country Said Capable Of Fabricating Fuel," Dawn (Karachi), 23 February 1990, Pg. 12; Nuclear Developments, 16 March 1990, Pp. 27-28; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 February 1990
    USSR Ambassador to Pakistan, V.P. Yakunin, says that the USSR is considering a request from Pakistan for the supply of a nuclear power plant.
    --"Ambassador Says Soviets Might Sell Pakistan A Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 1 March 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 February 1990
    Bob Oakley, the US Ambassador to Pakistan, expresses US displeasure at the recent agreement made between France and Pakistan for the sale of a nuclear power plant.
    --"Paper Says US To Object To Nuclear Plant Deal," The Nation (Lahore), 26 February 1990, pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 2 March 1990, Pp. 23-24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    28 February 1990
    The Indian Police Force in Uttar Pradesh recovers 250 grams of uranium from a man who was attempting to smuggle the material to Pakistan.
    --"Stolen Uranium Destined For Pakistan Recovered," The Hindu (Madras), 28 February 1990, Pg. 9; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    Early March 1990
    Belgium's Minister for European Affairs, Anne Marie Lizin, makes attempts to sell Belgian nuclear technology to Pakistan. More specifically, the nuclear trade would be focused on the nuclear reactor to be built by France. Lizin reportedly believes that the recent commitment by France to supply a nuclear reactor to Pakistan, should change Belgian policy towards Pakistan, so that Belgium is not left out of nuclear deals to be made there.
    --"French Reactor: 'ROW' Over Belgian Participation Reported," Dawn (Karachi), 23 March 1990, Pp. 1 & 9; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    March 1990
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, claims that the agreements with France and China for the acquisition of nuclear power plants by Pakistan, virtually ended a fifteen-year Western embargo and boycott of nuclear trade with Pakistan, even under international safeguards. Mr. Khan hopes that the trade of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes will be restored with Western nations.
    --"Munir Assures Safety In Nuclear Radiation Utilization," Dawn (Karachi), 25 March 1990, Pg. 12; Nuclear Developments, 15 May 1990, Pp. 23-24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 May 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    March 1990
    Dr. Raja Ramana, Minister of State for Defence of India and former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), says that India would have to reconsider its ban on nuclear weapon production, depending on the evolving nature of the nuclear program of Pakistan. Ramana says that the sale of a 950 MW nuclear reactor from France to Pakistan does not pose a threat to India. He adds that India could import nuclear reactors but has chosen to produce them indigenously.
    --"India Could Reconsider Nuclear Weapons Option," Defense & Foreign Affairs Weekly, 19-25, March 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 March 1990
    Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that there is little public opposition to nuclear power in Pakistan because the public sees benefits resulting from the application of nuclear technology to fields which effect their lives, such as agriculture or medicine.
    --"The PAEC: Providing More Than Just Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, March 1990, Pg. 40; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 March 1990
    USSR Ambassador to Pakistan, V.P. Yakunin, says that Pakistan has to increase its power generation needs and that "once the required guarantees are provided, there is no harm in supplying a nuclear power plant to Pakistan." Pakistan Production Minister, Shahid Zafar has discussed the issue on a visit to the USSR earlier this year and the Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, Tanveer Ahmad, will also do so in the future.
    --"Ambassador Says Soviets Might Sell Pakistan A Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 1 March 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 March 1990
    Pakistan is currently under a nuclear embargo which was imposed by the major nuclear countries (i.e.-US and Canada). The embargo has increased Pakistan's self-reliance and capabilities in the nuclear field. Furthermore, as a result of the embargo, Pakistan continues to experience shortages of heavy water, the moderator used in Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant reactor (KANUPP).
    --"Pakistan: Going It Alone At KANUPP," Nuclear News, March 1990, Pp. 42-45; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 March 1990
    Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), states that the nuclear power plant, which Pakistan intends to buy from France, will fall under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and will not be a threat to anyone.
    --"Official Says Nuclear Plant Poses No Threat," Islamabad Domestic Service, 4 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 16 March 1990, Pg. 26; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 March 1990
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP) has been shut down for overhaul of the process saltwater pumps and for rectification of a mechanical problem of the fueling machine.
    --"Karachi Nuclear Plant Closed For Maintenance," AFP (Hong Kong), 15 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 12 April 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 April 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 March 1990
    Pakistan gives its highest civilian award to Atomic Energy Commission Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan, for "bringing Pakistan closer to self-reliance in nuclear technology." The award praises Khan for concluding deals with the PRC and France for the supply of nuclear power plants and for acquiring and developing complete nuclear fuel cycle technology for the Karachi power plant.
    --"Pakistan: PEAC Chairman Honored," Nucleonics Week, 22 March 1990, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 22 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 March 1990
    Pakistani Prime Minister, Benazir Bhutto requests that Belgium participate along with France in the construction of the nuclear power plant at Chashma. However, this will depend on France's attitude toward sharing the work and Belgium's position on requiring safeguards on materials supplied. A Belgian official says that Belgium has signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty and has adhered to the London Suppliers Club guidelines, which do not require full-scope safeguards.
    --"Bhutto Asks For Belgian Share In Projected Chashma Project," Nucleonics Week, 29 March 1990, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 March 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 March 1990
    Prime Minister Bhutto addresses the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and calls upon the organization to redouble its efforts to implement its nuclear power programs. She promises that the government will continue to give its full support for the implementation of a peaceful nuclear program.
    --"Bhutto Reiterates 'Full Support' For Nuclear Power," Islamabad Domestic Service, 29 March 1990; Nuclear Developments, 12 April 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 April 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    May 1990
    Shunji Kobayashi, the Japanese Ambassador to Pakistan, says that Japan will not help the Pakistani atomic energy program until Pakistan signs the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and accepts full safeguards.
    --"Tokyo Terms For Aid To Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, September 1990, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 September 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    May 1990
    Monique Landry, the Minister for External Relations and International Development of Canada, says that Canada cannot provide Pakistan with nuclear technology because Pakistan has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). However, Canada will continue to provide safety information to Pakistan to operate the Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP).
    --"Pakistan Refused Canada's Technology," Nuclear Engineering International, August 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 August 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    June 1990
    Munir Ahmad Khan, Chief of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), visits France, and a special envoy of French Prime Minister Michel Rocard, visits Pakistan (also during this month), for talks on commercial and technical matters of an unspecified nature.
    --"Pakistan Government Cuts Funding This Year For Chashma Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1990, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 5 July 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 June 1990
    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is ready to start construction of the 300 MW pressurized water reactor (PWR) in Pakistan this year. The reactor will be based on the Chinese reactor at Qinshin. The PRC and Pakistan will agree later on what to do with the spent fuel from the 300MW PWR. Also, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) proposes a 20 year nuclear program with co-manufacturing of nuclear power plants in Pakistan with unspecified foreign companies.
    --"Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, June 1990, Pp. 25-26; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 June 1990. Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 June 1990
    The People's Republic of China (PRC) refuses to supply Pakistan with "facilities and other assistance" for nuclear testing, although in November 1989 it (PRC) agreed to supply Pakistan with a nuclear reactor.
    --"PRC Rejects Pakistan Request For Nuclear Assistance," Defense & Foreign Affairs Weekly, 18-24, June 1990, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 June 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
  9. Neo
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    5 July 1990
    Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government allocates $1.8 million for the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan's 1990-91 budget which started on 1 July 1990. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has sought approximately $48 million.
    --"Pakistan Government Cuts Funding This Year For Chashma Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1990, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 5 July 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 July 1990
    Pakistan calls for the implementation of a nuclear non-proliferation pact in South Asia. Tanvir Ahmad Khan, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, says that he is ready to discuss a non-proliferation agreement with Muchkund Dubey, Foreign Secretary of India.
    --"Nuclear Non-Proliferation Pact," AFP (Hong Kong), 8 July 1990; Arms Control, 20 July 1990, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 July 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    27 July 1990
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) announces that Pakistan has commissioned its second atomic research reactor, which was built with assistance from the People's Republic of China (PRC) and was also designed by the PRC. The research reactor is located at the Center for Nuclear Studies (CNS), which is part of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) near Islamabad, Pakistan. The new reactor is a pool type light water reactor that uses highly enriched uranium fuel.
    --"Pakistan's Second Research Reactor In Service," Nuclear Engineering International, October 1990, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    August 1990
    Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that French nuclear industry officials have indicated that the proposed 937-MW nuclear power plant at Chashma will cost $1.5 billion. Khan also says that further negotiations between France and Pakistan would be held only after the proposed general elections in Pakistan, which will be held on October 24, 1990.
    --"Chashma Would Cost $1.5 Billion; New Elections May Delay Talks," Nucleonics Week, 16 August 1990, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 August 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 August 1990
    Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, ousts Benazir Bhutto from her position as prime minister. The nuclear contracts between France and Pakistan will not be affected by this change in the Pakistani government.
    --"Bhutto Ouster Will Not Affect French Plans To Sell Reactor," Nuclonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 August 1990
    Dominique Degot, Deputy General Manager and Vice President-international of Framatome of France, says that the nuclear vendor is preparing a bid to supply a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant to Pakistan and that bids are expected to be ready by the end of 1990.
    --"Bhutto Ouster Will Not Affect French Plans To Sell Reactor," Nuclonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 August 1990
    The Pakistan Research Reactor-2 (PARR-2) is added to the facilities of the Centre for Nuclear Studies at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). PARR-2 uses highly enriched uranium fuel and joins PARR-1, which was commissioned in 1965 and is currently being renovated and upgraded. Pakistan is aided by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in obtaining PARR-2.
    --"With Chinese Aid, Pakistan Has New Research Reactor at PINSTECH," Nucleonics Week, 9 August 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 August 1990
    Framatome, the French nuclear contractor, says that the dismissal of Benazir Bhutto will not affect discussions between themselves and Pakistan for the export of a nuclear power plant to Pakistan. Framatome and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) have a contract for the current feasibility study on the nuclear plant.
    --"French Talks Go On Despite Bhutto Dismissal," Nuclear Engineering International, October 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 August 1990
    Chen Zhaobo, Vice-President of China National Nuclear Industry Corporation, leads a visiting delegation from the Chinese nuclear industry to meet with Pakistani President Ishaq Khan, in order to discuss peaceful nuclear energy cooperation.
    --"Pakistan President Meets Nuclear Industry Group," Xinhua Domestice Service (Beijing), 20 August 1990; Nuclear Developments, 20 September 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 September 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 August 1990
    Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, Prime Minister of Pakistan, expresses appreciation and support for peaceful nuclear energy cooperation between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Pakistan, while meeting with Chen Zhaobo, Deputy General Manager of the nuclear industry company of the PRC.
    --"Pakistan's Premier Praises Nuclear Cooperation," Xinhua (Beijing), 21 August 1990; Nuclear Developments, 20 September 1990, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 September 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    September 1990
    Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, announces that more progress has been made on the sale prospect of a 300 MW nuclear reactor to Pakistan from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The agreement was reached in principle by both countries in 1989.
    --"Further Talks Held On China Reactor Import," Nuclear News, November 1990, Pg. 55; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 September 1990
    Pakistan is currently modernizing its safety system at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in line with the recommendations made by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1989.
    --"Atomic Energy Commission To Set Up Plants," The Nation (Lahore), 15 September 1990, Pg. 10; Nuclear Developments, 15 October 1990, Pp. 37-38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 October 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    27 September 1990
    France and Pakistan are negotiating a financing formula for the 937 MW nuclear power plant deal which was finalized earlier this year in February. France proposes a financing formula and Pakistan plans to launch negotiations in the coming weeks. Pakistan will conclude whether they can afford to pay for the nuclear power plant, after talks are held on compensation for a reprocessing plant deal that France cancelled in 1978. The projected construction cost of the nuclear power plant is $1.5 billion.
    --"Pakistan Economic Woes Complicate Proposed Nuclear Plant Financing," Nucleonics Week, 27 September 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 September 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    October 1990
    The US Congress cuts off aid to Pakistan, which amounts to $500 million a year; because the Bush administration did not certify that Pakistan was not building a nuclear weapon and that the aid from the US is dissuading Pakistan from building nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan Chief Asks US Talks On Atom Issue," The New York Times, 30 November 1990, pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 30 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 October 1990
    The United States cuts off military and economic aid to Pakistan because it (US) suspects that Pakistan is developing nuclear weapons.
    --"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments

    6 October 1990
    The People's Republic of China (PRC) intends to sell a nuclear-powered attack submarine to Pakistan. Advanced negotiations which began in 1989 are currently ongoing between the two countries. Pakistan's purchase of this submarine seems to be a response to India's acquisition of a Soviet nuclear-powered, Charlie class attack submarine in 1989. The deal is estimated to cost around $63 million and will aid China in the modernization of its own naval program.
    --"Nuclear Deal On Han," Far Eastern Economic Review, 6 October 1990, Pp. 20-21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 October 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 October 1990
    Pakistan denies a Washington Post report that it (Pakistan) clandestinely attempted to import two high temperature furnaces, which could be used to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Foreign Office Denies Report On Nuclear Furnaces," Islamabad Domestic Service, 13 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 25 October 1990, Pg. 38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 October 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 October 1990
    Kamal Azfar, special assistant to the prime minister, says that Pakistan will not sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) unless India signs it first.
    --"Minister Refutes Bhutto's Allegation," Islamabad Domestic Service, 20 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 15 November 1990, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 October 1990
    Raja Zafarul Haq, the Pakistan delegate to the United Nations (UN), calls on the UN nations to allow states to acquire nuclear technology for peaceful uses. Haq also says that "Pakistan is committed to nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful nuclear energy."
    --"UN Delegate Reaffirms Peaceful Use," Islamabad Domestic Service, 26 October 1990; Nuclear Developments, 6 December 1990, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 6 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 October 1990
    Klaus Frech, Judge of the Hanau District Court in West Germany, sentences three West German citizens, who were convicted of illegally exporting sensitive nuclear items to Pakistan. More specifically, the exported items included: fuel fabrication components and technology, a tritium extraction facility, and an attempt to export large amounts tritium gas.
    --"German Court Convicts Three For Nuclear Exports To Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 1 November 1990, Pp. 5-6; in NTI nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 November 1990
    Nawaz Sharif is sworn in the new prime minister of Pakistan. He replaces Benazir Bhutto, who was dismissed during the summer of 1990 and failed to regain power in the election held on October 24.
    --"The New Pakistani Regime Wants More Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, December 1990, Pg. 86; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 November 1990
    Newly elected Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, says that Pakistan needs to construct new nuclear power plants.
    --"The New Pakistani Regime Wants More Nuclear Power," Nuclear News, December 1990, Pg. 86; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments

    7 November 1990
    Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that the peaceful nuclear programme of Pakistan would be accelerated to accommodate growing energy needs and to make up for rising oil prices.
    --"Pakistan To Speed Up Nuclear Programme," Financial Times, 8 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 November 1990
    Dr. A Q Khan, Director of the Kahuta uranium enrichment plant in Pakistan, says that the nuclear program of Pakistan can be continued without aid from the United States. The US suspended aid to Pakistan due to concerns about the Pakistani nuclear program. Nawaz Sharif, the new Prime Minister of Pakistan, says that Pakistan has no nuclear bomb. Sharif also says, "we would be happy to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) provided India did the same."
    --"Pakistan: Nuclear Program Can be Independent, Khan Says," Nucleonics Week, 15 November 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 November 1990
    US Congressman, Stephen Solarz, chairman of the Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee, urges the US to cut off aid to Pakistan in order to pressure Pakistan into giving new guarantees that it will not build nuclear bombs.
    --"No Blinking At Pakistan's Bomb," The Christian Science Monitor, 21 November 1990, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 November 1990
    The head of the Kahuta uranium enrichment facility, Dr. A. Q. Khan, says "that Pakistan was not making any atomic weapons."
    --"Pakistan Official Says His Nation Isn't Making Nuclear Arms," Japan Times, 26 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 November 1990, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    26 November 1990
    Sartaj Aziz, Finance Minister of Pakistan, says that the Cabinet of Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan, has authorized the opening of negotiations with the US in order to resolve a conflict over nuclear issues.
    --"Pakistan, U.S. To Talk About Nuclear Weapons," Japan Times, 28 November 1990; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 November 1990
    Munir Ahmad Khan, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that talks are continuing over the import of a 300 MW nuclear power plant for the People's Republic of China (PRC) and a 900 MW PWR from France. The talks with France have slowed due to a financial crisis in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan Still Plans New Nuclear Capacity But Financing May Fail," Nucleonics Week, 29 November 1990, Pg. 11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 November 1990
    Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that he is ready to open talks with the United States on the nuclear program in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan Chief Asks US Talks On Atom Issue," The New York Times, 30 November 1990, pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 30 November 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    December 1990
    The People's Republic of China's (PRC) Institute of Atomic Energy states that it assisted in the design and construction of a 27 kW research reactor (PARR-2) at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The reactor went critical back on November 2, 1989.
    --"China and Pakistan Collaborate On PARR-2," Nuclear Engineering International, December 1990, Pp. 46-47; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    December 1990
    Henry Rowan, Assistant US Secretary of Defense, discusses with India and Pakistan a regional approach towards nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"Indian And Pakistani Officials Renew Nonproliferation Talks," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    December 1990
    US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, Teresita Schaffer, tells Pakistani Foreign Minister, Shahabzada Yaqub Khan, that the US Congress wants Pakistan to halt its uranium enrichment program.
    --"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 December 1990
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sign a safeguards agreement on a 27 KW miniature neutron source research reactor (MNSR). The research reactor was supplied to Pakistan by China and was opened earlier this year. MNSR uses 915 grams of high-enriched uranium fuel.
    --"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 December 1990
    A spokesman for the Pakistani Foreign Office says that the decision to place the 27KW miniature neutron source research reactor (MNSR) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards "was neither influenced by nor has it any bearing on Pakistan's relationship with the United States."
    --"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 December 1990
    Normaly Bin Muslim, Deputy Director General for technical assistance at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), begins a four day inspection of several nuclear projects in Pakistan. During Bin Muslim's visit to Pakistan, Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, stresses the peaceful nature of the Pakistani nuclear program. He says that developed countries should fulfill their contracts, such as improving safety standards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).

    Bin Muslim tells Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), that the IAEA would increase cooperation with Pakistan. The IAEA has been providing Pakistan with technical support in areas such as reactor safety, uranium exploration, and studies on research reactors. Pakistan will also receive training fellowships from the IAEA. Bin Muslim believes that Pakistan is in a position to offer technical assistance to other developing countries.
    --"Research Reactor Safeguards Pact Stir Compromise Claims In Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pp. 4-5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments

    13 December 1990
    France offers to export a second 900 MW nuclear reactor to Pakistan. This is in addition to the first offer made earlier in the year of a similar 900 MW nuclear reactor. Moreover, France is offering this second reactor at 30% less cost with attractive financing terms in order to compensate for the cancellation of a deal that would export a reprocessing plant to Pakistan (a decade ago).
    --"France Said To Offer Pakistan Second Reactor To Settle Claims," Nucleonics Week, 13 December 1990, Pg. 4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 December 1990
    Muchkund Dubey, Foreign Secretary of India, arrives in Pakistan for two days of bilateral talks on nonproliferation in South Asia. Dubey will discuss a Pakistani proposal for nonproliferation in the region, which was last discussed in July 1989 by the foreign secretaries of India and Pakistan. Furthermore, Shahryar M. Khan, Foreign Secretary of Pakistan, says that the two sides will discuss an agreement, signed by their prime ministers in early 1989, which prohibits attacks on each other's nuclear installations.
    --"Indian And Pakistani Officials Renew Nonproliferation Talks," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 December 1990
    Normaly Bin Muslim, Deputy Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), says that the IAEA will help the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) with the site selection for the two nuclear power plants which Pakistan is purchasing from France and China. The IAEA will also provide technical assistance for safety enhancements at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and will grant $1 million to cover the expenses.
    --"Pakistan: IAEA Aid In Siting Reactors Pledged," Nucleonics Week, 20 December 1990, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 December 1990, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
  10. Neo
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    1991

    Early January 1991
    Recently, Pakistan's Foreign Secretary Shaharyar Khan and India's Foreign Secretary Muchkund Dubey conclude a third round of talks on the nuclear non-attack agreement. India and Pakistan will ratify the agreement in February 1991. Shaharyar Khan says that the agreement includes marking the locations of all nuclear installations in India and Pakistan, so that the two countries will not attack each others nuclear facilities by accident.
    --"Pakistan And India To Implement Accord On Nuclear Plant Attacks," Nucleonics Week, 3 January 1991, Pp. 3-4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 3 January 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    16 January 1991
    Pakistan recommissiones a research reactor at Nilore, which was originally acquired in 1965, and double its output from 5 MW to 10 MW. Pakistan designs the reactor while China provides fuel fabrication services and financing. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Chairman, Munir Khan, says that the plant will operate under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and has been inspected.
    --"Nuclear Reactor Capacity Said Doubled," Dawn (Karachi), 16 January 1991, Pg. 4; Nuclear Developments, 25 February 1991, Pg. 35; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 February 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 January 1991
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, remarks (during an interview) on the country's success in manufacturing nuclear fuel, and now, research and power reactors. Khan also thanks the People's Republic of China (PRC) for its support of Pakistan's nuclear program, especially the research reactor it (PRC) had provided. He also mentions the current negotiations for the 300 MW power reactor built by the PRC.
    --"Nuclear Official Claims Reactors Being Produced," AMN (Karachi), 17 January 1991, Pg. 6; Nuclear Developments, 23 April 1991, Pg. 38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 January 1991
    Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that the PAEC will restart the PARR-1 research reactor located at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) in July of this year. The reactor will be restarted after it is dismantled, redesigned and rebuilt using Pakistan's indigenous resources. Khan also says that the People's Republic of China (PRC) is assisting in fuel fabrication for the rebuilt reactor, which will have its capacity upgraded from five to ten thermal megawatts (MW). The cost of the entire overhaul will be $2.5 million.
    --"Pakistan/China: Reactor Rebuilt Indigenously; Chinese Aid With Fuel," Nucleonics Week, 24 January 1991, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 24 January 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    25 January 1991
    Chinese President, Yang Shangkun, reiterates China's support for creating a nuclear-free Asia, shortly before leaving for Pakistan and Iran. President Yang further expresses support for proposals put forward by Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, for international consultations on nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia.
    --"Yang Shangkun On Regional Nonproliferation," Xinhua, Beijing, 25 January 1991, Proliferation Issues, 7 November 1991, Pg. 2; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 November 1991, NIT - National Invitation Tournament.

    February 1991
    The United States decides to return two-thirds of the aid that it was providing to Pakistan. Earlier, in October 1990, Washington had halted aid to Pakistan.
    --"Editorial Says U.S. Forcing Adoption Of Nuclear Option," Nawa-I-Waqt (Lahore), 1 February 1991, Pg. 5; Nuclear Developments, 24 June 1991, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 24 June 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 February 1991
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Chairman, Munir Ahmad Khan, expresses Pakistan's support of a nuclear-free zone in South Asia, but also states that his country would only sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) if India were to do so.
    --"PAEC Chairman Khan Defends Nuclear Policy," The Pakistan Times (Islamabad), 21 February 1991, Pg. 10; Nuclear Developments, 19 March 1991, Pp. 23-24; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 February 1991
    France renegades on the promise it made in 1990, to supply a nuclear plant to Pakistan. The PRC, which also promised to supply a plant to Pakistan, is also hesitating to do so. Pakistani officials say that negotiations have been suspended due to the refusals on loans. The US has apparently pressured France to cancel the deal, and it along with other European countries, is attempting to ensure that Pakistan does not import any nuclear technology.
    --"Gulf War Halts Pakistan's Nuclear Plants," Nuclear Engineering International, April 1991, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    March 1991
    Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan, announces that he will not continue as chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). His contract is set to expire this month. He says that the only hurdles to proposed reactor purchases from France and China are financial.
    --"Khan Leaves," Nuclear Engineering International, May 1991, Pp 4, 6; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    March 1991
    Pakistan adopts the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) scale for the gauging and reporting of nuclear accidents.
    --"Pakistan Has Adopted The IAEA Scale," Nuclear News, May 1991, Pg. 60; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 March 1991
    Pakistani Foreign Minister Sahibzada Yaqub Khan, who recently resigned, says that Pakistan would continue its nuclear program even if military and economic aid to Pakistan are cut off.
    --"Pakistan Chief Says China Ready To Proceed With nuclear Unit Sale," Nucleonics Week, 7 March 1991, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 March 1991
    Munir Ahmad Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) says that people in the Pakistani government speak "too much" of Pakistan's ability to make a nuclear bomb, and that this is damaging to Pakistan's relationship with other countries, especially with signatories of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
    --"AEC Chairman Notes 'Too Much Talk," Viewpoint (Lahore), 7 March 1991, Pp. 16-19; Nuclear Developments, 23 April 1991, Pp. 23-26; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 March 1991
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Sartaj Aziz says that China will provide Pakistan with financial and technical details for the delivery to Pakistan of a 300 MW nuclear power plant, within two months.
    --"Pakistan Chief Says China Ready To Proceed With nuclear Unit Sale," Nucleonics Week, 7 March 1991, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 March 1991
    Japan's Ambassador to Pakistan, Kunio Muraoka, suggests that Pakistan sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). He adds that Japan would not cut off aid as the US has done; however, he says that Japan might consider selling a nuclear plant to Pakistan after it (Pakistan) signs the NPT and US firms might also step forward to do so.
    --"Japanese Envoy Urges Nuclear Treaty Signing," Kyodo (Tokyo), 11 March 1991; Nuclear Developments, 28 March 1991, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 March 1991
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Chairman, Munir Ahmed Khan, retires. Senior PAEC member, Ishfaq Ahmad, steps in as interim PAEC chairman until a new chairman is nominated.
    --"Munir Khan Retires As Chairman Of Pakistan Atomic Commission," Nucleonics Week, 21 March 1991, Pp. 12-13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    14 March 1991
    Pakistan is upgrading a 5 MW reactor, which was supplied by the US in 1965, to 10 MW using mainly indigenous capabilities including instrumentation and control, remote handling technology and fuel production and fabrication. Pakistan also possesses a reprocessing capability.
    --"Management Of 'Bomb Factory' Criticized," Viewpoint (Lahore), 14 March 1991, Pp. 17-18; Nuclear Developments, 23 April 1991, Pp. 30-32; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13-14 March 1991
    The US and Pakistan hold a bilateral conference on the issue of aid. US Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs, Eugene McAllister says that US Presidential certification that Pakistan is not developing a nuclear bomb is necessary, if new aid to Pakistan is to be provided by the US.
    --–"Munir Khan Retires As Chairman Of Pakistan Atomic Commission," Nucleonics Week, 21 March 1991, Pp. 12-13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 March 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1991
    China offers to supply Pakistan with a nuclear power reactor with a is based on that of an indigenously developed 300 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Qinshan 2.
    --"Qinshan 2 May Be 300MWE," Nuclear Engineering International, April 1991, Pp. 10-11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1991
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Chairman Munir Ahmed Khan does not believe that Pakistan's acquisition of two Pressurized Water Reactor's (PWR's) from France and China will pose any serious supply problems, due to Pakistan's indigenous supply of uranium and its fuel fabrication capability. However, Chairman Khan does not believe that Pakistan's Kahuta plant can supply enough fuel for both plants for an extended period.
    --"Pakistan's Plans For New Reactors Won't Pose Fuel Problem, Official Says," Nuclear Fuel, 1 April 1991, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1991
    Dr. Ishfaq Ahmad is named Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) succeeding Munir Ahmad Khan, who served as chairman for 19 years.
    --"New PAEC Chairman Named," Nucleonics Week, 11 April 1991; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 11 April 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 April 1991
    Pakistani President Ghulam Ishaq Khan reiterates that Pakistan would not unilaterally open its nuclear facilities to international inspection. He states that other countries with peaceful nuclear programs did not run them openly.
    --"President Rules Out Inspection," The Muslim (Islamabad), 29 April 1991, Pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 31 May 1991, Pg. 25; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 May 1991
    President Ghulam Ishaq Khan says that a regional approach to nuclear nonproliferation is the most effective way to resolve the problem in South Asia. He also stresses that Pakistan supports nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"President Urges Regional Approach To Nonproliferation," Islamabad Domestic Service, 1 May 1991; Nuclear Developments, 31 May 1991, Pg. 25; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 May 1991
    President Ghulam Ishaq Khan proposes the convening of an international conference to form a comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. He says that Pakistan supports nuclear nonproliferation, especially as a regional issue, citing last year's bilateral treaty between India and Pakistan as a positive step toward keeping South Asia free of nuclear weapons. He is also encouraged by the INF Treaty between the US and USSR and hopes that it will aid in disarmament efforts.
    -"President On nuclear Weapons, Disarmament," The Muslim (Islamabad), 3 May 1991, Pg. 12; Nuclear Developments, 31 May 1991, Pg. 25; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 May 1991
    The French Ambassador to Pakistan, Jean-Pierre Masset, comments on a proposed sale of a nuclear power plant to Pakistan by France. The Ambassador says that there are three issues which complicate the deal: 1.) the issue of a reprocessing plant, 2.) the financial problems and 3.) Pakistan's status as a non-member of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
    --"French Envoy On Nuclear Power Plant Talks," The Muslim (Islamabad), 3 May 1991, Pg. 1; Nuclear Developments, 31 May 1991, Pg. 26; in Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 May 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 May 1991
    Former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto states that nuclear testing will only isolate Pakistan. She calls for a regional approach to nuclear non-proliferation. Also, Pakistan agrees to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) but only if India does the same as well.
    --"Bhutto: Nuclear Testing Would Isolate Country," AFP (Hong Kong), 6 May 1991; Nuclear Developments, 31 May 1991, Pg. 27; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 May 1991, http://www/nti.org/db/nuclear.
  11. Neo
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    June 1991
    The US proposes to supply Pakistan with conventional weapons in exchange for a promise that the country will not attempt to buy or develop nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan May Get Weapons In Gulf," The Washington Times, 11 June 1991, Pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 11 June 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    June 1991
    A delegation of Pakistani Senators visits the United States in an attempt to end the US suspension on economic and military aid to Pakistan. US State and Defense Department officials tell the Pakistani Senators that the suspension (which began in October 1990) will continue until Pakistan proves it does not have and is not building nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan," Milavnews, July 1991, Pp. 20-21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    10 June 1991
    New information is revealed in the Pakistan National Assembly in regards to the acquisition of a French Nuclear Power Plant. More specifically, Pakistan will soon begin negotiations with France, on the purchase of a 900-megawatt power plant. France would like to supply this 900-MW power plant instead of the reprocessing plant.
    --"Acquisition Of French Nuclear Plant Viewed," Nawa-I-Waqt (Lahore), 11 June 1991, Pg. 11; Proliferation Issues, 12 September 1991, Pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 June 1991
    Ishfaq Ahmad, the new chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that Pakistan is now one of the top twelve nations in the world in atomic science, and stresses the need for nuclear self-sufficiency. Pakistan continues to work to develop a nuclear reactor and has been able to produce its own nuclear fuel. The PAEC in Karachi is trying to fill the need for trained personnel and has provided postgraduate training to 200 engineers.
    --Editorial Views Challenges To Nuclear Self-Reliance," Nawa-I-Waqt (Lahore), 11 June 1991, Pg. 11; Proliferation Issues, 12 September 1991, Pp. 22-23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 June 1991
    Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif proposes the creation of a nuclear free zone in South Asia and would like the proposal to be sponsored by the US, USSR and the People's Republic of China (PRC). India rejects the proposal as a "ploy for resumed military aid." Also, a Pakistani delegation travels to Washington DC to discuss the halt of American aid to Pakistan in 1990, on account of Islamabad's nuclear weapons program.
    --"Editorial On Pakistan, India 'Nuclear Luxury," The Bangladesh Observer (Dhaka), 12 June 1991, Pg. 5; Nuclear Developments, 24 July 1991, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 24 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 June 1991
    Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif speaks at the Carnegie Endowment in Washington DC and has forwarded his proposal for "nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia." During the speech, Sharif stresses the importance of ending the nuclear weapons race between India and Pakistan so that both countries could "devote their limited resources on urgently needed economic development."
    --"Sajjad: Nuclear proposal Not For US Aid," Islamabad Radio Pakistan Network, 13 June 1991; Proliferation Issues, 8 August 1991, Pp. 20-21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    July 1991
    The closure of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) (founded in Pakistan in 1972), in most of the 69 countries where it has branches, adds to the deterioration of US-Pakistani relations, which have also been fueled by conflict over Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --"BCCI Scandal Hits Pakistan-U.S. Nerve," The Wall Street Journal, 9 August 1991, Pg. A4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 July 1991
    Ghulam Ishaq Khan, President of Pakistan, will not allow international inspections to take place at the Kahuta uranium enrichment facility. The president says that Pakistan is pursuing a peaceful nuclear program and that countries do not reveal their research to each other. The press in Pakistan sees the Kahuta facility as a possible target for Israeli armed forces. Moreover, Israel believes that Kahuta is involved in military activities and could supply Arab countries with nuclear weapons in the future.
    --"Kahuta Remains Secret...And Israeli Doubts Continue," Nuclear Engineering International, July 1991, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 July 1991
    Benazir Bhutto, former Prime Minister of Pakistan and leader of the opposition Pakistan People's Party (PPP) states that Pakistan has nuclear capability and would detonate a bomb in the event that India does. In a interview with the Independent TV, Bhutto proposes an Indo-Pakistani summit to deal with the issue of regional security. She recommends that the US, the UK, or Saudi Arabia to act as mediator.
    --"Pakistan," Asia-Pacific Defence Reporter, July 1991, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 July 1991
    Hamid Nasir Chattha, Pakistani Minister for Planning & Developing and Science & Technology, speaks to the Council of Ministers of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and focuses on the need for the SAARC to take the initiative in forming a regional agreement on disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"Pakistan: SAARC Urged To Aid Nonproliferation," Nucleonics Week, 18 July 1991, Pg. 19; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 July 1991
    Ishfaq Ahmad, the new chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) speaks at a ceremony at the Karachi Nuclear Power Training Center (KNPTC), which provides nuclear science training. Ahmad says that Pakistan ranks in the top 12 nuclear science countries in the world and is determined to gain self-reliance in the nuclear industry. Ahmad also stresses the importance of the training efforts of both the KNPTC and the Center for Nuclear Studies at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). Ahmad also praises the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) personnel for their accomplishments.
    --"New PAEC Head Says Pakistan Will Achieve Nuclear Self-Reliance," Nucleonics Week, 4 July 1991, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 4 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 July 1991
    A retired Pakistani Army Brigadier is arrested on a 1987 charge for attempting to illegally ship sensitive technology with financing from the Pakistani founded Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). This arrest also creates a "new link" between the BCCI and Pakistan's nuclear development program.
    --"BCCI Scandal Hits Pakistan-U.S. Nerve," The Wall Street Journal, 9 August 1991, Pg. A4; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 July 1991
    Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif threatens to declare war against "any country whose soil is used," in attacks on nuclear sites in Pakistan. Pakistani newspapers suggest that the group of Israelis who were abducted from Indian-ruled Kashmir in June 1991, were plotting to attack a secret Pakistani nuclear plant at Kahuta.
    --"Pakistan Threatens War If Nuclear Sites Attacked," The Washington Post, 12 July 1991, Pg. A22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    14 July 1991
    Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif calls the new Indian Prime Minister, P.V. Narasimha Rao, on the hotline, in order to discuss Sharif's proposal for a five-nation conference on nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia. India's position on the issue is that nonproliferation cannot be approached regionally but rather globally. Rao refuses to participate in "an arrangement in which no one knows what the other country is going to do in spite of the agreement."
    --"Rao Cool To Nuclear Talks With Pakistan," The Hindu (Madras), 14 July 1991, Pg. 1; Proliferation Issues, 21 August 1991; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 July 1991
    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) formulates emergency plans which detail how the plant would deal with any emergency situations. According to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the plan has been discussed with many groups that would play a role in emergency plans, including the civil administration of Karachi, the police, the armed forces, and public and technical organizations.
    --"Pakistan: Karachi Emergency Plan Formulated," The Nucleonics Week, 18 July 1991, Pg. 19; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 July 1991
    An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) site safety review team visits the site for the Chashma Nuclear Power Project in Pakistan and issue a report with recommendations. The team does not find anything that would make this site unacceptable. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) chooses this site only after studies which follow international practice and criteria are made.
    --"Pakistan: Chasma Site Review Concludes," Nucleonics Week, 18 July 1991, Pg. 20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 18 July 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 August 1991
    In Norway, Olav Henriksen, Director for Euvinds, a small Norwegian trading company, and Knut Pettersen, Export Director of Norsk Data, are arrested for attempting to illegally export sensitive electronic equipment to Pakistan. This equipment has been seized by British customs officials. Pakistan bought similar equipment from Norway in 1987 but since then Norway has increased regulations on exports. Exports to Pakistan are restricted because it has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Furthermore, Pakistan has attempted to buy the computers from Norway but their efforts were denied by the Norwegian Foreign Ministry.
    --"Illegal Equipment For Pakistan Seized," Nuclear Engineering International, August 1991, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 August 1991
    Pakistani Senator, Mohammed Tariq Chowdhery, says that Pakistan should openly declare its nuclear capability and offer to sell its nuclear technology to other Islamic nations.
    --"Self-Sufficiency Reached," Jasrat (Karachi), 7 August 1991, Pg. 4; Proliferation Issues, 29 October 1991, Pg. 42; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 October 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 August 1991
    A Pakistani delegation leaves for an official visit to the People's Republic of China (PRC), to discuss the prime minister's proposal on South Asian nuclear nonproliferation and other bilateral and regional relations, including the PRC's willingness to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The delegation is led by Senate Chairman Wasim Sajjad and includes the Secretary General of Foreign Affairs, Akram Zaki, and other officials.
    --"PRC TO Discuss Arms Control, Nuclear Issues," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 12 August 1991; Proliferation Issues, 21 August 1991, Pg. 18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 August 1991
    Wasim Sajjad, Chairman of the Senate and leader of the Pakistani delegation to the People's Republic of China (PRC), says (after returning from China) that Beijing is willing to work with Islamabad to implement Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's plan for a nuclear-free zone in South Asia.
    --"PRC To Work With Islamabad On Nuclear Issue," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 19 August 1991; Proliferation Issues, 12 September 1991, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 August 1991
    The Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry hosts a reception honoring Dr. Abdul Qadir Khan, the Director of the A.Q. Khan Laboratories at Kahuta. Khan speaks about the Kahuta project and says that he has trained replacements for himself, so that the project can continue in the future, should something happen to him. Khan also speaks about the establishment of the Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute for Science & Technology, which is funded by the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) of Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan: A.Q. Khan Promises Continuity," Nucleonics Week, 29 August 1991, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 August 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 August 1991
    Ramon Jean Hnatyshyn, Governor General of Canada, welcomes Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's proposal for nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia, during a ceremony accepting the new Pakistani High Commissioner, Retired Air Chief Marshal Hakimullah. Hnatyshyn says that Canada will welcome any efforts leading India and Pakistan to sign a nonproliferation agreement because it would benefit the entire region.
    --"Envoy Assured Of Canadian Support On Arms Control," Radio Pakistan Overseas Service (Islamabad), 24 August 1991; Proliferation Issues, 12 September 1991, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 September 1991, Pg. 21, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 September 1991
    Pakistan refutes India's accusation that it (Pakistan) has received uranium in secret and says that all of its uranium imports have been registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). India had accused Pakistan of shipping the uranium from the port at Karachi to the Kahuta enrichment plant.
    --"Pakistan Receives Uranium," Nuclear Engineering International, September 1991, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 September 1991
    The operators of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) expect to increase the plant's life by 10 years using locally produced resources. The plant is currently operating using only Pakistani maintenance (since 1972). The confidence of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has risen after tests and upgrades have been performed using Pakistani mined and fabricated fuel.
    --"Pakistan Confident On Nuclear Power For Future," Nuclear Engineering International, September 1991, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 September 1991
    Pakistani Finance Minister Sartaj Aziz and Chinese Vice-Minister for Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, Gu Yongjiang, sign a preliminary agreement which would entail Pakistan obtaining thermal power plants from China.
    --"Pakistan to Obtain Thermal Power Plants," Xinhua (Beijing), 9 September 1991; Proliferation Issues, 27 September 1991, Pp. 2-3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 October 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 September 1991
    Ishfaq Ahmad, Chairman of the Pakistani Nuclear Energy Commission, states that for the last 19 years, Pakistan has supported the formation of a South Asian nuclear weapon-free zone and continues to seek a regional approach to nuclear nonproliferation. Ahmad says that Pakistan's nuclear program is entirely peaceful and necessary for its socioeconomic development. He encourages more cooperation between the developed and developing nations for peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
    --"Regional Approach To Nonproliferation Stressed," Radio Pakistan Network, 17 September 1991; Proliferation Issues, 27 September 1991, Pg. 21; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 September 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    21 September 1991
    China will set up two thermal power reactors in Muzzaffargarh, Pakistan, based on the agreement signed in Beijing by the chairman of Pakistan's Water and Power Development Authority and the chief of the Chinese Machinery and Equipment Export Corporation. The cost of the reactors will be $157 million.
    --"China To Set Up Two Thermal Power Stations," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 21 September 1991; Proliferation Issues, 29 October 1991, Pg. 43; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 October 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 October 1991
    Pakistani nuclear scientist, Dr. Abdul Qadir Khan, says that Pakistan has in fact become a nuclear power and is working on building "sophisticated arms to fulfill its requirements." This achievement comes 10 years after Pakistan setup its first nuclear enrichment plant at Kahuta in 1981 and makes Pakistan one of the few countries in the world with nuclear technology and know-how.
    --"Renowned Scientist Declares Nuclear Capability," Dawn (Karachi), 22 October 1991, Pg. 1; Proliferation Issues, 7 November 1991, Pp.26-27; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 November 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    31 October 1991
    The Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1), located at the Pakistan Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research (PINSTECH), is redesigned and upgraded, and goes critical. The conversion work allows the reactor to operate at 10 MW on 20% enriched fuel and should extend the life of the reactor another 25 years beyond its original 25-year design life. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PEAC) engineers are considering a similar 25-year life expansion for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    --"PARR's New Lease Of Life," Nuclear Engineering International, December 1991, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    November 1991
    Ishfaq Ahmad, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that Pakistan is planning to modernize the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), in order to increase its capacity and extend its life. Ahmad says that the redesign of the Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) has moved Pakistan closer to its goal of manufacturing a nuclear reactor indigenously.
    --"PAEC Plans to Expand And Extend the Life of Kanupp," Nucleonics Week, 7 November 1991, Pg. 10; Nuclear Engineering International, December 1991, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    November 1991
    J. Hashmi, Director of Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), expects Cegelec of France to sign a contract for $40 million, in order to supply and install instrumentation and control equipment as part of an upgrading program at KANUPP. The entire upgrading program is expected to be worth $16 million.
    --"French Bid For KANUPP Contract," Nuclear Engineering International, November 1991, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    25 November 1991
    India states that it is "ready to consider" the Pakistani proposal for a five nation conference on the topic of nuclear proliferation in South Asia. Besides India and Pakistan, the conference would also include the US, USSR and China.
    --"India Shifts Stance On N-Weapons Conference," Financial Times, 25 November 1991, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 November 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 December 1991
    Zahid Ali Akber, Chairman of the Pakistani Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), suggests that Pakistan's nuclear power plants be placed under the direction of his utility, in order to end international concerns that the plants are involved in weapons production. The Government's response to this suggestion is positive.
    --"Pakistani Plants Go To Hydro Power?" Nuclear Engineering International, December 1991, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 December 1991
    The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), located on Pakistan's coast, is being threatened by erosion caused by monsoons. The plant's management is taking measures to deal with the problem.
    --"KANUPP Threatened By Erosion...," Nuclear Engineering International, December 1991, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1991, http://www.nti.org/nuclear/db.

    1 December 1991
    A report, published by Pakistan's National Conservation Strategy (NCS), states that the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) could be threatened by earthquakes of up to 7.6 on the Richter scale.
    --"...And By Earthquakes," Nuclear Engineering International, December 1991, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 December 1991, http://www.nti,org/db/nuclear.

    12 December 1991
    Abida Hussain, Pakistan's new ambassador to the United States, wants the United States to convene a regional conference on nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia. She says that a new opportunity to move forward on the issue was provided when the People's Republic of China (PRC) announced that it was willing to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Hussain also states that India has been unwilling to renounce nuclear weapons because China has them as well.
    --"Pakistan Wants US To Take Lead In Ending Nuclear Race," Washington Times, 12 December 1991, Pg. A8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 December 1991, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
  12. Neo
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    1992

    1 January 1992
    Pakistan and India exchange lists of their nuclear facilities in accordance with the 1988 agreement between the two countries prohibiting attack on each other's nuclear sites. The agreement came into force in 1991. This is the first such exchange of lists.
    --"Islamabad Reports Exchange Of Nuclear-Site Lists," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 1 January 1992; Proliferation Issues, 31 January 1992, Pg. 31; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 January 1992, http://www.nti.org/db/nuclear; B. Muralidhar Reddy, "India, Pakistan exchange lists of nuclear facilities," The Hindu, January 2, 2006, Index of /2006/01 02/stories/2006010214400100.htm

    2 January 1992
    India and Pakistan exchange lists of their nuclear-related facilities-including uranium enrichment plants-under the terms of a 1988 agreement (which came into force in 1991) by both countries not to attack each others' installations. According to the agreement, India and Pakistan will exchange these lists, annually. Neither party has signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or allows International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections at its nuclear installations. However, Pakistan continues its pledge to sign the NPT if India agrees to as well.
    --"India And Pakistan Exchange Nuclear Data Under '91 Pact," Los Angeles Times, 2 January 1992, Pg. A12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 2 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    2 January 1992
    The Parliament of Tajikistan reveals that the government is considering selling enriched uranium and technology for uranium production. Interested parties from Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have all visited the former Soviet republic. Tajikistan is rich in uranium and new deposits have recently been discovered.
    --"Parties Interested In Uranium Invited," Reuters; Franfurter Rundschau, 3 January 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 3 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 January 1992
    China states that it will provide credit for financing Pakistan's purchase of a 300-MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The turnkey project is estimated to cost $600 million (US) and will be modeled on China's Qinshan-1 nuclear plant. China will also supply the first core and two reloads. Also, the PWR will be under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Furthermore, the 300-MW PWR will be of indigenous Chinese design, with major components being supplied by foreign companies, including Mitsubishi of Japan (reactor vessel), Klein, Schanzlin & Becker of China (major pumps) and Framatome of France (instrumentation and control equipment).
    --"Pakistan./China: China To Aid Plant Financing," Nucleonics Week, 9 January 1992, Pg. 14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 January 1992
    U.S Senator, Larry Pressler says that the US "is convinced," that Pakistan possesses a nuclear device. Pressler says that the US fears "an Islamic bomb" either in Pakistan or in the Central Asian republics of the former USSR. An anonymous Pakistani official said that his government had told the US that it is not aiding Iran in its attempts to build nuclear weapons, a statement contrary to US intelligence reports. The official said that an Iranian request made within the last few years to former army chief of staff Mirza Aslam Beg for access to Pakistan's nuclear weapons technology was turned down. In exchange for this access, Iran offered a pledge to write off Pakistan's debts and meet its financial needs.
    --"Pakistan Warned On Nuclear Parts," The Washington Post, 14 January 1992, Pg. A12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 January 1992
    Pakistani Prime Minster, Mohammed Nawaz Sharif, announces that France will pay Pakistan US $118-million as compensation for breaching a deal made in 1974 to supply Pakistan with a reprocessing plant. The deal was made by then- Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but was canceled by France in 1978 after its nuclear export policy was changed in 1977. The Pakistani Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) former Chairman, Munir Ahmed Khan, says that Pakistan had been seeking more money but the sum would cover costs of civil work PAEC had spent on the project. The French firm Saint Gobain Nucleaire (SGN), now Societe General pour les Techniques Nouvelles, was to help build the plant. A French Foreign Office spokesman indicates that France will not confirm the dollar figure of the compensation until after the visit by Prime Minister Mohammed Nawaz Sharif, which is scheduled for January 15-19, 1992.
    --"Pakistani Says France Will Pay $118-Million For Supply Breach," Nucleonics Week, 16 January 1992, Pp. 14-16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 January 1992
    U.S. Senator Larry Pressler concludes a visit to Pakistan by calling on the country to "take steps publicly to dismantle its nuclear bomb and its nuclear capability."
    --"Dismantle N-Bomb, Pressler Tells Pak," The Hindu (International Edition), 25 January 1992, Pg. 5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    14 January 1992
    The Bush administration tells Pakistan that it must destroy the parts it is believed to have for at least two nuclear weapons before the US will resume aid. The Pakistani government of Nawaz Sharif denies that it has the parts, and states that complying with the US demand would create a political problem since nuclear capability is an important symbol of prestige for Pakistan. Meetings between the new army chief of Pakistan, General Asif Nawaz, and US officials did not resolve the dispute. Pakistan says it has stopped production of enriched uranium and oralloy (made from uranium for nuclear weapon cores) in order to meet US conditions for aid renewal.
    --"Pakistan Warned On Nuclear Parts," The Washington Post, 14 January 1992, Pg. A12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 January 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 January 1992
    A spokesperson for the Pakistani Foreign Office says that Pakistan and France have "agreed in principle" to sign an agreement on cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear technology but that the details had to be worked out. The agreement was made when Pakistan's Prime Minister was in France recently.
    --"Spokesman On French Nuclear Pact; India, Japan," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 29 January 1992; Proliferation Issues, 14 February 1992, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 14 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 February 1992
    In an interview with the Asia-Pacific Defense Reporter, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif states that Pakistan supports regional nuclear non-proliferation regimes. Sharif's proposal for a regional regime for South Asia--to include Pakistan, India, the PRC, the US, and the CIS--has been supported by all countries except India, which has recently indicated it will reconsider its initial rejection of the proposal. Sharif declares that "Pakistan will not produce nuclear weapons." Pakistan is willing to accept any inspections and international safeguards that are applied in a non-discriminatory manner.
    --"Pakistan Won't Build The Bomb," Asia-Pacific Defense Reporter, 2-3/92, Pg. 39; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 February 1992
    Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif denies the rumors that Pakistan is helping rebuild and upgrade an Iranian research reactor along the lines of its own Atomic Research reactors-PARR I & PARR 2.
    --"Pakistan Rejects Iran Cooperation," Nuclear Engineering International, February 1992, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 February 1992
    Pakistan denies reports that it has exported enriched uranium to Iraq, and says that there has been no cooperation between the two countries. Pakistan is the only Muslim country capable of enriching uranium.
    --"No Iraqi Uranium From Pakistan," Nuclear Engineering International, February 1992, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 February 1992
    Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) will offer a 1-year training program in nuclear technology.
    --"KANUPP Offers Training," Nuclear Engineering International, February 1992, Pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 February 1992
    Pakistani Foreign Secretary Shahryar Kahn says that Pakistan has the capability to build a nuclear weapon, but it has not and will not build one, nor will it transfer nuclear technology to other countries. He says that the current government has frozen its nuclear weapons program and wants to meet with India to discuss regional nuclear disarmament as encouraged by the US, Russia, and the PRC. Khan also mentions that Pakistan would only roll back its nuclear program if India does so as well. He proposes that India and Pakistan agree on "mutual inspections" of each other's nuclear facilities.
    --"Pakistan Tells Of It's A-Bomb Capacity," The New York Times, 8 February 1992, Pg. A5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    10 February 1992
    Abida Hussein, Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, and Fakhr Imam, Pakistani Minister for Education, both speak at George Washington University. Hussein says that Pakistan began its nuclear weapons program in 1978 and that until the current acknowledgement by Foreign Secretary Shaharyar Khan that Pakistan has nuclear weapons capability, Pakistan's governments had not admitted the truth about its program. She confirms Khan's statement and says Pakistan has a "freeze" on nuclear weapons development and will discuss disarmament with India but will not "roll back" its program unilaterally. Hussein says that the nuclear deterrent had lessened the chance of war between India and Pakistan. She also discussed growing (non- nuclear) ties to the Islamic Republics of the former Soviet Union.
    --"No Unilateral Reversal Of N-Plan," The Times of India, 12 February 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 February 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 February 1992
    Australian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Senator Gareth Evans, says that Australia is "deeply disturbed" by the admission by Pakistani Foreign Secretary, Shahryar Khan, that Pakistan has nuclear weapons capability. Australia appreciates the honesty but fears this admission by Pakistan will challenge the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. Evans also says that his country welcomes Pakistan's claim that it will not transfer nuclear technology.
    --"Australia 'Disturbed' At Nuclear Declaration," The News (Islamabad), 21 February 1992; Proliferation Issues, 3 March 1992, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 3 March 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 February 1992
    Pakistani State Minister for Foreign Affairs- Mohammad Siddique Kanjoo says that Pakistan will use its nuclear capability only for peaceful purposes and will not transfer this technology to other countries. Pakistan is ready to sign the NPT simultaneously with India. In addition to its proposals for a five-nation conference on nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia, Pakistan supports a regional nuclear test ban treaty, a joint declaration with India renouncing production of nuclear weapons, and negotiating a system of bilateral nuclear inspections and simultaneous adoption of IAEA safeguards by India and Pakistan.
    --"Country Not To Transfer Nuclear Technology," Xinhua (Beijing), 20 February 1992; Proliferation Issues, 13 March 1992, Pp. 22-23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 March 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    29 February 1992
    High-ranking Kazakh and Pakistani officials meet in Kazakhstan to discuss cooperation in the area of nuclear technology between the two states. Following the meeting, Kazakhstan declares its willingness to cooperate with Pakistan in nuclear technology, as it is convinced that Pakistan's nuclear program is a peaceful one.
    --"Kazakhstan To Cooperate In Nuclear Technology," The Frontier Post (Peshawar), 29 February 1992, Pg. 1; Proliferation Issues, 13 March 1992, Pg. 22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 13 March 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    9 March 1992
    A spokesperson for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) is running under full safeguards and has been inspected regularly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The IAEA states that the plant's "procedures and safeguards" meet international standards. The PAEC and IAEA will continue to observe the plant.
    --"Spokesman On 'Full Safeguards' At Nuclear Plant," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 9 March 1992; Proliferation Issues, 20 March 1992, Pg. 14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 March 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 March 1992
    Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says that China's accession to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) does not change his call for a five-nation conference on a regional nuclear weapons-free zone, but he also says that he has proposed bilateral negotiations to India's prime minister.
    --"Prime Minister Comments On Regional Nuclear Talks," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 12 March 1992; Proliferation Issues, 26 March 1992, Pg. 28; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 March 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 March 1992
    In a Pakistani Parliament debate, Senator Tariq Chaudry argues that Pakistan must explode a nuclear device prior to attending a proposed 5-nation conference on nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia. Since India detonated a nuclear device in 1974, Chaudry says that it (India) would not "be affected" by signing the NPT, but that Pakistan would be at a disadvantage since it has not exploded a device.
    --"Senate Urges Bomb Detonation Before Conference," The Muslim (Islamabad), 13 March 1992, Pg. 12; Proliferation Issues, 15 April 1992, Pg. 8; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 15 April 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 April 1992
    Pakistan's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs- Siddique Khan Kanju says that Pakistan has "certain technical nuclear capability" for peaceful uses. Kanju endorses Federal Defense Minister- Syed Ghous Ali Shah's statement on Pakistan's nuclear capability. He says that Pakistan is reiterating its sincere proposals for creating a nuclear-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Kanju Notes 'Peaceful Purpose' Of Nuclear Program," The Muslim (Islamabad), 17 April 1992, Pg. 12; Proliferation Issues, 20 May 1992, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 May 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    23 April 1992
    In recognition of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant's (KANUPP's) successful operation for twenty years, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) collaborated with the Tokyo Centre of the World Association of Nuclear Operations to present a seminar in Karachi, on the topics of ageing, refurbishment and life extension of nuclear power plants. Pakistan's government is considering upgrading KANUPP, a Canadian unit with a 30 year design life.
    --"Pakistan's KANUPP Plant Passes 20-Year Landmark," ENS NUCNET, 23 April 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 April 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    30 April 1992
    The management of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) submits a proposal to the Pakistani government under which KANUPP could operate economically until 2012 if electricity generated can be sold at competitive prices, the government allocates more money for safety improvements, and Canada continues to allow technical support for safety improvements. The KANUPP project, called Safe Operation of KANUPP, has been endorsed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
    --"KANUPP Seeking Safety Upgrades From Canadian Vendors, Utilities," Nucleonics Week, 30 April 1992, Pp. 2-3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 30 April 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    May 1992
    Javed Iqbal Abbasi, Pakistan's Parliamentary Affairs Minister, says that work has begun on the installation of a 300-MW nuclear plant, which will be supplied by China. The plant is scheduled to start operation by the end of 1998.
    --"Installation Of PRC Nuclear Reactor Started," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 10 May 1992; Proliferation Issues, 20 May 1992, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 May 1992, http://www.nti.org.db/nuclear.

    25 May 1992
    Pakistan upgrades a 1960s US model research thermal reactor from 5MW to 10MW. The Director of the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) says that the reactor will now use lower-enriched fuel, 20% U-235 instead of the 93% U-235 used in the past. The new fuel is fabricated in China. Ishfaq Ahmed, Chair of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that his commission is preparing to overhaul the 137MW KANUPP power plant and to purchase standardized nuclear plants from China and possibly other friendly countries. President Ghulam Ishaq Khan says that Pakistan's success in upgrading the research reactor was especially important given the western countries' embargo on the transfer of nuclear technology to the developing countries because of its potential dual use. He also states that Pakistan will continue to develop its nuclear program, but it will not transfer sensitive technology to third countries because of its commitment to nonproliferation. He also thanks China for assistance in development of the Pakistani nuclear program and the planned purchase of a 300MW nuclear power plant.
    --"Pakistan Marks 25 Nuclear Years With Upgraded Research Reactor," Nucleonics Week, 28 May 1992, Pp. 11-12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 May 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    4 June 1992
    The Pakistan National Assembly approves the allocation of 693 million rupees (US $27 million) to the PRC (China) as down payment for a 300 MW PWR. The contract was signed back in December 1991 between Pakistan and the China National Nuclear Corporation. Also, Pakistani and Chinese engineers are already working on the details of the turnkey project.
    --"Pakistan Budgets A Down Payment To China For 300-MW Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 4 June 1992, Pg. 5; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 4 June 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    10 June 1992
    A spokesperson for Pakistan's Foreign Ministry says that there is a "very, very remote possibility" that France will supply a nuclear power plant originally promised for Pakistan in 1990 by French President Francois Mitterrand. The spokesperson also notes that France will only export nuclear plants to countries which have adopted full International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Pakistan is only willing to accept full-scope IAEA safeguards if India does so also. Both India and Pakistan claim that their nuclear programs are for peaceful purposes but neither has signed the NPT.
    --"French Nuclear Plant For Pakistan Seen Unlikely," Reuters, 10 June 1992; Compuserve-Executive News Service, 10 June 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 10 June 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    11 June 1992
    France declines to supply a nuclear power plant to Pakistan. France had agreed to provide the plant during Pakistan's Prime Minister's visit to France, earlier this year in January. France had earlier canceled the sale of a nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan. A Foreign Office Spokesperson states that France has made changes in its nuclear equipment export policy and the chances of a sale of a power plant to Pakistan are "remote". France refuses to enter any nuclear transaction with a country that refuses to sign the NPT. Pakistan's unwillingness to sign the NPT unless India does seems to be the reason for France backing out on the deal.
    --"France Said To Renege On Nuclear Plant Deal," The Muslim (Islamabad), 11 June 1992; Proliferation Issues, 21 July 1992, Pg. 13; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 July 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 June 1992
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors approves a draft agreement from Pakistan requesting IAEA safeguards for the 300-MW Chinese nuclear power plant under construction at Chashma. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) officials say that Pakistan will now be able to incorporate safeguard measures during construction.
    --"China/Pakistan: Chashma Safeguards Okayed," Nucleonics Week, 25 June 1992, Pp. 17-18; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 June 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    1 July 1992
    At the inauguration ceremony for the re-designed research reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Pakistani President Ghulam Ishaq Khan states that Pakistan will not give up its peaceful nuclear program, since Pakistan sees the peaceful development of nuclear technology as a sovereign right. Punjab Chief Minister Ghulam Haider Wyne states that Pakistan needs nuclear technology for its industrial and agricultural sectors and expresses regret that some Western countries have blocked the transfer of nuclear technology to Pakistan.
    --"President Stresses Peaceful Application Of N-Technology," Pakistan Affairs, 1 July 1992, Pg. 3; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 July 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 July 1992
    Pakistani General Inam al-Haq is convicted in Philadelphia for conspiracy to falsify statements for an export license for maraging steel-350. Al-Haq was the partner of Arshad Pervez, a Pakistani-born Canadian, who was found guilty in 1987 for attempting to illegally export beryllium from the US to Pakistan. Pervez was also indicted for attempting to bribe a US customs agent for an export license for maraging steel and falsifying end-use statements.
    --"Inam Al-Haq Convicted," Nuclear Nonproliferation Network, 8 July 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 July 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 July 1992
    The Nuclear Suppliers Group's (NSG's) stance prohibiting Western vendors from equipping a 300 MW PWR in Pakistan has put the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) under great pressure. Western vendors stated that the PRC (China) would be unable to supply the reactor without their help and that the deal would likely fall through because China is unable to supply key components of the reactor. France, Germany and Japan supplied components to construct the Chinese Quinshan reactor.
    --"Pakistan Feeling NSG Pressure On Supply For Chinese Export," Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1992, Pp. 13-14; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 July 1992.

    12 August 1992
    A Pakistani Foreign Office spokesman says that the PRC-Pakistan agreement for a 300 MW nuclear power plant was completed under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. He notes that Pakistan has the sovereign right to develop peaceful nuclear energy.
    --"Agreement With China On Power Plant: "Safeguarded" By IAEA," PTV Television Network (Islamabad), 12 August 1992; Proliferation Issues, 20 August 1992, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 August 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    20 August 1992
    Pakistan's Secretary General of Foreign Affairs-Akram Zaki says Pakistan and the PRC (China) will stand by (honor) all bilateral agreements signed, even if they concern the supply of a nuclear power plant.
    --"Agreement With China On Nuclear Power Plant: Zaki: Accords Will Be Honored," The News (Islamabad); Proliferation Issues, 20 August 1992, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 20 August 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 September 1992
    Iranian President Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani rejects allegations that Pakistan and Iran are cooperating in the development of nuclear weapons. He says Iran is not developing nuclear weapons and that the question is "only relevant to Pakistan itself."
    --"President Denies Nuclear Cooperation With Pakistan," IRNA (Tehran), 8 September 1992; Proliferation Issues, 16 September 1992, Pp. 19-20; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 16 September 1992,Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    13 October 1992
    Iranian Ambassador to Pakistan Agha Mohammad Javad Mansuri denies that the government of Iran is considering cooperation with Pakistan in the nuclear sector. The Iranian Ambassador said that European countries were spreading rumors of joint work between Pakistan and Iran on the development of nuclear technology.
    --"Iranian Envoy Denies Defense Plan With Islamabad," The Muslim (Islamabad), 13 October 1992, Pg. 5; Proliferation Issues, 28 October 1992, Pg. 11; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 October 1992, http://www.nti.org/nuclear.

    1 November 1992
    In 1990, the research reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) was shutdown. However, since then it has been upgraded from 5 MW to 9 MW and is back on line. It has also been converted to low-enriched uranium fuel.
    --"Restart at PINSTECH," Nuclear Engineering International, November 1992, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 November 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    17 December 1992
    Pakistan Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz Sharif visits Japan for the first time and meets with Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa. Sharif agrees to Miyazawa's proposal to hold bilateral talks with Japan on nuclear proliferation issues. These talks will be similar to those that Japan will hold with India early in 1993. In reference to the Japanese-Indian talks to be held, Sharif believes that "Japan can play a very effective role in that issue." Japan has a new policy of connecting economic assistance to disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"Prime Minister Sharif Visits Japan For Meetings: Accuses India Of Blocking," Kyodo (Tokyo), 17 December 1992; Proliferation Issues, 23 December 1992, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 December 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 December 1992
    Mohammad Nawaz Sharif, the Pakistan Prime Minister, says that Pakistan will not allow inspections of the nuclear facilities at Kahuta. Secondly, he says that Pakistan would sign any non-discriminatory agreement with India on the nuclear issue, as long as it guaranteed that the two countries will be "at par in letter and spirit." He adds that reports of Pakistan possessing a nuclear warhead are untrue and repeats that its nuclear program "is geared entirely to peaceful purposes." Sharif also says that, "We have to confront over one hundred nuclear warheads of the enemy [India] that threaten our security."
    --"Decries U.S. 'Discriminatory Treatment," The Pakistan Times (Islamabad), 18 December 1992; Proliferation Issues, 23 December 1992, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 23 December 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 December 1992
    Pakistan begins to excavate the site for the 300 megawatt pressurized water reactor it is buying from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The excavation ceremony at Chashma is attended by Chinese ambassador to Pakistan, Zhou Gang, and the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Ishfaq Ahmad. It is said that the PRC will supply Pakistan with the plant, despite strong objections from the US and other Western nations. The contract for the PWR was signed in Beijing on 3 December 1991 and Pakistan made its first down-payment earlier this year in February. The PRC and Pakistan have made plans for equipment manufacture, while construction is projected to start next year.
    --"Pakistan Begins Work On New Nuclear Power Plant," UPI, 26 December 1992; CompuServe-Executive News Service, 28 December 1992; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 28 December 1992, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    1993

    4 January 1993
    Pakistan and India exchange lists of their nuclear sites for the second year in a row in compliance with a 1988 agreement of nonaggression toward each other's nuclear installations. Neither India nor Pakistan discloses the content of the lists to outside sources as both nations have declined to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and claim that their nuclear programs are only intended for peaceful purposes.
    --"Pakistan and India Swap Nuclear Sites," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 4 January 1993; "Nuclear Installations Lists Exchanged With India," Proliferation Issues, 15 January 1993, Pg. 16; Reuters, 4 January 1993, in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 4 January 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    15 January 1993
    The Pakistani government decides to accept the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission's (PAEC's) "Safe Operation of KANUPP," a plan to enhance the life of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The plan has cleared the Cabinet Committee on Energy, and the Finance Ministry will release Rs. 154 million for the first installment of the six-year renovation process. Canada will return to the assistance of Pakistan by offering technology to renovate KANUPP through the Candu Owners Group. KANUPP currently serves as a training facility for Pakistani nuclear scientists and provides access to Western technology.
    --"Regime Not To Scrap Karachi Nuclear Plant," The Muslim, 15 January 1993, pg. 12; Proliferation Issues, 27 January 1993; "Safe Operation of KANUPP wins go-ahead," Nuclear Engineering International, April 1993, pg. 7; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 January 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 January 1993
    Pakistani nuclear scientist, Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, gives an interview to Family Magazine in which he asserts that the Kahuta nuclear plant is used only for enriching uranium, the same uranium which will be used in the 300-megawatt nuclear plant that Pakistan is acquiring from China. Khan also states that Pakistan's ability to enrich uranium ensures its self-reliance and also saves foreign exchange.
    --"Nuclear Scientist Qadeer Khan Interviewed," Nawa-I-Waqt (Rawalpindi), 26 January 1993, Pp. 28-29, 87; Proliferation Issues, 12 February 1993, Pg. 12; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 12 February 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    31 January 1993
    A five-member parliamentary delegation from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea led by the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Supreme People's Assembly, Yang Hyong-sop, meets with Pakistani Senate Chairman Wasim Sajjad in Islamabad to discuss the nuclear situation in South Asia. Sajjad states that Pakistan supports the peaceful use of nuclear energy and has called for a Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) meeting for all South Asian nations. According to Sajjad, the NPT will only work if all South Asian countries, including India, sign the treaty. Yang Hyong-sop agrees with Sajjad in that Pakistan should adopt a regional approach on nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"DPRK Delegation Visits, Discusses Nuclear Issue," PTV Television Network (Islamabad), 31 January 1993; Proliferation Issues, 5 February 1993, pg. 23; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 5 February 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 February 1993
    Pakistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sign an agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China to Pakistan. The IAEA Board of Governors approved this agreement back on June 19, 1992.
    --"Agreement Of 24 February 1993 Between The International Atomic Energy Agency And The Government Of The Islamic Republic Of Pakistan For The Application Of Safeguards In Connection With The Supply Of A Nuclear Power Station From The People's Republic Of China," International Atomic Energy Agency Information Circular, INFCIRC/418, April 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 April 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1993
    After a three day visit to Pakistan, Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrez announces that the two countries have agreed to cooperate in nuclear power projects "in accordance with appropriate international safeguards." He says Russia is willing to supply Pakistan with nuclear power plants.
    --"Russia, Pakistan To Seek Nuclear Cooperation," Reuter, 8 April 1993; Compuserve-Executive News Service, 9 April 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 April 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 April 1993
    Pakistan and Russia sign a nuclear cooperation agreement. Activities under the agreement will be carried out in accordance with appropriate international safeguards.
    --"Russia and Pakistan Agree," Nuclear Engineering International, June 1993, Pg. 10; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 June 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    8 April 1993
    After a three day visit to Pakistan, Russian Foreign Minister Andrey Kozyrev announces that the two countries have agreed to cooperate in nuclear power projects "in accordance with appropriate international safeguards." He says that Russia is willing to supply Pakistan with nuclear power plants.
    --"Russia, Pakistan To Seek Nuclear Cooperation," Reuters, 8 April 1993; CompuServe-Executive News Service, 9 April 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 9 April 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    22 April 1993
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is currently seeking prequalifications for the construction of intake structures such as reinforced concrete mains and an underground pumphouse for the 300-megawatt nuclear power plant at Chashma, which is being constructed by the Chinese.
    --"Pakistan: Bids Sought at Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 22 April 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 22 April 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    26 July 1993
    General Mirza Aslam Beg, former Chief of Staff of the Pakistani Army, denies that he made the statement that Pakistan had tested a nuclear weapon in 1987. Beg was quoted in the Awaz International as saying that "Pakistan crossed the line in 1987," and that "Pakistan carried out the test in cold laboratory conditions and it was very successful." However, Beg later told the newspaper Jang that "there's no such thing as a cold test"; he says, "That statement was wrongly attributed to me." Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a Pakistani nuclear scientist, says that he had no knowledge that Pakistan had "ever made any experimental nuclear explosion"
    --The News (Islamabad), 26 July 1993, p. 4; in JPRS-TND-93-025, (FBIS), 2 August 1993, p. 12, "Nuclear Expert Does Not Know of Beg's Nuclear Test Claim."; New York Times, 26 July 1993, pg. A2; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 26 July 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    August 1993
    The Japanese government releases an aid package of $350 million to Pakistan while asserting that future Japanese aid will be linked to changes in Pakistan's nuclear program and defense budget. The economic aid package was originally scheduled to be released in December 1992, but was delayed after former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto admitted on a Japanese television program that Pakistan had a nuclear weapons program.
    --"Japan Aid Release Called Tilt to Pakistan Nonproliferation View," Nucleonics Week, 19 August 1993, pg. 13; "Japan Withholds Aid To Pakistan Due To Nuclear Weapons," Nucleonics Week, 31 December 1992, Pg. 15; "Finance Minister Says Japan To Link Aid, Nuclear Aid," Kyodo (Tokyo), 21 December 1992; JPRS-TND-93-002, (FBIS), 15 January 1993, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 August 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    September 1993
    US President Bill Clinton proposes a comprehensive test ban treaty and a multilateral agreement, which would halt the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purposes. India and Pakistan are believed to be willing participants in this agreement. Also, Pakistani diplomats are eager to have the US participate as a mediator between India and Pakistan, much as it did in the Middle East peace negotiations. In this connection, Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto has stated that she is willing to allow "the international supervision that effective arms control will require."
    --"Back from the Brink At Islamabad Talks?" Washington Times, 31 December 1993, Pg. A17; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 December 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    September 1993
    Pakistan Foreign Secretary Shaharyar Khan and US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs-Robin Raphael, along with other US and Pakistani officials, meet in Washington DC to discuss regional security and nuclear nonproliferation in South Asia. Secretary Khan states that the talks were "constructive and positive." He also notes that he was pleased with the Clinton Administration's fair approach toward both India and Pakistan on nuclear issues. Lastly, Khan reiterates Pakistan's promise to eliminate its nuclear program if India does so as well and states that Pakistan has halted its nuclear program "at the 1990 level" but has not rolled it back.
    --"Television Reports Opening Of Talks With US," PTV Television Network (Islamabad), 3 September 1993; JPRS-TND-93-029, (FBIS), 17 September 1993, Pg. 29; "Nuclear Program Said to Be Frozen at 1990 Level," 2 September 1993; JPRS-TND-93-029, (FBIS), 17 September 1993, Pg. 26; "Television Reports Opening of Talks With US," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 4 September 1993; JPRS-TND-93-030, (FBIS), 27 September 1993, Pg. 15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 17 September 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    16 September 1993
    Pakistan Senator Qazi Hussain Ahmed, chief of the Pakistan Islamic Front (PIF), vows to make Pakistan a nuclear power if his party is elected. Ahmed says that nuclear capability would serve as a deterrent which would secure peace and tranquility.
    --"PIF Leader Vows To Make Country Nuclear If Elected," The Pakistan Observer (Islamabad), 16 September 1993, Pg. 5; JPRS-TND-93-030, (FBIS), 27 September 1993, Pg. 16; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 September 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 September 1993
    Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) Secretary General Hamid al-Ghabid and President Wasim Sajjad call for peaceful nuclear cooperation among Islamic countries, during a presentation to the OIC's Committee on Scientific and Technological Cooperation in Islamabad. Both officials reiterate Pakistan's commitment to continue its nuclear program.
    --"Ghabid Urges Nuclear Cooperation Among IOC States," The Pakistan Observer (Islamabad), 20 September 1993, pp. 1,4; JPRS-TND-93-031, (FBIS), 8 October 1993, Pg. 22; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 October 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    24 September 1993
    Pakistani Prime Minister Moeen Qureshi says that Pakistan has suspended its nuclear program and that he expects the United States to review its embargo on economic and military aid to Pakistan. Qureshi states that Pakistan is "not proceeding any further beyond the given point that we have reached in our nuclear programme," and that it "is not working on making any nuclear weapons of any kind." Qureshi also says that he believes that the US will rescind the embargo because of the growing military imbalance between Pakistan and India and the need for a deterrent against Indian aggression.
    --"Pakistan Premier Says Nuclear Programme On Hold," Reuters (Islamabad), 24 September 1993; Executive News Service, 24 September 1993, in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 24 September 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    1 October 1993
    Canada will aid Pakistan under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supervision, in a safety inspection of its Canadian-built Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The plant is scheduled to close on October 5th for the inspection, which is expected to last for one month (Oct-Nov 1993).
    --"Pakistan Nuclear Plant To Shut For Inspection," Reuters, 1 October 1993; Executive News Service, 1 October 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 1 October 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    5 October 1993
    Yuriy Sergeyev, director of the information service of the Ukrainian Foreign Affairs Ministry, reports that Ukraine has never sold nuclear technologies to either Pakistan or Libya. Sergeyev says that Ukraine would not engage in such activities due to its membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other international organizations.
    --"Sale of Nuclear Technologies to Libya, Pakistan Denied," Uniar (Kiev), 6 October 1993; JPRS-TND-93-034, (FBIS), 27 October 1993, p. 38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 October 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    12 October 1993
    Swedish Foreign Minister Margaretha AF Ugglas makes a speech in New Delhi in which she urges India and Pakistan to join the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). The foreign minister advises that such a step would do much to ease the present tensions in South Asia.
    --"Swedes urge India, Pakistan To Join Nuclear Arms Treaty," Stockholm Radio Sweden (Stockholm), 12 October 1993; JPRS-TND-93-034, (FBIS), 27 October 1993, p. 57; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 27 October 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    19 October 1993
    Recently-elected Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, announces that she wishes to resolve any misunderstandings that exist between the United States and Pakistan in regards to Pakistan's nuclear program. Bhutto says that she would like to "renew the old relationship of friendship which we have had with the US."
    --"Pakistan's Bhutto Wants Old Ties With US Restored," Reuters, 19 October 1993; Executive News Service, 19 October 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 19 October 1993, http://www/nti.org/db/nuclear.

    20 October 1993
    Recently-elected Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto says that Pakistan will proceed with its nuclear program which US intelligence believes is oriented toward the development of nuclear weapons. Bhutto says that the nuclear program "will be continued because Pakistan cannot allow India to have an atom bomb while we stay out of the running." Bhutto suggests that relations between the US and Pakistan will remain tense and that she intends to address the issue of the Pressler Amendment which bans US aid to Pakistan unless the President declares that Pakistan does not have nuclear weapons. Bhutto says Pakistan will consider "the aspect of regional non-proliferation" and "the questions of taking on the whole question of Pressler and how it can be removed." She also hopes that France will carry out a previously suspended deal to supply Pakistan with a nuclear power station.
    --"Bhutto Takes Charge Again," Washington Times, 20 October 1993, pg. A24; "Bhutto Standing By Nuclear Program," New York Times, 21 October 1993, Pg. A9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 21 October 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    28 October 1993
    Pakistani Foreign Minister Sardar Asif Ahmad Ali speaks before the Pakistani National Assembly and states that Pakistan has no intention of rolling back its nuclear program. Ali says that the nuclear program plays a very important role in the country's economic development and national security. Minister Ali also says that Pakistan's leaders have chosen not to build nuclear weapons and not to transfer sensitive nuclear technology to other countries.
    --"Minister Says No Rollback On Nuclear Program," PTV Television Network (Islamabad), 28 November 1993; JPRS-TND-93-038, (FBIS), 29 December 1993, pg. 36; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 29 December 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    3 November 1993
    At the annual report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at the United Nations, Pakistani delegate Ahmed Kamal complains about restrictions imposed on the transfer of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Kamal says that such restrictions are based on narrow-mindedness and a superiority complex. Kamal also mentions that Pakistan has made several proposals to create a South Asian nuclear free zone and that it is committed to nuclear nonproliferation.
    --"Restrictions On Transfer Of Nuclear Technology Criticized," Radio Pakistan Network (Islamabad), 3 November 1993; JPRS-TND-035 (FBIS), 10 November 1993, Pg. 39; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 10 November 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    6 November 1993
    US Assistant Secretary of State Robin Raphel meets with Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and Army Chief General Abdul Waheed in Islamabad to discuss US-Pakistan relations and differences in regards to the Pakistan nuclear program. However, little progress is made on the nuclear issue between the two sides.
    --"Pakistan, US Discuss Nuclear Issue," Reuters, 8 November 1993; Executive News Service, 8 November 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 November 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    9 November 1993
    The Canadian High Commissioner to Pakistan, Louis A. Delvoie announces that Canada can no longer provide technical assistance to Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) because of Pakistan's refusal to sign the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and accept full scope safeguards. This announcement reflects Canada's uniform nuclear cooperation policy with all of the UN member countries. Delvoie states that, "there is absolutely no misunderstanding between the two sides on this issue." Delvoie also mentions that approximately twelve Canadian technicians are currently assisting in the safety operations at the Pakistani plant.
    --"Canada Unable To Give Technical Help For Nuclear Power Plant," Dawn (Karachi), 9 November 1993, Pg. 1; JPRS-TND-93-037 (FBIS), 8 December 1993, Pg. 38; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 8 December 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    25 November 1993
    Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto says that Pakistan has reopened talks with France over transfer of a nuclear power plant promised by French President Francois Mitterand in 1990. France had put the discussion of the transaction on hold because there was uncertainty as to whether Pakistan would allow full International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections of its nuclear facilities. Bhutto has since told France that "Pakistan is ready to fulfill all the safeguards in this regard." She states that, "the nuclear power plant shall be the best example of French-Pakistan friendship." Pakistan has previously stated that it would not allow international inspections of its nuclear facilities unless India agrees to do so as well. Western diplomats raise the question whether Pakistan can afford a nuclear plant from France.
    --"Pakistan Reopens Talks For French Nuclear Plant," Rueters, 25 November 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 November 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    7 December 1993
    Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto refutes charges made by the opposition that she intends to cut back the nation's nuclear program in order to appease US interests. Bhutto says that, "As long as there is no threat to our security, the programme will remain peaceful. We have explained to the United States that we cannot roll back our nuclear programme."
    --"Bhutto Affirms Commitment to Nuclear Programme," Reuters, 7 Decemeber 1993; Executive News Service, 7 December 1993; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 7 December 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    30 December 1993
    Ashfaq Ahmed, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), announces at a science conference in Lahore that Pakistan processes all of its uranium domestically and does not need to import uranium since it exploits its own reserves. Ahmed says that Pakistani scientists are self-sufficient and do not rely on foreign assistance or cooperation in the nuclear field. He also states that Pakistan is capable of building its own nuclear power plants and that its scientists have been able to indigenously build a number of major power plant components that were imported in the past. Ahmed adds that Pakistan's nuclear program is for peaceful ends only and that the issue of rolling back the program is political in nature and does not involve the scientists.
    --"Energy Official Details Nuclear Achievements, Capabilities," Pakistan (Islambad), 30 December 1993, pg. 3; JPRS-TND-94-003, (FBIS), 31 January 1994, Pp. 14-15; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 January 1994, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    31 December 1993
    The Indian and Pakistani Foreign Ministers are scheduled to meet in Islamabad to discuss their disagreements on nuclear developments in the region, which could risk a nuclear war if not resolved. Both neighboring states have stockpiled substantial amounts of fissionable material that would allow them to create and detonate nuclear devices within a short period of time.
    --"Back from the Brink At Islamabad Talks?" Washington Times, 31 December 1993, Pg. A17; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 31 December 1993, Nuclear and Missile Developments.