Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

Discussion in 'Pakistan Defence & Industry' started by Neo, Aug 24, 2008.

  1. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0


    1953-1970

    8 December 1953
    U.S. President Eisenhower announces the 'Atoms for Peace' proposal to the United Nations in which he declares U.S. willingness to expedite sharing of peaceful uses of nuclear power with other countries. The Pakistani press welcomes the proposed peaceful use of atomic energy and foreign minister Zarullah Khan states that Pakistan does not have a policy towards the atom bomb.
    --"Atoms for Peace: Eisenhower UN Speech," The Eisenhower Institute, 8 December 1953, http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/programs/ globalpartnerships/ safeguarding/atomsspeech.htm, (July 2005); Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 34.

    October 1954
    Pakistan announces plans for the establishment of an atomic research body as part of a new organization for scientific and industrial research in Pakistan.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.35.

    1954
    The Government College at Lahore establishes the High Tension & Nuclear Research Laboratory to provide research facilities in nuclear physics for graduate and post-graduate students.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 36.

    January 1955
    The Pakistani government forms a 12-member Atomic Energy Committee chaired by Dr. Nazir Ahmed. The committee is asked to: formulate an atomic energy program; identify personnel requirements; and plan a survey of radioactive materials relevant to atomic energy research in Pakistan; and advise the government on any other matter pertaining to the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.35.

    8-20 August 1955
    Pakistani government representatives at the first International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva discuss Pakistan's requirements for nuclear sources of energy.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.36.

    11 August 1955
    Pakistan and the United States sign an agreement on cooperation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Under the agreement, the United States offers Pakistan $350,000 in aid to procure a pool type reactor.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.22.

    March 1956
    Pakistan announces the formation of an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The commission has two parts: the Atomic Energy Council comprising of two ministers and two secretaries from the federal government and the chairman of the AEC; and the commission itself comprising of the chairman of the AEC and six other scientists.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 35.

    1956
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) plans, "peaceful uses of atomic energy with special reference to survey, procurement, and disposal of radioactive materials; planning and establishment of atomic energy and nuclear research institute, installation of research and power reactors, negotiation with international atomic energy bodies, selection and training of personnel, application of radio-isotopes to agriculture, health, industry etc."
    --Dr. Nasir Ahmed, "The Atomic Energy Commission," Pakistan Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 3, Autumn 1957; cited in, Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 36.

    1957
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) completes a technical evaluation report and drafts proposals for the acquisition of the U.S. CP5-type research reactor from the United States. However, the PAEC's proposal is vetoed by the departments of finance and industry.
    [1.The United States was unwilling to supply Pakistan with a CP5-type of research reactor, which ran on heavy water and offered a light water reactor instead]
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp. 38-39, 42.

    1955-1959
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) keeps the supply of the U.S. pool-type reactor pending until 1958. During the intervening yeas, the PAEC board lobbies the finance ministry to allocate resources for the import of a research reactor of the CP-5 type in operation at the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago; or of the NRX type from Canada. However, the finance ministry rejects PAEC's requests on fiscal grounds.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.23.

    March 1958
    PAEC Chairman Dr. Nazir Ahmad makes a proposal to the chairman of Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) for setting up a heavy water plant with a production capacity of 50kg of heavy water per day at Multan, in conjunction with a planned fertilizer factory. However, the PIDC does not act on the PAEC's proposal.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24.

    1958
    PAEC Chairman Dr. Nazir Ahmad complains that the acquisition of the proposed research reactor has been delayed because "considerations of a non-technical nature were allowed to creep in..." Ahmad also makes a pointed critique of the problem of "red tape" in Pakistan and demands that the PAEC be granted administrative and financial powers to be able to carry out its objectives.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp. 38-39.

    March 1959
    The PAEC accepts the government's decision to install a pool-type reactor with regret.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.23.

    1959
    Dr. I.H. Usmani succeeds Dr. Nazir Ahmed as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Under Usmani's tenure, the PAEC focused attention on: training and research infrastructure; acquisition of a research reactor; developing a nuclear power program; gaining international recognition for Pakistan's nuclear establishment; and seeking international cooperation for training and nuclear technology supplies.
    --Ashok Kapur, "Dr. Usmani Takes Over, 1960-71," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 53, 70-71.

    1963
    Pakistan begins operation of the 5MW research nuclear reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Research (PINSTECH). The research reactor facilitates research in the fields of agriculture, industry, medicine, and science and technology.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 January 1964
    Pakistan's Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) approves a project to build a 137MW nuclear power plant at Karachi with Canadian assistance.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24

    January 1964-May 1965
    Negotiations over the sale of the nuclear power plant from Canada stall over the question of inspections. Canada insists that the 137MW power plant be subject to inspections. However, the Pakistani foreign office insists the plant not be subject to inspections; and that Canada supply the plant on terms similar to those India obtained from Canada. However, Canadian negotiators insist that Pakistan must accept safeguards so long as it obtains the reactors as part of a Canadian government aid package. However, the inspections clause could be dropped if Pakistan paid for the reactors out of its own resources. The Pakistani foreign office ultimately accepts the Canadian argument. During negotiations for the reactor sale, PAEC also makes proposals for the setting up of a nuclear fuel fabrication facility, a heavy water plant, and a reprocessing facility. However, PAEC's proposals do not meet favor within the Pakistani government and are shelved.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.25.

    May 1965
    The Canadian General Electric Company (CGE) signs a contract with the Pakistani government to build a 137MW heavy water nuclear power reactor on a turnkey basis at Karachi. The Canadian government offers Pakistan a soft loan of $33 million and a supplier credit of $24 million to finance the project.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24.

    1967
    Pakistan produces the first batch of radioisotopes at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH).
    --"Pakistan Produces Radio-Isotopes," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 20 September 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1960-1967
    Pakistan sends 600 scientists and engineers abroad for training in the field of nuclear sciences; of these, 106 return with doctorates.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.19.

    1960s
    Some foreign ministry officials propose that Pakistan request the purchase of a nuclear fuel processing facility from France. However, suggestions for a processing facility are overruled by foreign secretary Mohammad Yusuf.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 21.

    1960s
    Pakistani nuclear scientists Dr. Usmani and Dr. Salam urge the government to acquire a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility after India's example. However, their request is denied by finance minister Mohammad Shoab.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 21.

    Late 1960s
    The French nuclear engineering firm Société Générale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) offers to supply a 100-ton nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to PAEC. However, the proposal is met with disfavor within the Pakistani government and not pursued.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.31.

    1969
    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA) agrees to supply a downscaled version of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in operation at Windscale in Britain to Pakistan. The proposed plant has the capacity for extracting 360g of weapons-grade plutonium annually. Subsequently, five Pakistani nuclear scientists: Dr. S.M. Bhutta, M.T. Ahmad, Abdul Majid, Dr. Mohammad Afzal, and Dr. Ehsan Mubarak are sent to Britain for training. The Pakistani scientists recommend to PAEC that instead of obtaining the entire plant from Britain on a turnkey basis, Pakistan should purchase key parts and manufacture other parts indigenously. The scientists also believe that it would be possible to upgrade the plant indigenously to produce weapons-grade plutonium.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 35-36.

    1964-70
    Citing Indian advances in nuclear fuel reprocessing and Pakistan's defeat in the 1965 India-Pakistan war, the Pakistan foreign office and foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lobby for a nuclear weapons option. However, Bhutto and the foreign office are successfully opposed by a counter coalition comprising of PAEC, the Ministry of Finance, and President Ayub Khan. PAEC makes no attempt to acquire facilities for a nuclear fuel cycle that can provide the technical basis for a nuclear weapons program.
    --Ashok Kapur, "Dr. Usmani Takes Over, 1960-71," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp.77-87.
     
  2. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1970-1974


    6 March 1970
    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) comes into effect as the United States, USSR, and the Great Britain deposit the instruments of ratification. Pakistan does not sign the NPT.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 6 March 1970; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1970, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1970
    Pakistan builds a pilot-scale plant at Dera Ghazi Khan for the concentration of uranium ores. The plant has a capacity of 10,000 pounds a day.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Roses do not grow in D.G. Khan," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 69.

    20 December 1971
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto assumes power in Pakistan. As a first step in the direction of institution of a nuclear weapons program, Bhutto tasks Munir Ahmad Khan, currently on a stint at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, to prepare a report on Pakistan's nuclear infrastructure.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 16-17.

    20 January 1972
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto holds a meeting with senior Pakistani nuclear scientists to discuss the possibility of embarking on a nuclear weapons program. The meeting is held at the residence of the Punjab Chief Minister Nawab Sadiq Qureshi in Multan. Key invitees include scientists from the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Government College, Lahore, and the Defense Science & Technology Organization (DESTO). Nobel laureate and former scientific advisor to the Pakistani government Dr. Abdus Salam also attends the meeting. During the meeting, several scientists enthusiastically support the idea of a nuclear weapons program. Bhutto endorses the idea and promises that his government will spare "no facilities and finances" for a weapons program. He also demands that the scientists produce a fission device within three years. Toward the end of the meeting, Bhutto announces that Munir Ahmad Khan will replace Dr. Usmani as Chairman of the PAEC.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 17-18.

    Late April-Early May 1972
    Pakistani metallurgist Dr. A. Q. Khan takes up a job with the specialized Dutch engineering company - Physical Dynamics Laboratory or FDO at its metallurgical section in the Dutch town of Almelo. FDO is a subsidiary of the major Dutch company Verenigde Machine-Fabrieken and is a consultant and subcontractor for the ultracentrifuge process being developed by Britain, West Germany, and Netherlands to enrich uranium. The Dutch secret service - BVD - runs a cursory background check on Khan and grants him a security clearance, "secret inclusive."
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 176-177.

    8-9 May 1972
    Khan visits the FDO plant a week after he starts work to begin familiarizing himself with work and security procedures at URENCO, the consortium working on the ultracentrifuge process.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p.178.

    October 1972
    Two Pakistani nuclear scientists, Dr. Riazuddin and Dr. Masud temporarily working at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, return to Pakistan to begin theoretical work on a fission explosive device. The duo are posted at Quaid-e-Azam University and the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) respectively. In the absence of the availability of computers, they use the mainframe computers at Quaid-e-Azam University for work related to the theoretical physics of a nuclear explosive device.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp.38-39.

    1972
    Pakistan begins operation of the 137,000-kilowatt Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The plant is expected to supply 25 percent of Karachi's power requirements.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1972
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) abandons plans to obtain a downgraded nuclear reprocessing facility from Britain and opens negotiations with Belgian and French nuclear companies for assistance in setting up nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, with the objective of pursuing the plutonium route for a nuclear weapons program.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 30.

    March 1973
    A team of three Pakistani nuclear scientists and engineers comprising of Khalil Qureshi, Zafarullah, and Abdul Majid is sent to the headquarters of the Belgonucleaire at Mol to participate in the designing of a pilot nuclear fuel reprocessing facility as well as gain training in reprocessing spent fuel. Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan favors the Belgian pilot reprocessing plant over the British facility on grounds that it would be difficult for Pakistan to upgrade the downgraded reprocessing plant on offer from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA).
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 36-37.

    27 December 1973
    Dr Munir Ahmad Khan, head of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), announces that large uranium deposits have been discovered in southern Punjab province.
    He also announces an ambitious plan to construct 15 new nuclear reactors in the next 25 years to meet two-thirds of Pakistan's power requirements.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 December 1973; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 December 1973, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1973
    Pakistani scientists elect to develop elect to develop an 'implosion' over the 'gun' type of nuclear fission device citing economy in the use of fissile material. Subsequently Dr. Zaman Shaikh, an explosives expert at the Defense Science Laboratories, is tasked with developing explosive lenses for the proposed device.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.40.

    1973
    Dr. Riazuddin travels to the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, after which he proceeds to the United States to obtain open-source information on the 'Manhattan Project' from the Library of Congress and the National Information Center, Maryland. After his return from the United States, Riazuddin is inducted into the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as member (technical).
    [1] Dr. Riazuddin later discloses that he worked as part of the team that worked on designs for Pakistan's nuclear explosive device. As he explained, "we were the designers of the bomb, like the tailor who tells you how much of the material is required to stitch a suit. We had to identify the fissile material, whether to use plutonium or...enriched uranium, which method of detonation, which explosive, which type of tampers and lenses to use, how material will be compressed, how shock waves will be created, what would be the yield." Riazuddin also discloses that since Pakistan found it difficult to manufacture beryllium reflectors, the first nuclear explosive device designed by the 'Theoretical Group' used Uranium-238 as a reflector.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp.39-40.

    18 January 1974
    Canada provides line of credit to Pakistan for flood relief activities as well for the maintenance of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, Wall Street Journal, 18 January 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 March 1974
    Senior Pakistani nuclear scientists Dr. Salam, Munir Ahmad Khan, Dr. Riazuddin, and Hafeez Qureshi convene a meeting with the head of the Pakistan Ordnance Factory at Wah cantonment, Lt. General Qamar Ali Mirza, to set up a plant to manufacture His Majesty's Explosive (HMX) for use in the explosive lenses of the proposed implosion-design fission device. The project is codenamed "Research."
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.41.

    March 1974
    Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan constitutes a small team of scientists, physicists, and engineers to begin work on a nuclear explosive device. The team's office is located at Wah near Rawalpindi; and because of its location comes to be referred to as the "Wah Group." The Wah Group begins research on conventional explosives used to trigger a nuclear fission device.
    1. Original team members included Hafeez Qureshi, head of Radiation and Isotope Applications Division, Pakistan Institute of Science & Technology (PINSTECH) and Dr. Zaman Sheikh, Defense Science & Technology Organization (DESTO). The group was later expanded to include chemical, mechanical, explosive, and precision engineers.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan's Finest Hour," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 3-4.

    April 1974
    Pakistan signs a contract with France for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The plant is to be constructed at Chashma on the banks of Indus River.
    --"Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1974, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    18 May 1974
    India conducts a Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). Following India's test, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto meets with senior Pakistani officials to discuss the implications of India's nuclear tests. A statement by the Pakistani foreign ministry, released after the meeting, states that India's pronouncements of peaceful intentions do not satisfy Pakistan's security concerns. The statement also notes that nuclear programs often incorporate both peaceful and military ends.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 19 May 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 May 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    19 May 1974
    In a news conference, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto indicates that Pakistan will not be threatened by India's 'nuclear blackmail.' Bhutto also indicates that Pakistan will not alter its current policies.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 20 May 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 May 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 June 1974
    Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that India's nuclear program is designed to intimidate Pakistan and establish "hegemony in the subcontinent"; and Pakistan will develop a nuclear program in response to India's nuclear testing of an atomic device. However, Bhutto insists that Pakistan's program will be limited to peaceful purposes.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 8 June 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 June 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 July 1974
    U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) officials predict that about two dozen nations could acquire nuclear weapons over the next decade. According to ACDA officials, countries within immediate reach of acquiring nuclear weapons capability are Pakistan, Japan, West Germany, Argentina, Brazil, and South Korea. Other potential proliferant states include South Africa and Italy.
    --John W. Finney, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 5 July 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 September 1974
    In a secret memorandum titled "Prospects of Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons," the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) predicts that Pakistan will require at least 10 years to carry out a nuclear weapons development program.
    --AP, 27 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 September 1974
    Abdul Qadeer Khan writes a letter to Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto through the Pakistani ambassador in Belgium explaining his expertise in centrifuge-based uranium enrichment technologies at URENCO in Belgium. Khan offers help and urges the prime minister to take the uranium route to a nuclear weapons program. Bhutto responds favorably to Khan's suggestion and directs the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan to meet A.Q. Khan.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.47.

    18 September 1974
    In an address at an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference in Vienna, the head of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Dr Munir Ahmad Khan says that Pakistan will ask the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to declare the South Asian subcontinent to be a nuclear-weapons free zone.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 18 September 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 September 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 October 1974
    Pakistan's Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that restarting U.S. arms shipments will decrease Pakistan's propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Bhutto further states that Pakistan does not want to spend its limited resources on developing nuclear weapons.
    --Bernard Weinraub, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 14 October 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1974
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan directs Bashiruddin Mahmood to prepare a feasibility report on the proposed uranium enrichment program.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 48.

    21 November 1974
    The UN General Assembly approves a Pakistani proposal to create a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia. The proposal passes by a vote of 82-2. India and Bhutan vote against the proposal.
    --Kathleen Teltsch, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 21 November 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 November 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late 1974
    Dr. A. Q. Khan begins working with the Pakistani government to help develop plans for setting up an ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment plant. In the fall of 1974, Khan translates secret German documents on a technical breakthrough concerning the ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment process for the FDO.
    1. It is suspected that Khan shared this classified information with the Pakistani government.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 178.

    November 1974
    After studying the various technical approaches to enriching uranium, Bashiruddin Mahmood recommends that Pakistan build a uranium enrichment facility based on centrifuge technology. Mahmood's report envisages the completion of the facility by 1979.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 50.

    1974
    Pakistan and Libya sign a 10-year cooperation agreement.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  3. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1975-1977

    6 February 1975
    US President Ford indicates to Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that his administration will give ‘active consideration’ to the lifting of the 10-year arms embargo against Pakistan. In response, Prime Minister Bhutto states that he will place Pakistan’s nuclear reactors under international safeguards if the United States provides sufficient conventional arms that meet Pakistan’s requirements.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 6 February 1975; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 February 1975, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 February 1975
    Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has a meeting with Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Khan seeks the government’s approval for a $450 million nuclear weapons program that involves (a) the building of a centrifuge plant for the enrichment of uranium; (b) the development of a uranium mine at Baghalchor in Dera Ghazi Khan (BC-1); and (c) the inception of a nuclear weapons design program led by Dr. Riazuddin of the PAEC. Khan obtains the government’s approval and the uranium enrichment program is formally launched under the name ‘Directorate of Industrial Liaison’ in a barrack at Chaklala airport under the leadership of Dr. Bashiruddin Mahmood.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 50.

    9 April 1975
    The Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), Fred C. Ikle, warns that several countries are pursuing efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. Ikle warns that such countries are acquiring the means to produce nuclear weapons under the guise of obtaining nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Although Ikle does not reveal the names of countries believed to be pursuing nuclear weapons, the New York Times claims that it has has learned from “authoritative” sources that the list includes Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, Libya, Israel, Taiwan, and South Korea.
    —“Ikle Warns Against Nuclear Spread,” Facts on File World News Digest, 12 April 1975; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 February 1975, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July 1975
    Pakistani nuclear scientist S.A. Butt is appointed to the Pakistani embassy in the Netherlands. Later Butt is shifted to Paris where he becomes the Pakistani government’s chief purchasing agent in Europe for uranium and plutonium enrichment technologies. Butt was one of the scientists who attended the January 1972 meeting that Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called to discuss the possibility of Pakistan developing a nuclear bomb.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 182.

    August 1975
    Pakistan begins exploring the uranium enrichment route through the centrifuge process in its pursuit of fissile material. One early indication of this comes when the Pakistani embassy in Brussels queries a Dutch company about the possible purchase of high-frequency transformers or inverters.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 181.

    October 1975
    Dr. A.Q. Khan asks one of his colleagues at FDO to photograph drawings of ultracentrifuges that he had at home. The suspicious colleague declines and reports the incident. In response, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs asks FDO to shift Khan to a less sensitive position where he would not have access to documents related to the ultracentrifuge project.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 180.

    Fall 1975
    Dr. A. Q. Khan is tasked to translate sensitive documents concerning a German technical breakthrough in the ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment process from German into Dutch. For this purpose Khan spends 16 days at URENCO’s facility in the town of Almelo. Security arrangements at the facility are lax and a colleague later reports as having seen Khan making notes at his desk in a foreign script. Khan also uses the opportunity to repeatedly tour the Almelo plant.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 179-80.

    Fall 1975
    Dr. A. Q. Khan uses S. A. Butt at the Pakistani embassy in Netherlands as a conduit for supplying centrifuge-related technical literature, blueprints, plans for plant design, and lists of equipment and material suppliers to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 51.

    15 December 1975
    Dr. A.Q. Khan returns to Pakistan with his wife Henny and their two daughters. He subsequently informs FDO of his intention to stay on in Pakistan and resigns his position at FDO. The resignation takes effect on 1 March 1976.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 180.

    Late 1975
    Pakistan secretly launches Project 706 (according to another source – Project 726) to produce enriched uranium using the centrifuge enrichment process. The project involves the construction of a pilot facility at Sihala, to be followed by the construction of an industrial-scale plant housing 10,000 centrifuges at the village of Kahuta. Dr. A.Q. Khan takes charge of the new Engineering Research Laboratory (ERL), which is tasked with designing the centrifuges for the proposed facilities. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) led by Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan is given overall charge of the project, while the military’s Special Works Commission is asked to help with purchases from abroad and construction of the top-secret facilities.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 182; Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 56.

    1976
    The Pakistani government approves a plan to build a reprocessing plant and eight nuclear power plants at the Chashma site on the Indus River in Mianwali district. According to plan projections the first nuclear power plant will be commissioned by 1982.
    —“Pakistan Plans to Spend $56 million during the Current Fiscal Year,” Nucleonics Week, 2 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 26, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 February 1976
    In a testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Director Fred C. Ikle reveals that the United States and six major industrialized nations have agreed to develop new safeguards and place restrictions on the export of nuclear facilities. Ikle does not provide the names of the countries that have agreed to such controls; but the countries are believed to be the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, Canada, West Germany, and Japan. He also mentions that the United States is making efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its efforts to purchase a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. According to Ikle, Pakistan’s intentions for purchasing the reprocessing plant is to produce nuclear weapons.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 24 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 February 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1976
    Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto meets with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and refuses to accept Canada’s directions on the use of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant that Pakistan is planning to buy from France. Canada insists on implementing stringent safeguards on the Karachi power reactor, but Bhutto refuses to accept Canada’s proposals. Canadian officials are concerned that the spent nuclear fuel from the Canadian built nuclear reactor in Karachi will be used to run the reprocessing plant and produce Plutonium for nuclear weapons. Bhutto contends that Pakistan is not interested in acquiring nuclear explosives. Bhutto further contends that the deal between France and Pakistan to buy a reprocessing plant has been approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 26 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 February 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “Canadian Nuclear Talks Suspended,” Facts on File World News Digest, New York Times, 6 March 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February 1976
    Canadian officials state that Pakistan has promised not to divert spent fuel from the Canadian supplied power reactor in Karachi. The officials also indicate that either side can withdraw from the agreement on six months notice. Canadian officials have expressed skepticism over Pakistan’s desire to purchase a spent fuel reprocessing plant from France and suspect that Pakistan will attempt to divert spent fuel from the Canadian supplied power reactor at Karachi.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 April 1976
    Dr. A.Q. Khan addresses a letter to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan expressing his impatience with the slow pace of the centrifuge-based uranium enrichment project. A few days letter he writes a similar letter to Prime Minister Bhutto threatening to resign his position.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 51-52.

    April 1976
    During a private meeting with Prime Minister Bhutto, Dr. A.Q. Khan threatens to quit if he is not given formal charge of the uranium enrichment project. In response, Bhutto appoints a committee comprising of A.G.N. Kazi (Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission), Ghulam Ishaq (Defense Secretary), and Agha Shahi (Foreign Secretary) to resolve the matter. The committee rules in favor of giving Dr. A.Q. Khan formal charge of the uranium enrichment project. However, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is allowed to continue with the plutonium fuel project independently.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 52.

    2 March 1976
    Canada’s External Affairs Minister Allan Maceachen announces the suspension of weeklong talks with Pakistan on the supply of fuel for the Canadian supplied power reactor in Karachi. The talks were initiated during the visit to Canada by Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
    — “Canadian Nuclear Talks Suspended,” Facts on File World News Digest, 6 March 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1976
    Pakistan signs a contract with France for the sale of a nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant.
    —Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, “Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking,” Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 July 1976
    Dr. A.Q. Khan takes formal charge from Dr. Bashiruddin Mahmood of the Engineering Research Laboratory (ERL), the entity instituted to develop centrifuge technology for enriching uranium. ERL is instituted as an independent organization with a three member board comprising of A.G.N. Kazi, Ghulam Ishaq, and Agha Shahi.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), 53.

    8-9 August 1976
    The United States offers to sell 110 Vought A-7 attack aircraft to Pakistan if it agrees to abandon its efforts to purchase a nuclear reactor from France. The first batch of the attack aircraft is expected to be delivered in 1978-1979.
    —Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30 August 1976, Industry Observer, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1976
    The French foreign minister informs US charge d’affaires Sam Gammon of France’s displeasure over US efforts to hinder the sale of a fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The French foreign minister also indicates that France will proceed with the sale of the reprocessing plant. French foreign ministry officials reveal that the sale of the reprocessing plant was approved on 18 March under an agreement reached between France, Pakistan, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The French government releases a statement indicating that it is in compliance with all international agreements regarding the sale, including an agreement with the IAEA to ensure that the plant is only used for peaceful activities.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 August 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “U.S., Pakistan Discuss French A-Plant,” Facts on File World News Digest, 14 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1976
    Addressing a news conference in Lahore, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger announces a compromise formula that seeks to avoid confrontation between the United States and Pakistan over Pakistan’s attempts to obtain a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. According to the compromise formula, Pakistan would not be able to divert nuclear material for building nuclear weapons. Mr. Kissinger suggests that an agreement between France and Pakistan that would give France power to veto any plans by Pakistan to divert the nuclear fuel for atomic explosives. Mr. Kissinger also says that the United States will block the sale of 100 A-7 Corsair jet-fighter bombers until Pakistan reaches an agreement with France over the fuel reprocessing plant.
    —Bernard Gwertzman, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 August 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “U.S., Pakistan Discuss French A-Plant,” Facts on File World News Digest, 14 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    11 August 1976
    US Charge d’Affaires in Paris Sam Gammon meets US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. After the meeting, Mr. Gammon informs the French Foreign Office Secretary General Francois de Laboulaye that the United States wishes to work out a safeguards agreement for the reprocessing plant that France is planning to supply to Pakistan.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 11 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 August 1976
    In an interview with Radio Luxemburg, Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that Pakistan will proceed with the purchase of the French nuclear equipment despite objections from the United States.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 11 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 August 1976
    French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac rejects proposals for talks between France, Pakistan, and the United States over the sale of a French fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. Mr. Chirac states that only France and Pakistan must be involved in the issue. US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger states that the United States is only interested in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 August 1976
    The French cabinet indicates its intention to proceed with the sale of the nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan despite objections raised by the United States.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 26 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 October 1976
    France reaffirms its decision to supply Pakistan with the nuclear reprocessing plant despite its recent assertions to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 13 October 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 October 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1976
    France is unlikely to proceed with the supply of the nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The change in position is caused by US opposition to the deal and the recent announcement by the Canadian Secretary Donald C. Jamieson that Canada will not supply Pakistan with fuel for its power reactor if France supplies Pakistan with the reprocessing plant. Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Aziz Ahmed and the French Foreign Minister Louis de Guiringauld meet in Paris to discuss the issue. France also sends an envoy to Pakistan to discuss the sale of the reprocessing plant.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 November 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 November 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1976
    Albrecht Migule, owner of the West German firm Ces Kalthof, signs a $2 million deal with a Pakistani textile firm to supply a fluoride plant.
    —“German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan,” Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 November 1976
    The US Defense Department agrees to the sale of 110 A7 attack planes to Pakistan. The deal is worth $700 million and includes training for Pakistani pilots and supply of spare parts. The deal must be approved by Congress and the State Department. The State Department’s approval is contingent on Pakistan’s abandonment of it’s plans to acquire a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant from France.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 November 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 December 1976
    The French Nuclear Export Council, chaired by President Giscard d’Estaing, states that France will not supply any fuel reprocessing plants in the future. The decision is taken to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. According to the French Nuclear Export Council, the sale of the reprocessing plant to Pakistan will be completed as planned. French officials, however, indicate their willingness to cancel the deal, but refrain from doing so owing to domestic political pressure. French officials indicate that France would be happy if Pakistan decides to cancel the contract. The French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing is hopeful that Pakistan will cancel the agreement.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 December 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 31 December 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 December 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 December 1976
    Canada suspends its nuclear cooperation agreement with Pakistan and indicates that it will not supply uranium for the reactor at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    —“Pakistan Sticks to French Nuclear Deal,” Washington Post, 4 January 1977, First Section, A9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 January 1977, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Milton R. Benjamin, “Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal,” Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1976
    Pakistan begins a major purchasing drive in Western Europe for its uranium enrichment project. During 1976, government agents place orders with Swiss and Dutch firms. Specific purchases include highly specialized valves for centrifuges (VAT-Switzerland), a gasification and solidification unit to feed uranium hexafluoride gas into centrifuges (CORA Engineering, Switzerland), and hardened steel tubes (Van Doorne – Netherlands). Exports of these items are not covered under the London Group’s ‘Nuclear Suppliers List’ and the Pakistani government is able to obtain them legally. Although the Swiss and Dutch governments learn that the purchases are related to Pakistan’s planned centrifuge facility, they stick with a narrow interpretation of nuclear export control regulations and do little to interfere the sales.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 182-184.

    1976
    Pakistan attempts to purchase 10-15 tons of uranium hexafluoride gas from the West German company Rohstoff-Einfuhr; but the attempt is unsuccessful.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “More Bang for the Buck,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 218.
     
  4. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1978-1979

    5 January 1978
    The French newspaper Le Monde publishes a report stating that France is renegotiating a nuclear contract with Pakistan to decrease the danger of plutonium production.
    --Associated Press, 6 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 January 1978
    The French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing refuses to comment on the report that appeared in the French newspaper Le Monde that France is renegotiating a nuclear contract with Pakistan.
    --Associated Press, 6 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 January 1978
    Pakistan declares that it is unwilling to accept modifications to the existing contract to build a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.
    --Jonathan Kandell, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 January 1978, Pg. 1, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 January 1978
    The French government announces that it is attempting to alter the contract to sell a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The original contract was signed in 1976. The French government is attempting to alter the contract by selling a fuel reprocessing facility that will not produce plutonium. Pakistan's military government is reportedly unwilling to accept the new terms of the contract. France's announcement does not provide any information on steps to be taken if Pakistan refuses to accept the proposal.
    --Associated Press, 9 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 January 1978
    Pakistan's government demands that France deliver the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant according to the original contract "without any modifications." Pakistan's Foreign Ministry spokesperson says that "All international safeguards to prevent the misuse of plutonium as prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency have been written into the existing agreement."
    --"Pakistan: France must hold to Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 12 January 1978, First Section, Around the World, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 January 1978
    The U.S. State Department announces that a group of 15 nations have agreed on a 16-provision code to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. The agreement requires the participating nations to abide by the stipulated provisions in selling nuclear technology. The 16-provision code is being submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). According to U.S. State Department officials, one of the provisions bans the sale of reprocessing equipment. The provisions, however, are not retroactive and hence do not apply to the French contract to supply Pakistan with a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.
    --"Nuclear Export Safeguards Detailed," Facts on File World News Digest, 13 January 1978, World Affairs, Atomic Energy; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 January 1978
    At a banquet for the visiting British Prime Minister Callaghan, Pakistan's Chief Martial law Administrator, General Zia ul-Haq, proposes the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia.
    --"Head of Pakistan Government Underlines Safeguarding of State Sovereignty," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 15 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late March 1978
    A British embassy official passes information to the U.S. State Department that Pakistan has placed orders with a British firm for inverters. Inverters are sophisticated voltage control mechanisms that could have applications in a conventional industry or in a nuclear fuel enrichment plant. The British official also discusses U.S. plans to increase attention on the uranium enrichment route to acquire weapons grade fissile material.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 May 1978
    Malaysian Foreign Minister Ahmad Rithauddean Bin Tengku Ismail concludes his visit to Pakistan and leaves for Malaysia. During the visit, both Malaysia and Pakistan express support for each other's initiatives to create nuclear weapons free zones in Southeast Asia and South Asia respectively.
    --"Malaysian Foreign Minister Concludes Visit to Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 7 May 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 May 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 May 1978
    The U.S. State Department withholds nuclear licenses for 12 countries including Pakistan. According to the State Department, the license is being withheld because of Pakistan's attempts to acquire nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. The amount of plutonium withheld is less than one pound. The plutonium is intended for a research reactor in which the plutonium is irradiated with alpha particles.
    --Thomas O'Toole, "Licenses to Ship A-Fuel Delayed For More Review," Washington Post, 20 May 1978, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 May 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1978
    Pakistan and Turkey sign a Trade Protocol at the second meeting of the Turkish-Pakistani Joint Committee for Economic and Technical Cooperation. Among other issues, the Joint Committee decides to cooperate in the field of nuclear energy and medicine.
    --"Turkey Ratifies Trade Protocol with Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 12 October 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1978
    Speaking at a banquet in honor of the visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao, Pakistan's Chief Martial Law Administrator General Zia ul-Haq lists Pakistan's efforts at the UN to create a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia and thanks China for its support towards the issue. The Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao indicates that the Chinese government will support Pakistan's efforts to create a nuclear-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Pakistani Head of Government Describes Friendly Pakistan-China Relations as Model for Third World Countries," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 17 June 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "China Resolutely Supports Just Struggles of South Asian Countries, Says Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 17 June 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    July 1978
    Frank Allaun, a British Labor Party MP, raises a question in the House of Commons indicating that certain components being exported by a British company would enable Pakistan to build nuclear weapons. Allaun claims that the high-frequency electric equipment exactly matches the components used by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. The British company named is Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, a British subsidiary of the U.S. firm Emerson Electric. Allaun says he received information about the order from "a friend who had a friend." The British government reports back that the items specified in the Allaun's question are not included in the British export control list. The order is placed by a firm called Weargate based in Swansea, Wales. The firm is operated by two Pakistanis.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July - September 1978
    The British firm, Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, exports 31 complete inverter systems to Pakistan. The inverter systems can be used to regulate a large number of centrifuge machines in a uranium enrichment plant. The inverters are routed through Weargate Ltd. operated by Abdus Salam and Peter Griffin.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 186.

    Summer 1978
    The Swiss firm CORA Engineering completes fabrication of a uranium gasification and solidification unit for the Kahuta gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility. The entire plant is airlifted to Pakistan using chartered C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. CORA Engineering also provides engineers and other technical personnel to help with the post-sales servicing. This is the first of the two gasification and solidification units at Kahuta.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 190.

    9 August 1978
    Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq receives a letter from the French president requesting modification in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The modification would produce a mix of uranium and plutonium that cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. Pakistan objects to the proposed modification indicating that any such attempt will involve radical changes to the facility's design. The Pakistanis also indicate that a significant portion of the partially constructed plant would have to be brought down to incorporate the proposed modification. The Pakistanis further point out that the technique is relatively new and indicate that experiments in the United States reveal that the technique cannot be used on a commercial basis.
    --"French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "France, Pakistan to Resume Talks on Changes in Nuclear Plant Deal," Washington Post, 4 November 1978, First Section, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 August 1978
    The French President Valery d'Estaing informs Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq of France's decision to cancel the contract for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In a letter written to the Pakistani ruler, the French president indicates that the cancellation is based on fears that Pakistan might use the plutonium from the reprocessing facility to build nuclear weapons. In the letter, the French president offers to provide a nuclear co-processing plant that produces a mix of uranium and plutonium that cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. President d'Estaing's decision represents a significant shift from the policy of former Prime Minister Jacques Chirac who was a strong advocate for proceeding with the nuclear deal. Following Chirac's departure, French officials indicate that France has become more concerned with stopping the spread of nuclear technology and President d'Estaing has been attempting to terminate the Pakistani contract for quite sometime. The United States and Canada also pressurized Pakistan to force it to cancel the reprocessing plant deal. As a result of Canada's decision to withhold the supply of uranium, Pakistan's KANUPP reactor has been operating at less than 70% of its capacity.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 24 August 1978, Pg. 43; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Milton R. Benjamin, "Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 August 1978
    Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq announces France's decision to back out of the contract to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Releasing the details of the letter at a press conference in Rawalpindi, General Zia ul-Haq says "although it [letter] was full of sentiment, it was a lemon." Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan is not interested in nuclear proliferation but says that Pakistan cannot lag behind other nations in technology. General Zia ul-Haq suggests that Pakistan would acquire such technology from other means if conventional methods are not available. General ul-Haq also denies that China has agreed to provide Pakistan with the reprocessing facility.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 August 1978
    The U.S. State Department announces that the United States might sign a new aid agreement with Pakistan following France's decision to cancel the contract to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Islamabad. The United States had earlier cut-off food aid in the fall of 1977 as a measure to pressurize Pakistan to cancel the deal. The U.S. State Department spokesperson Ken Brown states 'We do indeed hope that we can sign a new aid program with Pakistan in the near future." The Carter administration has already asked the U.S. Congress to approve $69 million in development aid for the 1979 fiscal year. The development aid request is distinguished from the $53.4 million request for food aid.
    --"U.S. to Renew Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 25 August 1978, First Section, Around the World, A23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 August 1978
    French spokespersons confirm President Giscard d'Estaing's offer to reopen talks with Pakistan on supplying a modified nuclear reprocessing plant.
    --"French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 September 1978
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission sources indicate that Pakistan has attained the ability to produce radioisotopes that meet more than one-third of Pakistan's requirements. Radioisotopes are used in medicine, agriculture, and industry and scientific research.
    --"Pakistan Produces Radio-Isotopes," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 20 September 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1978
    Pakistan's imprisoned former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto claims that Pakistan was near to attaining "full nuclear capability" prior to his overthrow in 1977. Bhutto claims that "All we [Pakistanis] needed was the nuclear reprocessing plant." In a 319-page document smuggled out of his prison cell, Mr. Bhutto takes credit for developing Pakistan's nuclear energy program and indicates that Pakistan only needs a reprocessing facility to attain nuclear capability.
    --"Bhutto- A-Capability was Near," Facts on File World News Digest, 20 October 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Milton R. Benjamin, "US Officials View Pakistan as the Leading Threat to Join the Nuclear Club," Washington Post, 8 December 1978, First Section, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1978
    The British government imposes tighter export control laws after a Labor Party member of parliament Frank Allaun reveals that Pakistan had placed orders with a British company for inverters that could be used in a uranium fuel enrichment plant. The British company, Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, is working on 100 more inverters to be supplied to Pakistan when the government imposes further restrictions to stop the export of such components.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 October 1978
    The United States announces the resumption of economic assistance to Pakistan. In 1977, the United States imposed an aid embargo against Pakistan over its efforts to acquire a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility from France. The resumption of aid will provide Pakistan with $122.4 million during the fiscal year 1979. The amount allotted for food aid is $53 million.
    --"US to renew Aid," Facts on File World News Digest," 3 November 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fall 1978
    A California based firm exports about half-dozen inverters to Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1978
    The United States offers to supply Pakistan with F5 fighter planes. The offer is formally made by the U.S. Undersecretary of State Lucy W. Benson.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales to Pakistan Urged to Stave Off A-Bomb There," Washington Post, 6 August 1979, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 November 1978
    Pakistan and France agree to resume negotiations over the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant under construction in Pakistan. An envoy of General Zia ul-Haq meets the French President Valery d'Estaing and hands over a letter from General Haq regarding the resumption of talks.
    --"France, Pakistan to Resume Talks on Changes in Nuclear Plant Deal," Washington Post, 4 November 1978, First Section, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1978
    Top U.S. officials in the Carter administration consider Pakistan to be the biggest proliferation threat. U.S. officials point to the document written by deposed Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as evidence of Pakistan's intentions to develop a nuclear weapons program. U.S. officials believe that despite France's withdrawal from the nuclear fuel-reprocessing contract, Pakistan possesses the complete blueprints for the reprocessing facility since France provided Pakistan with those blueprints in 1976. A top US official says "The French have nipped in the bud the short route to proliferation, but the Pakistanis will probably explore a variety of other avenues."
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "US Officials View Pakistan as the Leading Threat to Join the Nuclear Club," Washington Post, 8 December 1978, First Section, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late December 1978
    Despite the decision by France to terminate the contract for the supply of the reprocessing plant, French technicians continue to work at the plant's construction site in Chashma.
    --"Ban This Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1974, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1978
    Middle Eastern publications report remarks by Libya's Prime Minister offering financial support for Pakistan's nuclear energy projects.
    --"Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    1978
    Pakistan's jailed former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto writes, "My single most important achievement, which, I believe, will dominate the portrait of my public life, is an agreement which I arrived at after assiduous and tenacious endeavors, spanning 11 years of negotiations... The agreement of mine concluded in June, 1976, will perhaps be my greatest achievement and contribution to the survival of our people and our nation." --"Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1978
    Libya's Colonel Qadhafi allegedly sends planes carrying millions of dollars in untraceable Libyan cash to finance Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --John K. Cooley, "Qaddafi's Great Aim for Libya is a Nuclear Capability of its Own," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 12 November 1980, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  5. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    Early 1979
    U.S. officials consider the option of sabotaging the uranium enrichment facility being constructed in Pakistan. The option is rejected owing to its dangerous nature and political infeasibility.
    -- Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 August 1979, Pg. 6, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    21 January 1979
    At a banquet in honor of visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Li Xiannian, Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq expresses hope for the creation of a nuclear-free zone in South Asia. In his speech, the Chinese vice-premier expresses support for such a zone.
    --"Pakistan President Fetes Chinese Vice-Premier," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 23 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 January1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    January 1979
    The United States initiates a diplomatic dialog with the Pakistani government after the U.S. government acquires concrete evidence of Pakistan's uranium enrichment program.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Mid-February 1979
    India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai writes a letter to Pakistani President General Zia ul-Haq expressing concern over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Indian scientists are reported to have learned from European commercial sources about Pakistan's recent acquisition of large quantities of 'maraging steel,' an extremely hard variety of steel used to make critical components of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment system. President Zia ul-Haq, in his reply, denies any nuclear weapons program and proposes a joint Indo-Pakistani declaration renouncing nuclear weapons and placing all nuclear facilities in both countries under international inspections.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1979
    The French government retains an ambiguous attitude toward French companies that have contracts for the delivery of mechanical and nuclear-sensitive parts for the plutonium reprocessing plant that was to be built with French assistance in Pakistan. At the urging of Foreign Minister Jean Francois-Poncet, Industry Minister Andre Giraud issues a formal notice to French companies not to supply any further equipment for the Chashma nuclear reprocessing plant.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 200.

    1-2 March 1979
    U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher visits Pakistan. Among the list of high priority items for discussion is Pakistan's construction of a uranium enrichment facility. During the talks, Christopher fails to persuade the Pakistani leader General Zia ul-Haq to abandon the construction of the uranium enrichment plant.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1979
    The U.S. government tightens its export control laws to include inverters and other components that could be used to build a uranium enrichment plant.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1979
    The United States approaches Pakistan to allow international inspections of its nuclear research facilities. Pakistan rejects the request calling it discriminatory since other nations possessing nuclear research programs have not been asked to open their facilities for inspections.
    --"Pakistan Reaction to Cut in Aid by US Over Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 April 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6089/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March - Early April 1979
    According to U.S. officials, Pakistan is informed in an informal way regarding an impending cutoff in economic and military aid.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 April 1979
    The United States informs Pakistan of its decision to cut off economic and military aid as a result of Pakistan's efforts to secretly build a uranium enrichment facility that can produce weapons grade uranium. A U.S. State Department spokesperson also says that the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan has been recalled for "consultations." Pakistani embassy minister Hayat Mehdi is informed that the United States is "winding down in an orderly manner our aid" as required by an amendment to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Pakistan's Washington embassy spokesperson Khalid Ali calls the aid cutoff as "unfair and discriminatory" and insists that Pakistan is not pursing atomic weapons. Ali points out that no aid cutoff was imposed on India despite its nuclear test and the absence of international inspections in its facilities. The aid cutoff is imposed after the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) confirms reports from European intelligence services that Pakistan is acquiring the ability to make nuclear weapons. Diplomatic efforts failed to persuade Pakistan to place the enrichment facility under international inspection and safeguards. According to U.S. officials, the execution of former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto did not have any bearing on the decision to cancel the aid. The cancelled amount involves $40 million that was approved for fiscal '79 and the entire $45 million that was approved for fiscal '80. An amount of $40 million for food aid is not cancelled. A small military training program grant of $600,000 is also cancelled under the cutoff. However, Pakistan is permitted to purchase equipment from the United States. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan is in the beginning stages of the construction of a uranium enrichment facility based on the URENCO enrichment process. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan will require many years to produce a nuclear bomb. Pakistan, however, is believed to have acquired most of the equipment needed to operate the plant. The United States also believes that Pakistan's ability to procure the equipment from European companies reinforces the inadequacy of existing export control mechanisms regarding sensitive technology. U.S. State department officials insist that the construction of the facility has been continuing for quite some time and reveal that high-level talks have been held between the United States and Pakistan on the issue.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 7 April 1979, Pg. 1, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Foreign Ministry Spokesman on US Economic Aid Stoppage," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 9 April 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US Cuts Aid to Pakistan; A-Arms Threat Cited," Facts on File World News Digest, 20 April 1979, World Affairs; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    8 April 1979
    A spokesperson of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues a statement denying that Pakistan intends to develop nuclear weapons under the guise of a peaceful nuclear program. The spokesperson terms the aid cutoff as an "act of discrimination against Pakistan." The spokesperson says, "Pakistan which has subjected its nuclear facilities to international inspection has been deprived of its economic aid. Such a policy cannot be termed fair." The spokesperson adds that Pakistan is willing to accept all safeguards arrangements for its peaceful nuclear research if such safeguards are applied in a non-discriminatory manner. The spokesperson explains that Pakistan is willing to have safeguards imposed on its facilities if the United States insists on similar safeguards on the nuclear programs of other countries that have acquired nuclear weapons capability or on the threshold of acquiring nuclear weapons capability. The spokesperson states that Pakistan could not unilaterally allow inspections on its nuclear facilities unless countries with more advanced nuclear programs allow such inspections. The spokesperson also denies that Pakistan is receiving assistance from Libya and other countries for its nuclear program. The spokesperson also indicates that Pakistan had proposed a reciprocal inspection process between India and Pakistan of their nuclear facilities. The proposal, according to the spokesperson, was rejected by India.
    --"Pakistan Reaction to Cut in Aid by US Over Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 April 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6089/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Foreign Ministry Spokesman on US Economic Aid Stoppage," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 9 April 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 April 1979
    Pakistan denies attempts to produce nuclear weapons and links the imposition of aid cutoff to the influence of "Zionist circles" that fear that Pakistan's bomb will be used by the Muslim world to intimidate Israel. Certain reports suggest the involvement of Libya and Saudi Arabia in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. According to these reports, Libya and Saudi Arabia are financing Pakistan's program in return for access to the nuclear devices.
    --Robert Trumbull, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 9 April 1979, Pg. 1, Column 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    17 April 1979
    The United States plans to sell up to 50 Northrop F-5E Tiger fighter planes to Pakistan and provide assistance on its nuclear power, provided Pakistan agrees to restrict the production of nuclear weapons. The U.S. government also plans to provide diplomatic support "in principle" for Pakistan's initiative to create a nuclear-free zone in South Asia. Several U.S. officials, however, insist that the United States lost its leverage on Pakistan's nuclear program when it imposed a cutoff in military and economic aid on Pakistan. U.S. administration officials also indicate that efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its uranium enrichment plant have met with limited or no success. Pakistan insists that any application of safeguards on Pakistani nuclear facilities must be reciprocated by India and India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai refuses to consider any inspection mechanism for India's nuclear facilities. U.S. officials estimate that negotiations with India over the issue of safeguards might last at least until 1980. However, U.S. officials believe that the Pakistani issue needs to be handled in an urgent manner and cannot wait until Indo-U.S. negotiations are completed.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 April 1979, Pg. 3, Column 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 May 1979
    In a testimony to the Senate Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Nuclear Proliferation, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Thomas R. Pickering testifies that the United States has acted too late to keep Pakistan from acquiring the capacity to make nuclear weapons. Pickering states that Pakistan succeeded in obtaining sufficient special equipment for producing weapons grade uranium before its efforts were discovered. He further elaborates that Pakistan achieved its equipment requirements by conducting "end runs" around international export controls. Pickering adds, "We believe we have the capacity to slow down that kind of activity. But no one is willing to say ... we have the ability to stop it." Pakistan will be able to produce sufficient weapons grade uranium to make nuclear weapons in two to five years. Pickering also informs the Senate Subcommittee that diplomatic efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its military nuclear program have not produced positive results. India's nuclear explosion in 1974 as well as the general instability in the region contributed to Pakistan's decision to acquire nuclear weapons. Pickering denies that the United States is offering fighter planes and assistance to Pakistan's nuclear power program. He explains that the United States is "... concerned that Pakistan's program is not peaceful but related to an effort to develop a nuclear explosive capacity." However, Pickering refuses to discuss Libya's role in financing the program during the open session. Both he and U.S. Senator John Glenn (D-Ohio) agree that Pakistan worked around the export controls by procuring bits and pieces of equipment around the world by misstating that the components will be used for peaceful purposes like textile industry.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Panel Told Pakistan Gained A-Weapons Ability by 'End Runs'," Washington Post, 2 May 1979, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Spring 1979
    Pakistan shuts down the reactor at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Holds A-Option Open; Zia's Remarks Seen Likely to Fuel International Controversy Over his Country's Goals in its Nuclear Power Program," Washington Post, 28 October 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Spring 1979
    The U.S. government queries its Swiss counterpart on the sales of high-vacuum valves and the gasification and solidification unit that the Swiss companies VAT and CORA Engineering have sold to Pakistan. The United States also complains that another Swiss company Sulzer Brothers is likely helping Pakistan with plutonium reprocessing technology. On investigating the sales, the Swiss government concludes that the companies have acted legally as the aforementioned items are not on Switzerland's export control list.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 190-191.

    1 May 1979
    The U.S. State Department states that several European countries have pledged support in preventing Pakistan from further buying any equipment for its uranium enrichment program. The Swiss government also announces an investigation to probe the sales made by several Swiss companies to Pakistan. U.S. officials indicate that they are soliciting cooperation from Britain, France, West Germany, and Japan.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Panel Told Pakistan Gained A-Weapons Ability by 'End Runs'," Washington Post, 2 May 1979, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1979
    U.S. officials confirm that Pakistan has started to build a plutonium plant that will provide an alternative to using weapons grade uranium for its nuclear weapons.
    -- Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 2 May 1979, Pg. 10, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    2 May 1979
    Pakistan's Ambassador to the United Nations Niaz A. Naik rejects an American press report stating that Pakistan is planning to build a nuclear bomb. Naik states that non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy are not helpful for Pakistan's objectives. He also denies any funding of Pakistan's nuclear program by either Libya or other Arab countries. Naik blames the United States for not acting when 200 kg of material that can be used to make about 10 nuclear weapons had disappeared from the United States and was found in other countries. On the other hand, he points out that the United States is accusing Pakistan of making a nuclear bomb even if Pakistan is buying a simple steel pipe for its textile industry.
    --"Other Reports: Pakistan Denies US Report on Nuclear Bomb Manufacture," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 May 1978, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6114/A1/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 May 1979
    The Swiss government announces that it is investigating the sale of equipment to Pakistan that could be used to make enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. A Swiss government spokesperson indicates that the investigating authorities intend to find out the nature of deliveries made to Pakistan by the Swiss companies. The investigation will also verify if the exported equipment needed authorization for delivery. The spokesperson indicates that the United States prompted the Swiss government to investigate the matter.
    --"Swiss Probe Sale to Pakistan," Washington Post, 3 May 1979, First Section, Around the World, A32; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    21 May 1979
    Pakistan and Maldives issue a Joint Statement reaffirming their support for the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Pakistan, Maldives Call for Creation of Nuclear Free Zone in South Asia," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 22 May 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    27 May 1979
    The Carter administration proposes the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia in order to prevent an arms race between India and Pakistan. The proposal requires India and Pakistan to abandon the pursuit of nuclear weapons and allow international inspection of nuclear facilities. According to U.S. officials, the proposal will be backed with security guarantees by the United States, USSR, and China. The guarantor countries are also expected not to threaten either India or Pakistan with nuclear weapons.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 May 1979, Pg. 8, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 May 1979
    The French Atomic Energy Chief Michel Pecqueur writes to President of CEA-owned industrial affiliate Cogema Georges Besse inquiring whether the company SGN is continuing technical assistance for the plutonium reprocessing facility in Pakistan, despite the cancellation of the contract by the French government. Pecqueur writes, "it is hardly necessary for me to stress the seriousness of the facts, should they be in any way confirmed, as transactions of this kind would call into question the national policy on nonproliferation at the very highest level."
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 196.

    31 May 1979
    Georges Besse writes to SGN President F. X. Poincet inquiring whether SGN is continuing nuclear-related transfers to Pakistan. In his reply, Poincet denies that SGN is selling any contraband materials to Pakistan. He admits however that SGN is continuing with limited involvement in relation to "preparation of orders" for some Pakistanis who are still "resident" at SGN. However Poincet hints that Pakistan may have gone behind their backs to procure equipment specified in documents supplied by SGN earlier. The nuclear industry's trade journal Nucleonics Week alleges that Pakitsan has access to 95 percent of the design plans for the plutonium reprocessing facility and these will likely enable Pakistan to finish the plant despite the termination of French assistance.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 196.

    16 June 1979
    A spokesperson for Pakistan's embassy in Washington DC states that Pakistan did not request or receive any financial assistance from Libya for its peaceful nuclear program. The spokesperson indicates that Pakistan understands the concern over the spread of nuclear weapons, but cautions that discriminatory or selective policies will not decrease the threat. The spokesperson adds that Pakistan is willing to support any regional or collective efforts to tackle the threat of nuclear proliferation.
    --"Pakistan Denial on Libyan Aid in Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 23 June 1979, Part 3 The Far East, 4. The Middle East, FE/6149/A4/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    Third Week of June 1979
    The U.S. government forms an interagency taskforce comprising of officials from the State Department, Energy Department, Intelligence agencies, and military officials to frame policy options to deal with Pakistan's attempts to develop nuclear weapons. The interagency group, called the "Gerry Smith South Asian Study Group," is headed by Gerald C. Smith, the U.S. Ambassador-at-large for nonproliferation. The study group is expected to produce a report in September.
    -- Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late June 1979
    The French Ambassador to Pakistan and his senior colleague are beaten outside the Kahuta nuclear research facility, 25 miles south of Islamabad. The French Ambassador and his colleague were apparently on a sightseeing tour.
    --"Journalist Attacked," Washington Post, 30 June 1979, First Section, Around the World, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    28 June 1979
    Pakistan allocates $48,000,000 for its nuclear program for the year 1979-80 in its annual budget. The funds will be utilized for various activities like buying equipment for laboratories and a nuclear research centre, uranium exploration, building a fuel reprocessing plant, and other administrative activities.
    --"Pakistan Protest to UAA Over Nuclear Bomb Allegation," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6163/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1979
    Pakistan denies report that it is planning to conduct a nuclear test in October. Pakistan indicates that it will lodge a formal protest with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government over a report in the magazine Eight Days that reported that Pakistan is planning to conduct a nuclear test in October. The magazine is owned by Sayid Muhammad Mahdi at-Tajir, the UAE's Ambassador to Britain. A Pakistani Foreign Ministry official terms the report as "highly damaging and irresponsible" and claims that Pakistan did not procure any restricted equipment. The Pakistani official offers to open the Kahuta facility to international inspections and says that Pakistan will honor international safeguards. Kahuta is the location for the uranium enrichment facility being built by Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan Protest to UAA Over Nuclear Bomb Allegation," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6163/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 June 1979
    According to the Reuters news agency, Dutch authorities are investigating reports that Pakistan obtained information on uranium enrichment from that country. Also sources in UN circles believe that Pakistan is making attempts to explode a nuclear device in the near future.
    --"'Pravda' on Reported Pakistani Development of Atomic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 30 June 1979, Part 1. The USSR, 3. The Far East, SU/6155/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    30 June 1979
    Chris Sherwell, a British journalist and a correspondent for the Financial Times and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is beaten up outside the house of Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan in Islamabad. The journalist is investigating allegations regarding Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. The Pakistani government denies any responsibility over the event.
    --"Journalist Attacked," Washington Post, 30 June 1979, First Section, Around the World, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    30 June 1979
    Pakistan's advisor on Foreign Affairs Agha Shahi rejects reports in the Western press that Pakistan's nuclear research program is intended for building a nuclear bomb. Mr. Shahi denies that Pakistan is receiving financial assistance from Libya or any other Arab country for building an Islamic bomb. Mr. Shahi also denies allegations that Pakistan is manufacturing a hydrogen bomb and says that the hydrogen bomb is beyond the reach of a developing country like Pakistan. Mr. Shahi condemns the demands to open Pakistan's nuclear facilities for inspections and questions why such demands are not placed on Israel and South Africa.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Denies Western Reports About Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 July 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6157/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    June 1979
    U.S. President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev inconclusively discuss Pakistan's nuclear weapons program during their summit meeting. U.S. President Carter also corresponds secretly with leaders in France, West Germany, Japan, Britain, and other nations. The United States is also engaging China in its efforts to deal with Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    June - July 1979
    Sources indicate that Pakistan is attempting to explode a nuclear bomb in October. Pakistan's security forces are reported to be working around Hoshab, a small desert town located 60 miles inland from the Makran coast in southwestern Pakistan. The region is inhospitable and a few nomads living there are reported to have been re-located to different areas. Reliable reports suggest the presence of military construction activity in the area. Experts indicate that Pakistan might test a nuclear bomb in 1979 only if it receives sufficient weapons-grade material from another source, since its reprocessing plant and its uranium enrichment plant are still far from operating at full capacity. Experts suspect that source to be China.
    --"Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late June - August 1979
    The interagency group tasked with framing policy options for dealing with Pakistan's attempts to build nuclear weapons believes that it is difficult to stop Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. The group cites the following reasons for its observations. First, according to U.S. technical experts, Pakistan has acquired most of the technology needed for the uranium enrichment plant. According to these officials, technology denial by Western industrial countries will not stop Pakistan's construction of the enrichment facility. Second, Pakistan's military government strongly supports the development of nuclear weapons. Third, Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons is inter-linked with other complex global issues.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    4 July 1979
    Sources indicate that Pakistan can possess the ability to explode a nuclear device before the beginning of autumn. The location of the testing site is highly classified and believed to be located near Multan in Punjab province. Another possible location for the site is the Chitral region in the northwestern border region. According to sources, two Pakistani scientists employed in Holland have returned to Pakistan and are believed to be working on the nuclear weapons program. The Pakistani government has allocated generous funds for the completion of the project. Sources believe that Pakistan possesses sufficient plutonium to conduct one nuclear explosion.
    --"In Brief; 'Enough Plutonium' for Pakistani Nuclear Device," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 6 July 1979, Part 1 The USSR, A. International Affairs, 3. The Far East, SU/6160/A3/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    5 July 1979
    A Pakistani official spokesperson, referring to the recent incident involving the British journalist Chris Sherwell, claims that Sherwell took advantage of the government's cooperation and liberal attitude and acted in a manner that was harmful to Pakistan's security interests. The spokesperson alleges that Sherwell illegally attempted to obtain information on Pakistan's nuclear research program even though sufficient information was provided by the Foreign Office, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Information Ministry. According to the spokesperson, Sherwell entered a restricted area and tried to contact officials who were not qualified to provide interviews. Referring to the incident that resulted in the beating up of the journalist, the spokesperson says that Pakistan's law prohibited the scientist from granting interviews and Sherwell should not have attempted to visit the official. The spokesperson says that the government is preparing a report about the incident and based on the final results, the government will decide if the journalist will be allowed to stay in the country.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Official on BBC Correspondent's Activities," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6163/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    6 July 1979
    The Pakistani government charges the British journalist Chris Sherwell with committing acts that are prejudicial to Pakistan's security. Sherwell is accused of "snooping and trespassing" security areas with the objective of obtaining information on Pakistan's nuclear research program. The government denies any responsibility over the assault on Mr. Sherwell.
    --"Pakistan Accuses Journalist," Washington Post, 6 July 1979, First Section, Around the World, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    28 July 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq declares that he would not compromise on Pakistan's sovereignty regarding its peaceful nuclear program. Addressing the nation, the President says that Pakistan requires nuclear energy to meet its growing energy requirements. The President states that economic aid to Pakistan has been cut off despite the peaceful nature of the nuclear program. General Haq claims that Pakistanis have supported the government in absorbing the impact of the aid cut-off and declares that "we shall eat crumbs but will not allow our national interest to be compromised in any manner whatsoever."
    --"Pakistan President Reaffirms Peaceful Nuclear Programme," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 29 July 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 - 4 August 1979
    Senior Democratic and Republican members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee write a letter to the Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance outlining a proposal to provide new "security support" to Pakistan in order to halt Pakistan's efforts to build a nuclear bomb. The proposal included providing Pakistan with conventional arms to meet its security needs. The letter urges the Carter administration to "understand and more effectively treat Pakistan's underlying security concerns." Rep. Clement J. Zablocki (D-Wis), chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and a signer of the letter, suggests that arms sales on credit might be undertaken by presidential waiver of the sanctions or some other legal procedure. Rep. Paul Findley (R-Ill), another signer of the letter, indicates that Congress might have to amend the anti-proliferation act that led to the aid cutoff. The United States terminated military and economic aid to Pakistan in April as stipulated in an amendment to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. The other signers of the letter are Rep. William S. Broomfield (R-Mich), Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY), and Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind).
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales to Pakistan Urged to Stave Off A-Bomb There," Washington Post, 6 August 1979, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 August 1979
    A U.S. Senator, Charles Percy (R-Ill), states in Calcutta that Pakistan intends to produce nuclear weapons that can hit New Delhi, Bombay, and Calcutta.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 August 1979
    The Carter administration is considering several initiatives to prevent Pakistan from acquiring nuclear weapons. The efforts range from imposing stringent economic sanctions to supplying advanced conventional arms. One of the options being considered includes undertaking covert operations using paramilitary forces to sabotage Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant. The other two options are imposing harsh economic sanctions or providing Pakistan with advanced conventional weapons like the F-16 fighter planes.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 August 1979, Pg. 1, Column 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US 'Campaign' Against Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6195/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US Seeks A-Project Halt," Facts in File World News Digest, 17 August 1979, World Affairs. Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 August 1979
    U.S. State Department spokesperson, Thomas Reston, says that covert action is not under consideration as an option to prevent Pakistan from acquiring nuclear weapons capability.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    The U.S. State Department refutes reports that the United States is planning a sabotage action to disrupt Pakistan's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The report citing such a plan appeared in the New York Times.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaction to Alleged US Threat to Nuclear Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 15 August 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6194/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    Pakistan's politicians and government officials react strongly against a news report suggesting that the United States is considering a commando raid against Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan's Defense Minister Ali Ahmed Talpur says that Pakistan will not compromise on its nuclear program. A news report in the Karachi newspaper, The Star, says that anti-aircraft guns are being positioned around nuclear installations to deter any attack against them. According to the report, a task force has been formed to prevent any hostile acts against Pakistan's nuclear facilities.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaction to Alleged US Threat to Nuclear Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts," 15 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6194/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    Pakistan's Foreign Ministry summons the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Arthur Hummel and expresses serious concern over the efforts by the U.S. government to threaten and intimidate Pakistan's government over its peaceful nuclear program. The Foreign Ministry informs the Ambassador that such actions by the United States will harm peace and stability in the region. The Foreign Ministry also informs the ambassador that Pakistan might lodge a protest in an "international forum" if the United States persists in its efforts to threaten Pakistan's nuclear program. The Foreign Office also terms the recent statement by U.S. Senator Charles Percy regarding Pakistan's nuclear program as an "incitement" for India.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US 'Campaign' Against Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6195/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    A senior State Department official states that a covert operation to sabotage Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant is "not an option that we seriously or systematically considered." The official states that the United States wants to pursue good relations with Pakistan despite its objections to Pakistan's plans to develop nuclear weapons. According to a U.S. sources, the United States is also discouraging India from pursuing any paramilitary action to disable Pakistan's uranium enrichment facility being constructed. Pakistani officials are not content with the assurances provided by the State department and insist that the reassurances "did not rule out the option of action by paramilitary forces ... which will amount to outright aggression."
    -- Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to Reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 August 1979
    U.S. State Department spokesperson Thomas Reston states that the United States policy towards Pakistan is "under constant review" and denies reports of covert operations to sabotage nuclear facilities in Pakistan.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 15 August 1979, Pg. 11, Column 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 August 1979
    According to U.S. officials, unconfirmed reports suggest that Pakistan is preparing an underground site for testing a nuclear device.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 August 1979, Pg. 6, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late August 1979
    Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq writes a letter to India's Prime Minister reaffirming that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 August 1979
    South Asian sources suggest that Pakistan might detonate a nuclear bomb at an underground testing site before the country's general elections are held in November. Pakistani President General Zia ul-Haq hopes to win popular support by exploding a nuclear bomb. However, certain U.S. State Department officials express doubts over Pakistan's ability to conduct a nuclear test for at least several years.
    --Melinda Beck, "Pakistan's Political Bomb," Newsweek, 27 August 1979, Periscope, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 August 1979
    Pakistan's President General Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan will acquire nuclear energy for peaceful purposes despite the challenges in acquiring such a capacity.
    --From News Services and Staff Reports, Washington Post, 29 August 1979, First Section, Around the World, For the Record, A14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 August 1979
    In his radio address to the nation, Pakistan's President General Zia ul-Haq declares that Pakistan must acquire nuclear energy to meet its power requirements. Haq declares that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes. The Pakistani president asks France to honor its commitment to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and states that Pakistan will acquire a reprocessing plant under any circumstances. Haq deplores the propaganda spread in Western media against Pakistan's nuclear program and states that Pakistan will not give up its claim to acquire nuclear technology. The Pakistani president further reaffirms Pakistan's commitment to create nuclear weapons-free zones in the Indian Ocean and the South Asian regions.
    --"Broadcast by President Zia ul-Haq," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 September 1979, Part 3. The Far East, C. Pakistan: Relations with Kabul, Nuclear Energy, Elections, FE/6209/C/1 (A1, A3, B, W); in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    A truck carrying uranium from a mining plant in Niger is found overturned and empty. The uranium is believed to have been diverted to Libya, which is believed to support Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Associated Press, 26 November 1979, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    U.S. intelligence agencies estimate that Pakistan can explode a nuclear bomb by the end of this year. Previous intelligence estimates predicted that Pakistan would need four years to develop nuclear weapons.
    --"US Seeks A-Project Halt," Facts in File World News Digest, 17 August 1979, World Affairs. Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    Pakistani officials reveal that Libya's Colonel Muammar Qaddafi offered to finance Pakistan's acquisition of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in return for the plutonium produced by the plant. According to Pakistani officials, the offer was rejected by Pakistan and Qaddafi cancelled a plan to finance a French-Pakistani contract to build a submarine. U.S. officials indicate that they cannot ascertain the existence of a deal between Tripoli and Islamabad over Pakistan's nuclear plans but they also do not rule out the presence of such an arrangement.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    August 1979
    According to U.S. officials, photographs of the heavily guarded and elaborate Kahuta plant being constructed indicate that the objective of the facility is to produce enriched uranium. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan's civilian nuclear program does not need such large quantities of enriched uranium. U.S. officials estimate that Pakistan will be able to produce weapons grade uranium after three to five years of construction and operation of the enrichment plant. Pakistan, however, needs natural uranium to fuel the plant and officials believe that Pakistan will be able to procure sufficient quantities of natural uranium. Differing estimates are given regarding the time period needed for Pakistan to produce a bomb. Some U.S. officials estimate that Pakistan can produce a bomb in as quickly as two years whereas others predict that problems in construction and operation might delay the production of enriched uranium or even stop the enrichment effort. Pakistan also continues to work on the plutonium route. Pakistan is continuing work on the partially built French reprocessing plant even after France withdrew assistance for construction of the plant. According to informed estimates, Pakistan is expected to produce weapons grade plutonium in six to 10 years. Pakistan also possesses a pilot "hot cell" reprocessing capability at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The pilot reprocessing facility can quickly produce small amount of bomb material if the right elements are present.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1975 - August 1979
    According to a U.S. estimate, Pakistan spends $100 million for its uranium enrichment program annually. However, the total cost is likely to be several hundred million dollars. A major concern is that Pakistan might export highly enriched uranium to reclaim some of the costs.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 September 1979
    Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi meets India's External Affairs Minister S.N. Mishra. During the meeting, Shahi says that Pakistan does not wish to produce a nuclear bomb and informs Mishra that Pakistan is proceeding with a uranium enrichment plant based on a light-water reactor purely for economic reasons and for conducting research and development activities.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 - 7 September 1979
    Agha Shahi, Pakistan's Foreign Affairs adviser provides the first official pronouncement that Pakistan is developing a uranium enrichment capability.
    --"Pakistan; Baiting the Trap," Economist, 8 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 69; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 September 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq meets with India's External Affairs Minister S.N. Mishra and informs him that he had made a unilateral statement renouncing nuclear weapons during his radio address to the nation. The Pakistani President made a radio broadcast on 30 August before leaving to attend the NAM summit in Havana. The Pakistani president informs India's External Affairs minister that his unilateral statement was based on a suggestion by India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai who himself had made such a statement renouncing nuclear weapons. The Pakistani President also informs that Pakistan does not possess the capacity to produce a nuclear bomb and also expresses that Pakistan is not interested in making nuclear weapons.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 September 1979
    An official Indian spokesperson states that the Indian government is examining the letter sent by the Pakistani President.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 September 1979
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmed Khan, states that foreign powers cannot dissuade Pakistan to abandon its nuclear development program since Pakistan's economic progress is dependent on Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear technology. The PAEC Chairman states that Pakistan's energy requirement at the end of the century would be 27,000 MW of electricity out of which 16,000 MW can be generated through atomic energy. According to Munir Ahmed Khan, Pakistan needs to set up its own fuel reprocessing to maximize its energy utilization. According to the PAEC chairman, the reprocessing plant would enable Pakistan to re-use 79% of the spent fuel and produce plutonium that could be used in the future breeder reactors.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Nuclear Energy," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 October 1979, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Production and Transport, FE/W1051/A/27; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 September 1979
    According to official figures, Pakistan is spending $40 million for its nuclear energy program.
    --"Pakistan: The Bomb Behind the Wall," Economist, 15 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs; International, Pg. 62; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1979
    Addressing a group of prominent citizens at the Governor House in Karachi, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan must acquire nuclear energy to meet its increasing energy requirements. President Zia ul-Haq underscores the importance of nuclear energy in Pakistan's development. The president also criticizes reports about the 'Islamic Bomb' and says that such stories are falsely spread by 'Zionist' circles.
    --"Pakistan to Acquire Nuclear Technology for its Own Needs," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 21 September 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 September 1979
    In an interview, Pakistan's president Zia ul-Haq rejects the claim that Pakistan is making a nuclear bomb and requests U.S. President Jimmy Carter to reconsider the decision to cut off military and economic aid to Pakistan. President Zia ul-Haq acknowledges that Pakistan is building a facility for enriching uranium but indicates that it will only be used to produce energy. The Pakistani president reiterates that no Pakistani government can compromise on the nuclear issue under U.S. pressure and denies reports that Pakistan is collaborating with Libya to develop nuclear weapons for the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Pakistani President expresses confidence that France will provide the nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant and indicates his willingness to implement all safeguards including allowing the posting of French officials at the facilities.
    --Seymour Topping, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 23 September 1979, Pg. 14, Column. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 October 1979
    Pakistan is reported to have halted the construction of the uranium enrichment plant at Kahuta. The shortage in the supply of parts from Europe is believed to have resulted in the halt.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 October 1979, Pg. 4, Column. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 October 1979
    The United States and Pakistan begin two days of talks over Pakistan's efforts to produce weapons-grade highly enriched uranium. The talks are held between U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance and Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi and several other high-level officials.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Uranium Parley with Pakistanis is Inconclusive," Washington Post, 18 October 1979, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 October 1979
    The United States and Pakistan hold a final round of talks in the afternoon and the United States indicates that no decision has been taken. Agha Shahi, Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser states that differences continue to exist between Pakistan and the United States over the nuclear issue. Both sides agree to continue high-level discussions in the future. The economic and military cut-off, imposed by President Carter in April under U.S. law, can be lifted only after President Carter certifies that Pakistan will not develop or acquire nuclear weapons or assist other nations in acquiring such weapons. Despite the assurances provided by Mr. Shahi, the United States is not willing to accept such promises. Mr. Shahi also refuses to confirm or deny the recent news report that Pakistan had halted work on the construction of its uranium enrichment plant owing to a shortage of parts from Europe. U.S. officials also refuse to confirm the report indicting a lack of sufficient information. The talks also discussed improving the security situation in Pakistan by upgrading the armed forces. Some members of U.S. Congress and Carter administration officials have recently proposed that the United States supply Pakistan with advanced conventional arms in return for Pakistan's commitment to abandon its nuclear program. It is not sure if the United States made such a proposal during the talks.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Uranium Parley with Pakistanis is Inconclusive," Washington Post, 18 October 1979, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 - 17 October 1979
    During the talks between the United States and Pakistan, little information is provided by Pakistan regarding the planning of the uranium enrichment facility.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Effort to Block Pakistan from A-Bomb Faltering," Washington Post, 20 October 1979, First Section, A3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 - 20 October 1979
    Following the conclusion of two day of talks between Pakistan and the United States, U.S. officials are less confident about persuading Pakistan to abandon its nuclear weapons program. The talks also reduce the certainty of U.S. estimates that Pakistan is at least two years from conducting a nuclear test. Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi informs members of the U.S. Congress that Pakistan is willing to provide a "no explosion" pledge for the duration of the current Pakistani government. Shahi indicates that Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq cannot make promises that could extend beyond the current administration and bind subsequent Pakistani administrations. He also suggests that Pakistan is willing to bring all nuclear facilities under international safeguards and inspections provided India also implements such measures. A recent U.S. intelligence estimate quotes a Pakistani official mentioning that Pakistan possesses the necessary material to build a bomb.
    -- Don Oberdorfer, "Effort to Block Pakistan from A-Bomb Faltering," Washington Post, 20 October 1979, First Section, A3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 October 1979
    Pakistan plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Punjab province. The plant's capacity will be 600,000 kilowatts and the plant will use an enriched uranium fueled light-water reactor.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 October 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan is committed to pursuing nuclear research for peaceful purposes and does not preclude the possibility of conducting a nuclear test. Responding to a question whether Pakistan would set off a nuclear explosion, President Zia ul-Haq states that "... we said our program is entirely directed toward nuclear sources of energy and not toward the making of any nuclear bombs. If in the process steps have to be taken, we will take them."
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 28 October 1979, Pg. 9, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Holds A-Option Open; Zia's Remarks Seen Likely to Fuel International Controversy Over his Country's Goals in its Nuclear Power Program," Washington Post, 28 October 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fall 1979
    Efforts are made to mine low-grade uranium ore in the Baghalchur mining area near Dera Ghazi Khan Province, west of Multan. Tenders are being accepted for the construction of roads in the region. The ore is refined at the Atomic Energy Mineral Centre in Lahore built with French assistance. New equipment is also being installed at the Chashma barrage site on the Indus River. The installed equipment can be used to produce nuclear fuel rods.
    --"Pakistan: The Bomb Behind the Wall," Economist, 15 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs; International, Pg. 62; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 November 1979
    The UN First Committee adopts a resolution on creating a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. The resolution is sponsored by Pakistan. The resolution calls upon all states in South Asia and other non-nuclear weapon neighboring states in the region to make efforts to create a nuclear-weapons free zone in South Asia. The resolution also urges the nations to eschew activities that go against the resolution.
    --"UN General Assembly Committee Adopts Denuclearization Resolutions," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 22 November 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 November 1979
    The British newspaper Sunday Times reports that Pakistan has acquired the technical knowledge to produce a hydrogen bomb and mentions that Pakistan might test its first thermonuclear device in April. The report mentions that the desert hijacking of uranium ore in Africa and Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear components in Europe have enabled it to advance its nuclear weapons program faster than the estimates made by the United States and other countries. The new report identifies two sites that could be used for testing. One of the sites is in the Sind desert and the other testing site is in South Balochistan. According to the report, Pakistan's three nuclear facilities are working continuously under heavy guard. The report quotes a military official saying that "Only God, an accident or another coup can stop it."
    --Associated Press, 26 November 1979, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1979
    Pakistan's president, while inaugurating an International Symposium in Biology and Genetics and an International Congress on the History and Philosophy of Science, states that "our [Pakistan's] stand is that we want to acquire nuclear energy for peaceful purpose and this is a right of which no power can deprive us."
    --"Pakistan to Continue Acquiring Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 December 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 December 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 December 1979
    The UN General Assembly passes by a vote of 96 - 2 Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. India and Bhutan vote against the resolution. During the UN General Assembly meeting, Pakistan's Ambassador Niaz A. Naik rejects a claim by the Israeli Ambassador Yehuda Z. Blum that Pakistan, Iraq, and Libya are seeking to create a nuclear axis.
    --Associated Press, 11 December 1979, 11 December 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 December 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late 1979
    Documentary evidence surfaces that the French company BSL has entered into a secret and illegal contract to supply Pakistan with nuclear-sensitive equipment required for the Chashma reprocessing plant. The equipment includes specially designed dissolvers, evaporators, annular vessels, and mixer-settlers. The contract specifies that BSL will train four to six Pakistani engineers at its own workshops and also help organize a special school for welders in Pakistan. The secret agreement was signed two months after the French industry ministry issued formal instructions (in February 1979) to French companies not to supply anything further for the Chashma facility. The contract also creates the fiction that equipment sold to Pakistan will be used for purposes of building a nitrating plant; it also disguises BSL's role in the transfers. All transfers are to be made to 'Asiatic Chemicals Industries' Limited in the Pakistani city of Faisalabad. Pakistan insists that all equipment must be either shipped on Pakistani freighters or on ships that skirt South Africa, Israel, and India.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 205-206.

    1979
    Pakistan's chief nuclear procurement official in France, S. A. Butt, continues to approach French nuclear suppliers for potential sales of nuclear reprocessing and related equipment to Pakistan, even after France formally suspends the reprocessing plant contract with the Pakistani government. Despite the suspension, French engineers remain in Pakistan through the year to help finish with the construction of the reprocessing plant.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 200.

    1979
    Pakistani reportedly purchases 110 tons of uranium ore (yellowcake) from Niger. Libya is also believed to be diverting uranium ore purchased from Niger to Pakistan.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 210.
     
  6. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1980

    3 January 1980
    Michel Pecquer, Director of the French Atomic Commission, denies France's involvement in the sale of Niger-mined uranium to Pakistan and Libya. Pecquer also denies reports that uranium shipments from the mines in Niger were stolen. He clarifies that the sale of uranium to Libya and Pakistan was made by the government of Niger and involved only those portions of the mines that were controlled by the Niger government. Pecquer adds that the sale of 258 tons of uranium yellow cake to Libya and 110 tons to Pakistan was in conformance with IAEA regulations. The sale of uranium to Libya and Pakistan is confirmed by a Niger government spokesperson. The two uranium mines in question are owned by the Niger government, COGEMA - a French company owned by the French Atomic Commission, and a number of other French and foreign enterprises. Pecquer indicates that each shareholder controls only a portion of the mine and has no control over the production activities of other parts of the mine controlled by other participants.
    --"France Denies Uranium Sales," Associated Press, 3 January 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    12 January 1980
    The United States offers $400 million over the next two years in economic and military assistance to Pakistan in response to the threat posed by Soviet aggression in Afghanistan. The offer for the aid package is communicated to Agha Shahi, Pakistan's foreign affairs adviser. A special Congressional act, however, is required to proceed with the aid package since existing nonproliferation laws do not allow such assistance to Pakistan. During the discussions, the Pakistani delegation does not reveal any change in the policy over its uranium enrichment plant. Intelligence reports indicate that the pace of construction has slowed down owing to technical difficulties.
    --"Pakistan Offered $400 Million Aid; Carter Seeking $400 Million Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 15 January 1980, First Session, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 January 1980,Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    15 January 1980
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq indicates that the United States has not attached any pre-conditions for the aid offer. General Haq claims that the United States did not seek an end to Pakistan's alleged clandestine nuclear weapons program or an end to the Army's rule in Pakistan.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Warns Soviets, Afghanistan to Keep Out," Washington Post, 16 January 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    17 January 1980
    In an interview, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq asks the United States to convert the 1959 defense agreement between the United States and Pakistan into a "friendship treaty" to protect Pakistan's freedom and integrity. General Haq also terms the US offer of $400 million as "peanuts." In requesting greater assistance from the United States and the Western world, General Haq indicates that Pakistan's nuclear program and the issue of holding elections in the near future will not be discussed.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Seeking US Guarantees in Formal Treaty; Pakistan Asks Formal Treaty to Cement Ties with US," Washington Post, 18 January 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1980
    US Congressman Wolff indicates that he has warned China of the dangers posed by Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons. According to Rep. Wolff, the Congressional delegation to China also informed the Chinese that the United States is concerned over the long-term implications of the issue, especially India's reaction to Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons.
    --"Visitors to China; US Congressmen," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6325/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 January 1980
    The president's request for resumption of economic and military assistance to Pakistan is expected to pass through the Congress without major problems. Serious concerns over Soviet policies in Afghanistan replace previous fears over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --Peter C. Stuart, "US Gets Tough Against Soviet Aggression," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 25 January 1980, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 February 1980
    The Carter administration informs Congressional leaders of its plan to enter into a long-term military relationship with Pakistan. According to sources, the Carter administration is seeking to repeal the ban on aid to Pakistan imposed in April 1978. US administration officials also insist that efforts are continuing to prevent Pakistan from detonating a nuclear explosion.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 1 February 1980, Pg.1, Col.. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 February 1980
    In response to a question whether the United States should accept Pakistan's nuclear weapons program in return for Pakistan's acceptance of US military aid, US Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan says that he believes that the United States should not stand in the way of foreign countries developing their own nuclear weapons. Reagan says, "I just don't think it's any of our business." Later at a press conference, Reagan says that he supports US nonproliferation efforts but he also indicates his skepticism that the United States can do much to prevent the development of nuclear technology by other countries.
    --Robert Lindsey, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 1 February 1980, Pg. 1, Col.. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2-3 February 1980
    US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski fails to elicit a definite promise from Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq to cancel a planned nuclear test in April.
    --"Sonoda to Try to Dissuade Pakistan from Nuclear Test," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 5 February 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 February 1980
    US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski announces that the US administration has postponed sending its $400 million aid request to the Congress until the contributions by other nations are finalized. During talks with the Pakistani delegation in Islamabad, the two sides further define the 1959 defense agreement between the two countries. Under the newly agreed rules, the United States will provide aid to Pakistan in the event of a Soviet attack with more than platoon-strength troops. The United States is still concerned over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, but the American delegation believes that the new agreements will enable both sides to address the issues in a better manner.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "US to Seek Help from Other Nations on Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 4 February 1980, First Section, A18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 February 1980
    The Carter administration appears to back away from its earlier declarations that its $400 million aid offer to Pakistan is non-negotiable. Although Dr. Brzezinski states that "we are concerned, have been concerned, and will be concerned about the proliferation of nuclear weapons," a US official, in response to a specific question over the softening of US stance over Pakistan's nuclear program, states that "we will have to harmonize our goal of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons with the changes in the strategic situation in the area."
    --James Dorsey, 'Afghanistan Crisis Yields Critical Policy," Christian Science Monitor, 4 February 1980, Pg. 22; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 February 1980
    Former Japanese foreign minister Sunao Sonoda will try to persuade Pakistan not to conduct a nuclear test. Pakistan is expected to conduct a nuclear test in April. Sonoda will visit Pakistan during the middle of February as the special envoy of Prime Minister Masayoshi Ohira.
    --"Sonoda to Try to Dissuade Pakistan from Nuclear Test," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 5 February 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 February 1980
    A full-fledged computer division is established at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH). The facilities offered at the computer center are unique and the center is maintained by Pakistani engineers.
    --"Computer Applications," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 27 February 1980, Part 3. The Far East, weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Science and Technology, FE/W1071/A/23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 February 1980
    Reports indicate that Chinese nuclear experts are assisting Pakistan in its efforts to enrich uranium.
    --"Pakistan: Increasing Involvement in Alliance with USA and China," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 February 1980, Part 1. The USSR, C. Afghanistan and Related Topics, SU/6345/C/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 February 1980
    US State Department officials state that, despite US reservations, Pakistan is continuing to build its uranium enrichment facility. The US government has warned that continuation of the plant's construction will halt further US military support. Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan does not wish to develop nuclear weapons but does not foreclose the possibility of developing a peaceful nuclear device. According to US intelligence estimates, Pakistan will not be able to produce sufficient quantities of enriched uranium for a bomb at least until late 1981.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 28 February 1980, Pg. 1, Col. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 February 1980
    The Dutch government indicates that a security lapse at a uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands in 1974 might have provided important information to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a Pakistani metallurgist, who might have used it in Pakistan's own uranium enrichment efforts. A report compiled by an interdepartmental commission of inquiry states that Dr. Khan tried to obtain classified information during his 16-day stay at the enrichment plant. The inquiry commission is not certain whether Dr. Khan was successful in his attempts to obtain information but the report states that it is possible for Pakistan to have speeded up its enrichment process based on the information obtained by Dr. Khan. The commission report states that "It can be assumed that Pakistan, through Khan, has been able to procure sensitive knowledge in the field of enrichment technology. In this way, the country has been able to achieve a considerable time-saving in the setting up of a pilot installation for the enrichment of uranium." The report indicates that lapses in the screening processes and other security procedures enabled Dr. Khan to work in the enrichment facility briefly during 1974. Dr. Khan worked for a URENCO subcontractor between 1972 and 1975. URENCO is a British-Dutch-West German Consortium for enriching uranium. The enrichment plant is operated by URENCO. The Dutch government had previously denied any leak of classified data. The report also states that Dr. Khan is now playing an important role in Pakistan's nuclear program. The inquiry report further states that certain Dutch companies are involved in exporting components that could enable Pakistan to build a centrifuge system.
    --"Pakistani May Have Obtained Classified Nuclear Data," Associated Press, 29 February 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 February 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; United Press International, 11 February 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 February 1980
    The Secretary of State to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs Olivier Stirn indicates that the French government did not categorically refuse to supply Pakistan with equipment that could be used to build a nuclear fuel facility. According to Stirn, France is also willing to provide Pakistan with 50 instead of the ordered 32 Mirage fighter aircraft. In addition, France is also willing to increase military and economic aid by 150 million francs in addition to the 250 million francs allocated for 1980.
    --"French Involvement in Military Aid to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 1 March 1980, part 1. The USSR, C. Afghanistan and Related Topics, SU/6359/C/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 March 1980
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan rejects the US position that reprocessing of spent fuel, enrichment of uranium, and fast breeder reactor technology should be limited to the five nuclear weapons states, namely, the United States, the USSR, France, China, and the United Kingdom.
    --John K. Cooley, "US-India Nuclear Transaction Watched," Christian Science Monitor, 11 June 1980, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 June 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 March 1980
    The proposed US aid program to Pakistan is reported to be "dead" after statements from both sides reveal differences over the issue. The US State Department spokesperson Hodding Carter says that "The Pakistani government has indicated that it is not interested in the assistance we proposed." Pakistani sources, on the other hand, indicate that the aid amount is very little and too conspicuous. Pakistan fears being seen as a proxy of the United States fighting against the Soviet Union and India.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Pakistan 'Package' Unravels; New Blow to US Diplomacy," Washington Post, 8 March 1980, First Section, A21; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 March 1980
    Inaugurating the 23rd annual convention of the Institution of Engineers of Pakistan, President Zia ul-Haq reaffirms that his government will continue Pakistan's nuclear program for peaceful purposes.
    --"Pakistan President on Nuclear Development," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 11 March 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    April 1980
    The West German firm Ces Kalthof hands over the plans for producing UF6 and UF4 to Pakistan. Pakistan fails to pay the final payments for the plants.
    --"German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan," Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 May 1980
    Pakistani official sources denounce recent reports from Kabul and Moscow that President Zia ul-Haq will discuss the question of testing Pakistan's nuclear weapons in China with the Chinese leaders. The sources indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program is geared towards peaceful purposes and also mention that Pakistan has no intention to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Moscow's Fabrication About Pakistan's Intended Nuclear Test in China Refuted," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 6 May 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 May 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6-18 May 1980
    Following Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq's conclusion of his visit to China, reports suggest that the Chinese leaders have promised to permit the testing of Pakistan's nuclear devices on Chinese territory. According to these reports, the tests will be supervised by Chinese and Pakistani scientists.
    --"Chinese-Pakistani Military Co-operation: Hegemonism and Expansionism," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 22 May 1980, Part 1. The USSR, A. International Affairs, 3. The Far East, SU/6426/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1980
    In its weekly show Panorama, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) reveals that Pakistan is developing a nuclear bomb with financial assistance from Libya. The report mentions that Libya's ruler Colonel Qadhafi made a pact with Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1974 to finance Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Anonymous Pakistani sources indicate the aid amount to total about $4 billion. According to the evidence presented in the show titled "Project 706: The Islamic Bomb", Libya's envoys visited Pakistan with suitcases filled with millions of dollars to fund Pakistan's purchase of equipment and components from European companies. According to the show, Libya has spent $500 million on Pakistan's nuclear program since 1975. According to the BBC, Pakistan will test a nuclear device in 18 months. The show reports that former Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto finalized a nuclear cooperation agreement with Libya's Colonel Qadhafi during the early 1970s. Khalid Hasan, a former aide to Bhutto, reveals on the show that during a meeting in 1972, Bhutto revealed to the scientists present that Pakistan is going to build a nuclear bomb.
    --"BBC Says Pakistan Developing Nuclear Bomb," Associated Press, 16 June 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Leonard Downie Jr., "US Says Evidence Shows Pakistan Planning A-Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1980
    The economic coordination committee of Pakistan's Cabinet decides to increase the nuclear power generation capacity to 600 MW by 1988 in order to meet the growing demand for energy. The Committee reviews other available sources of energy and concludes that nuclear energy provides the best alternative for Pakistan. A project study, already underway, to increase nuclear power generation is expected to be finished by the end of this year and tenders for the new project are expected to be issued during the next year.
    --"Nuclear Choice for Energy Policy," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 July 1980, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Society and Environment, FE/W1091/A/25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 July 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July 1980
    Two Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) scientists Anwar Ali and I.A. Bhatty arrive in Montreal with a list of items needed for a high-speed inverter. Export of inverters is prohibited by the United States and other countries since it is used for spinning gases in a centrifuge for enriching uranium.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July - August 1980
    Pakistan buys parts for high speed inverters from American firms like General Electric Co., Westinghouse Electric Corp., RCA Corp. and Motorola Inc. The purchases are made by two small electrical-equipment stores in Montreal. The parts are repackaged and shipped to the Middle East and eventually to Pakistan. The operation is assisted by several highly educated Pakistani expatriates in Canada and the United States. Some of the expatriates are recruited through newspaper advertisements and later persuaded to work for sometime in Pakistan with Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Dr. Khan is in charge of the uranium enrichment program.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  7. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1 August 1980
    India's Minister of External Affairs Narasimha Rao indicates that Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons will increase tensions in the region.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan: Nuclear Research for Peaceful Purposes Only," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 5 August 1980, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6489/A3/12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 August 1980
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson states that Pakistan's nuclear research program is aimed towards peaceful uses of nuclear energy and says that Pakistan does not wish to develop nuclear energy for military use. The spokesperson's comments came in response to the comments expressed by India's Minister of External Affairs. The spokesperson also lists the three proposals made by Pakistan as proof of Pakistan's peaceful intentions. The three proposals are: First, India should agree to the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. Second, both India and Pakistan should accept international inspections of all nuclear facilities or, if this is not acceptable, India and Pakistan should accept, on a mutual basis, the inspection of each other's nuclear facilities. Third, India and Pakistan should sign the nuclear nonproliferation treaty. Fourth, in the interim, India and Pakistan should join other countries of South Asia in declaring their renunciation of the manufacture or acquisition of nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Office Spokesman on Nuclear Research for Peace," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 3 August 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 August 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "South Asia; Pakistan: Nuclear Research for Peaceful Purposes Only," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 5 August 1980, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6489/A3/12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 August 1980
    India rejects Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. According to a foreign ministry spokesperson, a nuclear weapons-free zone cannot be created without consulting all the countries in the region and also that any such zone must include China.
    --"India Rejects Nuclear Plan," Washington Post, 5 August 1980, First Section, Around the World, A18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    29 August 1980
    Canadian Police, acting on a tip from British Customs Service, seize 19 boxes of equipment at the Montreal Mirabel Airport. The boxes were being shipped to Pakistan. The police arrest Abdul Aziz Khan (a Canadian electrical engineer), Salam Elmenyawi (owner of an electrical-equipment store in Montreal), and Mohammad Ahmad (a mechanical engineer working in Quebec). Seized records indicate that 10 other shipments of inverters were sent to Pakistan.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 August 1980
    Canadian police release Abdul Aziz Khan and follow him to a railroad station where he retrieves a suitcase and several documents. Abdul Aziz Khan then shreds the documents, drops them in a trash can, and proceeds to the airport to catch a flight to Pakistan. Abdul Aziz Khan is then rearrested at the airport. The documents, retrieved and pieced together by the Canadian police, include a paper by an American scientist on using high-speed gas centrifuges for uranium enrichment.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 August 1980
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan announces that Pakistan has achieved self-reliance in the manufacture of nuclear fuel from uranium. At a news conference, Munir Ahmad Khan announces that a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant has been built at Chashma by Pakistani scientists. According to him, fuel from the plant has been used in a nuclear power plant during the past month to produce electricity for Karachi. According to Mr. Khan, the setting-up of the indigenous nuclear fuel production plant will save about $40 million in foreign exchange every year since Pakistan earlier had to depend on foreign suppliers for nuclear fuel. Mr. Khan also indicates that PAEC is involved in preparatory work for the construction of a second nuclear power station at Chashma. Mr. Khan states that talks are proceeding to meet the foreign exchange requirements for the project, which is expected to cost $800 million. A plant has also been setup to produce radioactive iodine-131. The plant has been setup at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) by a PAEC scientist. The indigenous production of the isotope is believed to save considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan. PINSTECH also produces 16 other radioactive compounds.
    --"Around the World; Pakistani Official Reports Self-Reliance in Atomic Fuel," New York Times, 1 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 5, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan Becomes Self-Sufficient in Nuclear Fuel," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 2 September 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Wall Street Journal, 2 September 1980, Pg. 30, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Production of Nuclear Fuel," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1980, Part 3. The Far East, weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Production and Transport, FE/W1099/A/25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Summer-September 1980
    The US State Department informs the Swiss government that five Swiss firms are still providing equipment and technical assistance to Pakistan's uranium enrichment process. The formal complaint is given to the outgoing Swiss Ambassador Raymond Probst by the Assistant Secretary of State Thomas Pickering. Two of the firms included in the list, CORA and VAT, have already been mentioned to Swiss authorities last year. The complaint mentions that personnel from CORA are in Kahuta assisting the Pakistanis in building an enrichment plant. According to Claude Zangger, scientist in charge of nuclear technology export policy and controls for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, CORA might be performing after-delivery service in Pakistan. The inclusion of VAT in the list of complaints surprises Zangger because according to him, VAT officials had informed him that they would not supply anything to Pakistan owing to bad publicity. The formal complaint lists three other firms that are exporting a ventilation system, aluminum tubing, and machine tools to Pakistan. Zangger indicates that the issue will be discussed with the concerned firms. According to Zangger, the Swiss firm queried the government whether the special ventilation system is categorized under the restricted list of items. The government replied that the item is not included in the list and hence no export license is necessary.

    Swiss officials insist that the items exported to Pakistan are not banned under existing export control regulations owing to their use in multiple purposes. Swiss officials indicate that they are aware of the exports of some of the companies listed in the formal complaint by the United States but insist that the Swiss government did not act because the exports did not violate Swiss or international laws. According to Swiss officials, the export control guidelines and lists cover only specific processes for producing weapons grade materials but not the individual components of such processes. Swiss officials also reveal that some of the components exported by Swiss firms can be used in building a reprocessing plant that will separate plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. According to Swiss authorities, even these materials are not included in any international export guidelines. Some US officials contend that Switzerland is violating the spirit of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and a supplementary agreement reached by 15 countries that provide nuclear technology. Switzerland has reportedly refused repeated US requests to either expand its export control lists or restrict any items exported by Switzerland that could possibly be used by Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons. Switzerland's Deputy Foreign Minister Raymond Probst says that such stringent measures will not be beneficial to Switzerland's nuclear technology industry. Probst says however that Switzerland is willing to discuss the implementation of new controls, provided all the other countries exporting nuclear technology agree to implement the same control mechanisms. Probst also indicates that Switzerland has not made a judgment on Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons and says that the official view of the Swiss government is that Pakistan is not developing nuclear weapons.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "Swiss Sending Nuclear Aid to Pakistan; US Contends Sale Speeds Developing of an Atomic Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Leonard Downie Jr., "US, Swiss at Impasse on A-Policy; US Suspends Nuclear Cooperation with Switzerland; Nuclear Licensing Delayed as Bern Assists Pakistan," Washington Post, 22 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 September 1980
    US experts pointing to intelligence reports, photographs of construction of the uranium enrichment plant at Kahuta, and statements by the former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believe that Pakistan would need several years to finish the enrichment plant and produce weapons grade uranium for nuclear bombs. The US experts, however, believe that Pakistan's enrichment effort is now irreversible. According to US experts, Pakistan is buying components from Switzerland, the United States, Britain, West Germany, and other countries.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US Says Evidence Shows Pakistan Planning A-Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 September 1980
    The Carter administration interrupts nuclear cooperation with Switzerland in retaliation for the Swiss export of nuclear technology to Pakistan. The US State Department delays the grant of license needed by the Swiss government to reprocess it spent fuel in France. The US government also blocks a previously undisclosed Swiss request to export plutonium to Italy. The State Department informs the Swiss government that the licenses will be withheld until the Swiss authorities satisfy the concerns of the United States government regarding the sale of nuclear technology to Pakistan. The US officials warn the Swiss government that the US Congress might be forced to cut off nuclear cooperation under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US, Swiss at Impasse on A-Policy; US Suspends Nuclear Cooperation with Switzerland; Nuclear Licensing Delayed as Bern Assists Pakistan," Washington Post, 22 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 September 1980
    The Swiss government rejects accusations that it has failed to abide by its nuclear export control commitments by permitting Swiss companies to export nuclear technology to Pakistan. Erwin Bischoff, a Foreign Ministry spokesperson, indicates that none of the exported items are prohibited under international export guidelines. Bischoff also states that the Swiss government has monitored all the exports to Pakistan to ensure their compliance with existing international exports guidelines. The spokesperson further adds that Switzerland is willing to negotiate an extension of existing guidelines, provided such extensions are binding on all countries.
    --"Swiss Deny Allegations," New York Times, 23 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 7, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 September 1980
    The Swiss Foreign Ministry announces its investigation into the sale of nuclear technology to Pakistan after the United States expressed concern over the sale. The Secretary of State at the Foreign Ministry, Raymond Probst, informs the press conference that the investigation is being conducted even though the Swiss government has provided assurances that the items are not included in any of the existing export control lists. Meanwhile, a Swiss Foreign Ministry spokesperson announces that Switzerland will continue to export equipment and provide technical assistance to Pakistan. According to the spokesperson, the items exported to Pakistan are not banned under any international embargo list.
    --"US Fears Prompt Swiss to Study Pakistan Trade," New York Times, 23 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 6, Column 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; 'Switzerland Goes on Exporting Nuclear Materials to Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 24 September 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) informs Nucleonics Week that it will invite international bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant as soon as the finances for the project become available.
    --"Twelve Spanish Engineers are Under a One-Year Contract with Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 24 September 1981, Vol. 22, No. 38, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    Pakistani scientists are reportedly working on a clandestine plutonium reprocessing facility near Rawalpindi. The completion of the reprocessing facility will advance Pakistan's ability to test a nuclear device by about two years. According to intelligence experts, the plutonium reprocessing facility will supply Pakistan with sufficient fissile material to conduct a test in the fall of 1981.
    --Richard M. Weintraub and Les Whittington, "Pakistan Said to Receive Nuclear Arms Parts Illegally via Canada," Washington Post, 7 December 1980, First Section, World News, A 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    Canadian police seize a shipment of electronic equipment at Montreal's Dorval Airport. The shipment is worth US $47,000. Canadian sources indicate that at least 10 other shipments had previously left Canada through the Dorval Airport. The combined worth of the previous shipments is believed to be Canadian $560,000.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980 - 1981
    Following Pakistan's declaration of its ability to manufacture its own nuclear fuel, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requests Pakistan to allow the IAEA to increase its surveillance capability at the KANUPP facility. Currently the surveillance equipment includes specially adapted Minolta 8mm movie cameras, mounted in pairs and firing every eight or 10 minutes. The cameras are placed in sealed glass fronted boxes and are aligned to produce a wide angle and a telephoto view of the targets. Currently, the cameras target the storage pond, where the spent fuel rods are dumped, and a decontamination bay. The inspection process involves checking the seals for the cameras, unloading the camera films, developing the films, reloading the cameras, and resealing the camera boxes. The IAEA request to increase its surveillance capability includes relocation of the cameras at the spent-fuel bay and installing an extra camera, and relocating the camera at the decontamination bay. The IAEA wants two sets of cameras to cover the maintenance area for the fueling machine, a possible location for diverting plutonium. The IAEA wants the spend fuel rods to be arranged in a different manner in the storage pond. The IAEA also wants to take the camera films to be taken to its headquarters in Vienna for cross-examination. Most importantly, the IAEA wants to install "bundle counters" that will record the number of times fuel rods are inserted and withdrawn. Pakistan refuses to agree to the requests and points to the fact that the IAEA has not asked India to adopt such increased surveillance methods. The IAEA also requests an increase in the frequency of inspections at the KANUPP facility.
    -- David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1980
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries out a "full inventory verification" of the KANUPP reactor. An inventory of all dangerous materials is prepared during the inspection. Even though Pakistan is not a signatory to the NPT, the inspections are required under the original sales agreement for the CANDU-type reactor supplied by Canada. The full inspection is conducted after concerns are raised over a power outage that interrupts the functioning of the camera that monitors the transfer of fuel to the fuel storage pond. An IAEA source reveals that the camera was out of commission for about 3 months. The IAEA inspectors perform a manual count of the spent fuel since the monitoring camera is believed to have stopped working since the last inspections in August.
    --Victoria Pope, "IAEA Reaches Accord on Spain amid Upbeat Safeguards Review Elsewhere," Nucleonics Week, 5 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 9, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 March 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Paul Lewis, "UN Atom Agency Lauds Moves by Egypt and Libya," New York Times, 28 February 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1980
    According to Hong Kong's Asia Week, Pakistan has spent $2 billion on its nuclear program.
    --"Sino Pakistani Military Cooperation Aimed against Pakistan's Neighbors," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 November 1980, Part 1. The USSR, C.1 Afghanistan, SU/6575/C1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1980
    Pakistan's government dismisses recent reports that Chinese nuclear rockets have been sited in Pakistan. The government also terms as baseless certain reports mentioning that Chinese armed forced have conducted joint military exercises with Pakistani forces.
    --"Pakistan Refutes Allegation of Chinese Military Presence in Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 25 November 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    First Week of December 1980
    Canada charges three men with violating export control laws by attempting to export certain electronic components. The shipment of electronic components is valued at $42, 500 and the shipment was seized at Montreal's Mirabel airport. The three men are charged with exporting US goods from Canada without a permit. The three men are Salam Elmenyawi (31), Mohammed Ahmad (44), and Abdul Aziz Khan (40). All the three charged men are Canadian citizens. Khan is an engineer from Pakistan, Elmenyawi is a businessman originally from Egypt, and Ahmad is a mechanical specialist from India. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officials indicate that they possess evidence of at least five other shipments of similar electronic parts that were exported earlier this year. It is not known whether the same three charged men are involved in sending the previous shipments. The charges about the previous shipments have not been made public. Officially, the seized equipment is stated as "condensers and resistors" but Canadian experts indicate that the seized electronic parts are components of an inverter. Inverters are used in processes to enrich uranium or to provide electricity needed for the manufacture of nuclear weapon parts. Officials mention that it is legal to possess such equipment within Canada but insist that exporting such equipment is against strict export control laws. A report in a current affairs program of the Canadian Broadcasting Group reveals that two Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) officials obtained visas earlier this year to work in the Pakistani consulate in Montreal. According to the report, however, the two officials did not visit the Montreal Pakistani consulate during their stay in Montreal from July 7-21. The news report alleges that the PAEC officials were involved in procuring electronic parts for Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Richard M. Weintraub and Les Whittington, "Pakistan Said to Receive Nuclear Arms Parts Illegally via Canada," Washington Post, 7 December 1980, First Section, World News, A 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1980
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi rejects reports about the manufacture of an "Islamic Bomb" and the testing of Pakistan's nuclear bomb on Chinese territory as false allegations.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Minister Repudiates False Allegations about Manufacturing Bomb," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 December 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 December 1980
    The Swiss government promises to closely review and possibly ban future exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan that could be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. In return, the United States agrees to resume nuclear cooperation with Switzerland. The Swiss government agrees to specially scrutinize a particular evaporation and condensation technology currently used by Pakistan. According to Claude Zangger, Swiss nuclear energy chief, Pakistan used the evaporation and condensation technology supplied by the Swiss firm CORA to build a pilot enrichment plant. According to Zangger, any future efforts by Pakistan to acquire such equipment for building an industrial scale enrichment facility will be closely reviewed by the Swiss government. Zangger indicates that Switzerland might ban the sale or request implementation of IAEA safeguards as a precondition for a sale. Zangger, however, mentions that the Swiss government has not finalized its policy on such exports and is merely promising to rigorously review any future exports. According to Zangger, an examination of the problems facing such exports is currently underway and the Swiss firms are waiting for the completion of the examination. Zangger reiterates that Switzerland will not unilaterally expand its export control list.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US Prepared to Resume Nuclear Cooperation; Swiss, US Set to Resume Nuclear Energy Cooperation," Washington Post, 31 December 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1980
    The United States and the three countries from the URENCO project - Britain, West Germany, and the Netherlands - begin discussions on strengthening export controls on centrifuge technology.
    --"Centrifuge Suppliers Meeting Privately to Shore up Trigger List," Nucleonics Week, 25 November 1982, Vol. 23, No. 47, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1980
    The United States informs Turkey about Turkish firms' assistance to Pakistan's nuclear explosives program by supplying inverters. The United States requests the Turkish government to halt the transfer of such electric equipment. The Turkish government does not act on US requests and insists that the inverters, which cost $100,000 a piece, are not covered under existing export control regulations.
    --Barry Schweid, "US Asks Turks to Stop Equipment Shipments," Associated Press, 27 June 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  8. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1981

    1981
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) continues uranium exploration activities. PAEC is conducting geological mapping, radiometric measurements, drilling and subsurface excavations in the Potwar region. The exploration reveals the existence of uranium ores at Isa Khel and Thatti Nasratti. According to investigations, Isa Khel possesses three zones of uranium ore below the surface. Another zone at Thatti Nasratti is investigated to determine its nature.
    --"Pakistan," Mining Annual Review, June 1982, Countries, Far East, Pg. 407; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Early 1981
    Twenty-three Pakistani engineers and officials visit Spain and are taken to various industrial installations and the Junta de Energia Nuclear.
    --"Pakistan Could be ready to Accept Bids for A," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    8 January 1981
    According to an assessment by Ishrat Usmani, former chief of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan needs to overcome extreme technological challenges in acquiring sufficient fissile material, either through reprocessing or the enrichment process. In the case of the enrichment process, Usmani predicts that Pakistan will face severe challenges in maintaining the ultra-high speeds for the period necessary for producing weapons-grade uranium. Pakistan, according to Mr. Usmani, will also face problems in acquiring the highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid and handling it. In the case of reprocessing, Usmani states that Pakistan will face difficulties in obtaining spent fuel since the only existing source of spent fuel, the KANUPP reactor, is under IAEA safeguards. Usmani expresses doubts about Pakistan's ability to reprocess sufficient quantities of plutonium necessary for a nuclear device. He concludes that Pakistan might be able to produce only a crude nuclear device even if it manages to produce the necessary fissile material.
    --Rob Laufer, "Pakistan's Nuclear Patriarch Faults Homeland's Nuclear Policies," Nucleonics Week, 8 January 1981, Vol. 22, No. 1, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1981
    According to Sunday Times (London), Saudi Arabia will sign an agreement with Pakistan to finance Pakistan's attempts to build an atomic bomb. Saudi Arabia reportedly made the offer several weeks ago at a secret meeting in Europe in order to keep Iraq or Libya from financing Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --"Saudi Nuclear Pact," Washington Post, 19 January 1981, First Section, Around the World, A22; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 January 1981
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson denies the Sunday Times report that mentioned the signing of a pact between Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, with the former offering $800 million to finance Pakistan's nuclear program. The spokesperson reiterates that Pakistan's nuclear research and development efforts are totally indigenous. The Pakistani spokesperson also mentions that Saudi Arabia's government has rejected the news report.
    --"Pakistan Rejects Report on Saudi-Assisted Nuclear Programme," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 23 January 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 February 1981
    Congressional sources suggest that US nonproliferation laws might be amended to provide assistance to Pakistan. Congressional sources indicate that such measures are prompted by fears that Pakistan might come under Russia's influence. Sources indicate that aid to Pakistan might be included as part of a broader "Persian Gulf Package." Resumption of aid to Pakistan will require a modification of the Symington Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act and the Glenn Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act. The Symington amendment prohibits assistance to countries receiving or sending enrichment equipment, material or technology not under international safeguards. The Glenn amendment prohibits assistance to countries involved in unsafeguarded reprocessing deals.
    --"Desire to Help Pakistan May Evoke Revision of Symington Amendment," Nuclear Fuel, 2 February 1981, Vol. 6, No. 3, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 February 1981
    Pakistan denies recent Canadian television network and a Canadian weekly report that it is involved in clandestine efforts to procure electronic parts in Canada for its nuclear weapons program. Pakistan's embassy in Ottawa restates the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --"Pakistan Denies Reports of Secret Deals with Canada," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 February 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6645/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 February 1981
    Netherlands' Justice Minister Job De Ruiter, in a letter to a parliamentary commission, says that Abdul Qadeer Khan would be investigated under the terms of a law on the unlawful acquisition of state secrets. Mr. Ruiter says that the trial will be held in absentia since A.Q. Khan cannot be extradited to Netherlands to face charges. The Justice Minister also informs that legal proceedings are being taken against two Dutch engineering companies that are believed to have supplied sensitive equipment to Pakistan's uranium enrichment effort. Dutch sources indicate that one of the companies exported at least nine shipments of sensitive equipment that could be used in the construction of the enrichment plant. The sources indicate that at least one of shipments was made without a required export license.
    --United Press International, 11 February 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February 1981
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director's report announces the outcome of its October 1980 inspections of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor as "satisfactory." IAEA officials indicate that the inventory guaranteed that Pakistan is not diverting materials from the nuclear facility for military purposes. IAEA officials also indicate that Pakistan is building an unsafeguarded uranium enrichment facility and a reprocessing facility to produce plutonium from the spent fuel produced in the reactor. The report also informs the IAEA Board of Governors that the source for Pakistan's spent fuel for its reprocessing activities will originate from the KANUPP reactor rather than an existing research reactor.
    --Paul Lewis, "UN Atom Agency Lauds Moves by Egypt and Libya," New York Times, 28 February 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Victoria Pope, "IAEA Reaches Accord on Spain amid Upbeat Safeguards Review Elsewhere," Nucleonics Week, 5 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 9, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1981
    Pakistan begins to load its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor with indigenously produced fuel bundles.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 March 1981
    Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-Bronx), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade, writes a letter to US Secretary of State Alexander Haig Jr., asking him to consider the termination of US nuclear supply to France and Italy. The letter states that the assistance provided by France, Italy, and Switzerland to Pakistan's nuclear program presents a "clear and present danger to the United States and indeed, Western security interests in the Persian Gulf and South Asia."
    --Judith Miller, "Cranston Sees Iraq as Nuclear Power by '82," New York Times, 18 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 March 1981
    Top officials within the US State Department express concern that Pakistan's testing of a nuclear weapon might force India to launch a strike against Pakistan's nuclear installations.
    --US News & World Report, 16 March 1981, Washington Whispers, Pg. 18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 March 1981
    US Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) alleges that Pakistan is continuing to purchase dual-use nuclear technology from Europe and states that "it [Pakistan] will most likely have the capacity and the materials for fabricating a number of nuclear weapons by the end of 1982." Senator Cranston discloses that he has verified the accuracy of the information with officials in the Reagan administration. Senator Cranston also urges the Reagan administration to threaten to cut-off the supply of nuclear fuel to France, Italy, and other countries if they continue their nuclear cooperation with Pakistan. Certain sources in the Congress and the Reagan administration, pointing to intelligence information, indicate that Pakistan has already designed an atomic bomb. The same sources also reveal that despite the assurances given by the Swiss authorities to stem the export of sensitive nuclear material to Pakistan, such exports are still continuing.
    --Edward Walsh, "Cranston says Iraq Prods Europe for A-Arms Data," Washington Post, 18 March 1981, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Judith Miller, "Cranston Sees Iraq as Nuclear Power by '82," New York Times, 18 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    The Swiss government concludes that exports of nuclear equipment to Pakistan by Swiss firms did not violate any national or international controls. Swiss officials indicate that Swiss firms abided by the trigger list produced by the London Suppliers Club. Swiss officials also express willingness to expand their control list based on a multilateral agreement that is binding on all nuclear supplier countries.
    --"Exports to Pakistan by Swiss Firms were not in Violation," Nucleonics Week, 19 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 11, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    US Secretary of State Alexander Haig Jr., testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, urges Congress to modify existing law in order to "re-establish a dialogue of trust and confidence" with Pakistan. Mr. Haig testifies that he hopes to bring a number of countries into a strategic consensus in order to counter Soviet Union's expansion in the region. Secretary Haig states that Pakistan is not eligible to receive aid under existing laws and indicates that "it is my belief that you get more by removing the insecurities that foster the nuclear thirst" among nations like Pakistan.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Haig Says US Seeks Consensus Strategy in the Middle East," New York Times, 20 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    US Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in his testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee, urges the repeal of the Symington amendment that prohibits aid to countries that have detonated or are seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) challenges Buckley's request stating that such repeal will encourage Pakistan to pursue its program to develop nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, "Reagan Seeking more 'Flexibility' to set Foreign Policy," New York Times, 20 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 March 1981
    A spokesperson for the Swiss firm CORA Engineering announces at Chur, Switzerland that the firm is halting all deliveries of equipment for a nuclear facility in Pakistan. According to the spokesperson, a bomb attack on the company and threats against its company executives forced the company to reach the decision to halt the deliveries.
    --"Other Reports; Swiss Firm Halts Supplies of Nuclear Equipment to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 28 March 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6685/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1981
    US administration officials indicate that the Reagan administration has tentatively decided to offer $500 million in aid to Pakistan. Congressional sources and Administration officials are not sure whether Pakistan will accept the aid offer since it does not wish to be seen as a close associate of the United States. Sources in the Congress and the Reagan Administration indicate that the Reagan administration has tentatively decided to offer $400 million in military credits, $100 million in economic support, and $600,000 in military training. Even though existing laws prohibit any aid to Pakistan, Reagan administration officials have urged Congress in recent days to amend the existing laws reasoning that Pakistan might be deterred from producing nuclear weapons if its security needs are addressed. Some US officials express concern that Pakistan will persist in its attempts to produce nuclear weapons irrespective of the amount of aid given by the United States. Some officials believe that Pakistan can be persuaded from developing nuclear weapons if the United States offers to rewrite the 1959 security pledge pledging to assist Pakistan in case of an attack by India. The 1959 pledge offers assistance only in the case of an attack by a Communist state.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Washington Plans $500 million in Aid for Pakistanis," New York Times, 24 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 March 1981
    The US State Department indicates that the proposed aid to Pakistan will be provided only if Pakistan refrains from testing a nuclear device. The Reagan administration is proposing a change in the existing non-proliferation laws to allow military and other aid to Pakistan as long as it does not explode a nuclear device.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 25 March 1981, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1981
    World Bank President Robert McNamara visits Pakistan and the Pakistani government discusses a possible World Bank financing for its 600 Mw second nuclear power plant at Chashma.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 April 1981
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) awards a contract to Sener, a Spanish firm, for the supply of atomic energy services for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Spanish sources indicate the plant's reactor to be a 600-900 MW light water reactor (LWR). Even though Pakistan has not indicted a specific startup date for the plant, it is expected to begin operations by the end of the decade.
    --"The Spanish Company Sener will Supply A-E Services for Pakistan's Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 16 April 1981, Vol. 22, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 April 1981
    US Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig and the Pakistani Foreign Minister Agha Shahi conclude one and half days of talks over the proposed US aid package to Pakistan. The new relationship will likely be finalized in the coming months. Shahi announces that the United States has presented a five-year aid proposal. US sources indicate that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program did not come up for major discussion during the talks. The Reagan administration did not seek any new assurances from Pakistan over its nuclear weapons program.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US, Pakistan Progressing on New Aid Plan," Washington Post, 22 April 1981, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 April 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan Reports US has offered 5-Year Aid Deal," New York Times, 22 April 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 5, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 April 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) announces that India and Pakistan are preparing test sites for conducting nuclear tests. According to Sen. Cranston, Pakistan is building a horizontal tunnel in a hillside in the Baluchistan Mountains, about 40 miles from the Afghanistan border. Even though Sen. Cranston did not specify the sources for the information, senior Reagan administration officials confirm the information presented by the Senator. Recently, the intelligence community is believed to have provided administration officials with similar information. In a separate incident, two witnesses from the State Department indicate that Pakistan has not provided guarantees that it would not test a nuclear device. The witnesses also indicate that the United States has not requested such a guarantee. During a hearing at the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, Leslie H. Brown, Deputy Director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs says that "we haven't sought such assurances, but we don't believe that they could be obtained." Jane A. Coon, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East and South Asian Affairs indicates that Pakistan and United States are just beginning to rebuild their relationships and suggests that more time is needed before such assurances can be obtained.
    --Judith Miller, "Cranston Says India and Pakistan are Preparing for Nuclear Testing," New York Times, 28 April 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    April 1981
    The IAEA informs Pakistan that the safeguards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor would have to be upgraded since Pakistan has started to produce its own fuel for the reactor. The IAEA and Pakistan begin talks over increasing the safeguards mechanism at the reactor.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 May 1981
    Pakistani officials reject a report by an Indian news agency that Pakistan is preparing to test a nuclear device in the jungles of Sind province.
    --"Pakistan Denies making Preparations for Nuclear Blast," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 6 May 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of May 1981
    The Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan Vitaly Smirov indicates that the Soviet Union is willing to assist Pakistan in the nuclear power field. According to the Pakistan Press International news agency, the Soviet Ambassador also offers to provide effective assistance in the field of thermal plants and other ways to overcome Pakistan's energy crisis. Mr. Smirov offers 4 nuclear power units to Pakistan.
    --"The Soviet Union is Prepared to Aid Pakistan in the Nuclear Power Field, Soviet Ambassador," Nucleonics Week, 14 May 1981, Vol. 22, No. 19, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 May 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 May 1981
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes to lift aid restrictions on Pakistan and authorizes $100.6 million in economic and military assistance. The measure is passed by the Foreign Relations Committee and exempts Pakistan from the Symington amendment that prohibits aid to countries that are pursuing uranium enrichment technology and also refuse to provide assurances that they are not developing nuclear weapons. Out of the $100.6 million, $100 million is to be used for security-related economic aid and $600,000 for military training assistance. The measure requires the US president to inform the Senate about the details of the aid program and the Administration's policy to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, 'Senate Panel Votes to Lift Restrictions on Pakistan Aid," New York Times, 15 May 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 May 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) alleges that Pakistan's nuclear weapons could end up in the hands of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) either through Libya which, according to Sen. Cranston, is involved in Pakistan's nuclear program or directly from Pakistan since Pakistan's ruler General Haq is the chairman of the Muslim Conference.
    --"Cranston Warns Pakistan Bombs Could Wind Up with PLO," Associated Press, 16 May 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1981
    Turkey rejects press reports indicating that Pakistan and Turkey are jointly planning to conduct a nuclear test. The information department of the Turkish Foreign Ministry indicates that Turkey will not allow nuclear testing on its territory and reiterates Turkey's commitment to pursue peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
    --"In Brief; Turkish Denial of A-Bomb Test Reports," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 25 May 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, C. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, ME/6732/C/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  9. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    12 June 1981
    The United States decides to offer 15 and possibly more F-16 fighter planes to Pakistan. The planes are to be offered as part of the planned five-year economic and military aid package. The cost of each F-16 fighter plane, including spare parts and other support equipment, is $14.5 million. A State Department official believes that Saudi Arabia might finance the procurement of these planes. The offer is approved at a National Security Council meeting last week despite the objections raised by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the US Air Force (USAF). The OMB insists that the F-5 fighters are cheaper and better suited for Pakistan's requirements. The USAF objected that changes in the production schedules will adversely affect US requirements. Officials from the Pentagon and the State department approve the sale as a symbolic gesture that will indicate the Administration's emphasis on building a strengthened relationship with Pakistan.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan is being Offered the F-16 as Part of a US Military Aid Plan," New York Times, 13 June 1981, Section 1, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 June 1981
    The United States and Pakistan agree on a $3 billion military and economic aid deal to strengthen Pakistan's military in the face of the Soviet threat in Afghanistan. A US State Department spokesperson, David Passage, announces that "This Administration believes that by addressing those security concerns which have motivated Pakistan's nuclear program and reestablishing a relationship of confidence with it offer the best opportunity in the long run for effectively dealing with its nuclear program." The announcement of the deal is made in a joint-statement issued in Islamabad and Washington D.C. following a trip to Pakistan by the Under-Secretary of State for Security Assistance James L. Buckley. The announcement does not include any reference to nuclear weapons. The five-year aid program involves $400 million in loans every year for military purchases as well as $100 million economic assistance annually. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has already approved a Presidential waiver of the restrictions imposed in 1975 regarding Pakistan's unsafeguarded reprocessing and enrichment facilities. The House Foreign Affairs Committee, however, has not approved such a measure. Therefore, Pakistan's arms program can be vetoed if it fails to win the majorities in both houses of Congress.
    --Juan de Onis, New York Times, 16 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 June 1981
    In response to a question over the proposed aid to Pakistan and whether Pakistan has provided assurances not to develop nuclear weapons, US president Reagan refuses to answer whether Pakistan has provided assurances not to test nuclear weapons and indicates that it is important for the United States to assist Pakistan owing to Pakistan's strategic location.
    --"Transcript of the President's News Conference on Foreign and Domestic Affairs," New York Times, 17 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 26, Col. 1, National Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20-21 June 1981
    The US State Department, in a secret cable sent to US Embassy in Ankara, asks the Turkish government to end its secret shipments of sensitive equipment to Pakistan that could be used to develop nuclear weapons. According to the cable, Turkish companies are re-routing American-made electric equipment, known as inverters, from Europe to Pakistan. Inverters transform electrical current to charge batteries and operate instruments and are used in nuclear plants. The cable terms the operation as a "covert purchasing network" and claims that Turkish companies have circumvented US and European export controls while conducting these transshipments. The cable also suggests that Pakistan's ruler General Haq might have offered nuclear technology to Turkey in exchange for these transshipments. The cable informs the US embassy in Turkey to inform the Turkish government that continuation of these transshipments will jeopardize Turkey's own aid program. Apart from the secret purchasing network, the cable also warns that Pakistan is seeking technology and material to produce fuel for explosive devices. The cable says that "we [United States] also have information that Pakistan is conducting a program for the design and development of the triggering package for nuclear explosive devices." The cable also warns that a nuclear test by Pakistan will lead to the cancellation of the proposed military and economic aid to Pakistan.
    --Barry Schweid, "US Asks Turks to Stop Equipment Shipments," Associated Press, 27 June 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 June 1981
    The US Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in a testimony before the Senate Government Affairs Committee, announces that Pakistan's President and Ministers have provided "absolute assurances" that Pakistan does not intend to develop nuclear weapons. Buckley also states that Pakistan has not provided assurances not to seek a weapons-making ability or peaceful nuclear explosions like the one exploded by India in 1974. In responding to Senator Charles H. Percy's (R-Il) statement that aid to Pakistan will be cut-off if it explodes any kind of nuclear device, Buckley indicates that he has not stated such a clause during his talks with the Pakistanis, but indicates that "They [Pakistanis] are familiar with our laws."
    --Judith Miller, "US Cites Pakistani Pledge not to Make Atom Arms," New York Times, 25 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1981
    The Turkish government asserts that it does not intend to develop nuclear weapons nor assist other countries in developing such weapons. In a statement issued by the Turkish embassy in the United States, the Turkish government indicates that it will look into the allegations of Turkish firms' involvement in sending electric equipment to Pakistan and undertake necessary action as per the obligations of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty. The statement indicates that the involvement of Turkish firms in sending sensitive nuclear equipment to Pakistan has been brought to the attention of the Turkish government for the first time.
    --Barry Schweid, "Turkey says it won't Help in Development of Nuclear Weapons," Associated Press, 28 June 1981, Washington Deadline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 July 1981
    A West German engineering firm, Ces Kalthof, says that it sold Pakistan equipment for making uranium-hexafluoride, a material that could be used to make nuclear fuel. Albrecht Migule, the firm's Director, denies a news report in the German magazine Stern that the laboratory equipment could be used to make nuclear weapons.
    --"Sale to Pakistan Questioned," Washington Post, 1 July 1981, First Section, Around the World, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1981
    Pakistan is planning to spend $56 million on a number of projects for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the current fiscal year that began on July 1. According to the Public Sector Development Plan, the funds are allocated mainly for a reprocessing plant, a nuclear power plant, detailed exploration for uranium and, for phase two of a radioactive minerals survey. The plan allocates $40 million for the reprocessing plant and $10 million for the second nuclear power plant. The budget document indicates that last year's funds for the reprocessing plant are lying unused. The work on the second nuclear power plant is 3% complete and is expected to gather momentum during this year. The budget plan indicates that $59 million will be allotted for the nuclear power plant for the next fiscal year. The total cost of the nuclear power plant is now revised to $910 million, from the original estimate of $527 million. According to a plan approved by the government in 1976, the first nuclear power plant was planned to be commissioned by 1982. The first nuclear power plant could not be commissioned owing to financial constraints.
    --"Pakistan Plans to Spend $56 million during the Current Fiscal Year," Nucleonics Week, 2 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 26, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1981
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson denies that Pakistan has received any electronic equipment from Turkey. The spokesperson points out that US news reports indicating Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons are unfounded and insists that Pakistan's nuclear program is aimed for peaceful purposes. The spokesperson also points out that the Turkish government has denied the news reports.
    --"Pakistan Denies Developing Nuclear Weapons," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 3 July 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq orders tight security measures to guard Pakistan's nuclear installations following Israel's air-strikes against Iraq's nuclear reactor. The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmad Khan, says that the steps are taken to guard against possible subversive activities and sabotage attempts on Pakistani nuclear projects. Mr. Khan also states that any outside attacks on Pakistan's nuclear installations will be successfully thwarted. Mr. Khan does not provide information on the security measures that have been initiated.
    --United Press International, 3 July 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 July 1981
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmad Khan, says that nations should develop breeder reactors to avoid future shortage of uranium and future escalation in uranium prices. Mr. Khan tells the participants of a conference organized under the PAEC that "if we go on building light water reactors, we will soon feel the pinch, because uranium would not be available at cheap prices after a decade." According to Mr. Khan, a feasibility study for a 600-MW nuclear power plant at Chashma has been completed and the plant is expected to be commissioned by 1988. Mr. Khan also informs that eight other plants will be built at the site in Chashma. Mr. Khan says that development of nuclear power will help Pakistan to reduce the huge costs associated with importing oil for its energy needs. Mr. Khan warns that transfer of technology is becoming a political issue and says that developing nations will not find it way to obtain technology from other developed countries.
    --"The Pakistan AEC Chairman said Breeder Development is Necessary," Nucleonics Week, 9 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 27, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 July 1981
    The German engineering firm Ces Kalthof is facing charges of violating West German Foreign Trade Act by shipping a plant capable of producing uranium-hexafluoride to Pakistan. In responding to a Parliamentary question, the German government says that the delivery of the plant required an export license which would not have been granted by the government. The question regarding the deal is raised in the parliament after a German magazine Der Stern announces that it possesses contracts and other documents regarding the deals between the German firm and a Pakistani textile company. A spokesperson for the German Economics Ministry says that German authorities have collected enough evidence to charge the German firm with violating the German Foreign Trade Act. The spokesperson says that investigations were being carried out since early 1981 long before the firm's activities were published in the German magazine Der Stern. The outcome of the investigation will determine if the firm will be tried in a court or be handled by tax authorities.
    --"German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan," Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1981
    Libya's Secretary for Foreign Affairs Dr Ali Abd as-Salam ai-Turayki calls for assisting Pakistan's nuclear program or the nuclear program of any other Arab or Islamic country since it will benefit the common cause of Islamic nations. Mr. Turayki, in a statement to the paper Al-Khalij, states that assisting the efforts of Pakistan or any other Islamic nation in producing an atomic bomb will aid the Palestinian cause.
    --"In Brief: General; Turayki's Remarks about an Islamic Nuclear Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 11 August 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, A. The Middle East, ME/6798/A/11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 August 1981
    A radio report from Qatar reporting a meeting between Libya's Foreign Liaison Secretary Turayki and the Qatar Finance and Oil Minister announces that Dr. Turayki has denied calling for the production of an Islamic bomb. According to the report, Dr. Turayki also insists on the peaceful nature of Libya's nuclear energy program.
    --"Libya and the Islamic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 August 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, IV(A) - The Middle East, ME/6799/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 September 1981
    Western sources indicate that Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant, located 30 miles southeast of Islamabad at Kahuta, is expected to start operating by the end of this year. The plant uses gas centrifuge technology allegedly stolen from the Netherlands.
    --Manchester Guardian Weekly, 6 September 1981, The Week, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 September 1981
    The government of Pakistan formally accepts a six-year $3.2 billion military and economic assistance package offered by the United States. Pakistan accepts the offer after the United States proposes a plan for the speedy delivery of the F-16 fighter aircraft. The F-16 fighter aircraft offer is not part of the $3.2 billion economic and military assistance package. Pakistan agrees to pay $1.1 billion in cash for the 40 F-16 fighter aircraft. Saudi Arabia promises to assist Pakistan in paying for the planes.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Pakistan Agrees to a US Aid Plan and F-16 Delivery," New York Times, 16 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 September 1981
    US Under-Secretary of State James Buckley, in his testimony to the three panels of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, urges the Congress to remove a ban on aid to Pakistan in order to proceed with the six-year $3.2 billion aid package. Buckley says that Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq has categorically assured the United States that Pakistan does not intend to acquire nuclear weapons. Buckley, however, states that "I do believe that they have the present intention of moving forward with their nuclear development program. It could very well lead to the development of the so-called nuclear option." Nonetheless, Pakistani leaders are aware that conducting any nuclear test will lead to the cancellation of the aid package. In this regard, Buckley refuses to clearly state that the United States will cut off aid if Pakistan explodes a nuclear device. The Director of the Defense Security Assistance Agency Erich F. von Marbod says that the nuclear capabilities of the F-16s will be removed before their shipment to Pakistan. Marbod says that "All wiring to the pylons, all computer software programs that manage the hardware stores and all cockpit controls that are nuclear related" will be removed from the aircraft prior to the delivery. Marbod further states that the defense department can furnish written assurances that the equipment to provide nuclear capability will not be provided to Pakistan in the future.
    --Juan J. Walte, United press International, 17 September 1981, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Bernard Gwertzman, "Pakistan Blast Could End Aid," New York Times, 17 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "US will Sell Pakistanis F-16s Attack Helicopters," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 September 1981, Pg. 23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 September 1981
    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Sigvard Eklund, in a private meeting with the 34 member IAEA Board of Governors, indicates that existing safeguards mechanisms at the KANUPP facility are not adequate to ensure effective surveillance of the facility. Eklund informs the board that the existing IAEA inspections cannot certify that diversions have not occurred at the KANUPP facility due to Pakistan's ability to produce its own nuclear fuel. Currently, IAEA inspectors visit the facility once every month. Eklund promises a report on the issue in two months.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "IAEA is Facing Major Problems in Safeguarding Pakistan's KANUPP Power," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 September 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq reiterates that Pakistan will not produce or acquire a nuclear bomb. However, he states that Pakistan will not surrender its right to possess nuclear technology.
    --"American Arms to Pakistan: "A Test of US Credibility," US News and World Report, 21 September 1981, Pg. 45; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fourth Week of September
    US Administration officials inform the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Charles H. Percy (R-Il) about Pakistan's development of indigenous nuclear fuel and IAEA's reservations about the adequacy of the existing safeguards mechanisms.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 September 1981
    A western nuclear source reveals that 12 Spanish engineers are under a one-year contract to design a 900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma in the Mianwali district of Punjab. International tenders were invited for the contract but US firms were not allowed to participate since they were considered unreliable. According to a Spanish source, quoted by a western source, Saudi Arabia is believed to be financing the nuclear plant, which is expected to cost about $1.1 billion. The plant will be constructed and financed over an eight-year period.
    --"Twelve Spanish Engineers are Under a One-Year Contract with Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 24 September 1981, Vol. 22, No. 38, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 September 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) charges that the Reagan administration withheld information on Pakistan's progress towards developing nuclear weapons. Cranston says that Pakistan has started to use domestically produced fuel for its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor and states that Pakistan can now produce weapons-grade plutonium without being detected by international monitors. According to Cranston, Pakistan's fuel fabrication plant is not under international safeguards. According to Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, Pakistan's use of indigenous nuclear fuel will make effective surveillance "impossible" to achieve. Cranston indicates that his information has been verified with three executive branch entities. US Senate aides also suggest that Pakistan only needs to develop a warhead capability. The director of the US State Department's Intelligence and Research Bureau confirms that Pakistan is manufacturing nuclear fuel at the Canadian-supplied Karachi reactor, but indicates that he does not know why Congress was not informed by the Reagan administration. Spiers adds that the IAEA did not find any safeguards violations in Pakistan and that all nuclear materials have been accounted by the IAEA. Senator Charles H. Percy (R-Il) indicates that he was informed recently by the Administration about Pakistan's ability to produce its own fuel. Senator John Glenn (D-OH) states that he will introduce three amendments to strengthen US nonproliferation laws. According to Sen. Glenn, one of the amendments would require a cut-off of aid, without a presidential waiver, to India and Pakistan in case either of the countries detonates a nuclear device.
    --Bill Peterson, "Senator Alleges White House Held Crucial Pakistan Data," Washington Post, 26 September 1981, First Section, A14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Judith Miller, "Pakistanis said to Produce Own Reactor Fuel," New York Times, 26 September 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1981
    US government's arms control and intelligence officials along with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors are closely examining Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Reactor (KANUPP) reactor to comprehend "suspicious" activities at the reactor facility. Over the past several months, a series of "anomalies" and "irregularities" at the facility, including a high rate of failure of the surveillance equipment and problems in the accounting procedures for the spent fuel, has led to calls from the IAEA to improve the safeguards at the facility. According to Congressional and US arms control officials, the IAEA's concerns arise from the fact that Pakistan can produce its own nuclear fuel for the KANUPP reactor. The design of the Canadian supplied Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor facilitates loading and unloading of the fuel rods without shutting down the entire reactor. As a result, Pakistan can easily divert the fuel from the reactor in the absence of stringent inspections. IAEA officials, after monitoring the installation of 75 bundles of domestically produced fuel bundles, became convinced that additional surveillance is needed to ensure that fuel is not diverted from the reactor or the cooling ponds. The KANUPP reactor can hold about 2,000 fuel rods. IAEA Director-General Sigvard Eklund urged Pakistan to install surveillance equipment at two additional locations. Pakistan, however, has refused to negotiate any improved safeguards for the KANUPP facility indicating that such a measure would amount to a virtual renegotiation of the original contract with Canada. Even though Pakistan is not a signatory to the NPT, Canada insisted on implementing safeguards for the supply of the KANUPP reactor. The irregularities at the KANUPP facility lead to speculation among US and IAEA officials that Pakistan is diverting fuel for non-peaceful purposes. US officials, however, point to a lack of definite proof of such diversion. The IAEA's doubts over the facility have led US officials to increase their efforts to gather information on the facility through intelligence channels.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1981
    The three Canadian men, caught while exporting electronic equipment to Pakistan, face charges in a Quebec criminal court. After two weeks of closed hearings, the case is adjourned till January 18 1982. Eleven of those charges are for exporting goods without a license and 14 of the charges are for exporting goods from the United States without adding value. Canadian sources indicate that the case took a long time to reach this stage since the documents found in the Serabit offices were in Punjabi and had to be translated into English. The firm Serabit is owned by Salam Elmenyawi, one of the three Canadians caught last year.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  10. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    8 October 1981
    A well-informed source reveals that Pakistan will accept bids for a 600-900 MW nuclear power plant at the Chashma site in the first half of 1982. Sener, a Spanish firm based in Bilbao, Spain is currently conducting a study of the existing light water reactors (LWRs) for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC). The Spanish firm Sener is either preparing report for a 600 or a 900 MW reactor and for whether a turnkey or NSSS-only solicitation of bids. According to sources, Sener will probably manage the procurement of a nuclear unit for Pakistan even though the firm will not purchase components for the nuclear unit in foreign countries and re-route them to Pakistan. A source indicates that relations between Sener and the Pakistanis is "clean" and indicates that the firm is very much aware of Pakistan's controversial nuclear program.
    --"Pakistan Could be ready to Accept Bids for a," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    12 - 13 October 1981
    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors visit the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and request to move the two surveillance cameras. The inspectors also request Pakistan to install "bundle counters" to ensure better surveillance of the facility. Pakistan refuses to comply with the demands.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1981
    Contrary to the statements issued by the Reagan administration officials, Western diplomats and other informed sources indicate that Pakistan is moving forward with its nuclear program and is likely to explode a nuclear device in the near future. A Western diplomatic source indicated that Pakistan currently does not possess the capability to explode a nuclear device but could manage to acquire such a capability in two years.
    --Walter W. Miller, "Pakistan Pushing Ahead with Nuclear Program," United Press International, 21 October 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 October 1981
    The Senate adopts by voice votes two amendments to the Foreign Aid Bill. Both the amendments are introduced by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). The first amendment requires an annual report from the president on Pakistan's nuclear activity as a condition for the renewal of the aid program. The second amendment places a limit on any waiver extended to Pakistan to a period of six years. A third amendment to be introduced by Senator Glenn tomorrow requires an immediate termination of aid to Pakistan if it conducts a nuclear test.
    --Barbara Crossette, "Strings are Attached by Senators to Aid going to Pakistanis," New York Times, 21 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 9, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 October 1981
    The Senate approves an amendment introduced by Senator John Glenn (D-OH) by a vote of 51-45. The Glenn amendment requires suspension of foreign aid to Pakistan or India if they conduct a nuclear test. Later, Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) introduces an amendment that requires the US government to cut off aid to any non-nuclear country that conducts a nuclear test and Sen. Helms' amendment is passed by a voice vote. The Helms amendment affects US allies like Israel, Taiwan, and South Africa.
    --William Chapman, "Senate Bars Aid to New Members of Nuclear Club; Senate would Link Aid to Nonproliferation," Washington Post, 22 October 1981, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 October 1981
    The Senate adopts the 1982 Foreign Assistance Bill by a 40-33 vote. The $5.7 billion package includes a $3.2 billion aid package to Pakistan. The aid to Pakistan is provided by waiving the Symington Amendment to the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act that requires a presidential certification that a nation with nuclear facilities is not producing nuclear weapons. The Reagan administration requested the Senate to waive the Symington amendment for Pakistan since President Reagan was not able to provide the necessary certification.
    --Barbara Crossette, 'Senate Ties Aid to Atom Arms," New York Times, 22 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 October 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Barbara Crosette, "Senate Approves '82 Foreign Assistance Bill, 40-33," New York Times, 23 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 9, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 October 1981
    A 5,000 lb shipment of zirconium metal worth $153, 000 is seized at the Kennedy International Airport prior to its loading onto a passenger plane. Zirconium is used in construction of nuclear reactors and its export requires an export license. The zirconium shipment is labeled as mountain-climbing equipment and the passenger accompanying the shipment is Dr. Sarfaz Mir, a retired Pakistani Army officer, and is believed to be a close friend of Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq. After the seizure of the shipment, US Customs officials search the Pakistan Airlines flight to locate Dr. Mir but are unable to locate him. The Assistant General Manager of Pakistan Airlines says that he will investigate the issue. Agents from the compliance division of the Commerce Department's Office of Export Administration, headed by Sharon R. Connelly, had tracked the shipment from its production plant in Oregon to the Kennedy Airport. Pakistan Airlines officials are questioned about the shipment since it was too heavy to be classified as check-in baggage.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1981
    Pakistan's Ambassador to the United Nations Niaz A. Naik says that operations at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant's (KANUPP) maintenance area for the fueling machine cannot be upset by having extra surveillance. The Ambassador, however, objects to the installation of an extra camera at the spent fuel bay.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 November 1981
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes 10-7 to approve the sale of F-16 warplanes to Pakistan. Similarly, two House Foreign Subcommittees voted 10-5 to approve the sale. Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in his testimony, says that the cancellation of the sale of F-16s to Pakistan will severely affect improvement of relations between Pakistan and the United States. Under-Secretary Buckley also says that the United States will continue its efforts to halt Pakistan's nuclear program by stopping the sale of nuclear equipment and technology by nuclear-supplier countries. Under-Secretary Buckley opposed the Senate amendment that called for suspension of aid to Pakistan if it exploded a nuclear device. Under-Secretary Buckley said that "It is difficult to see how the United States could go forward with an assistance program for Pakistan under such circumstances." A senior State Department official says that Pakistan needs more than a year to acquire the nuclear materials to conduct a nuclear test.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Votes Stall Effort to Block Sale; Hill Panels back F16s for Pakistan," Washington Post, 18 November 1981, First Section, World/National News, A28; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 November 1981
    The House Foreign Affairs Committee rejects a resolution opposing the sale of 40 F-16 aircraft to Pakistan. The voting session resulted in a 13-13 tie, which is considered a defeat under Congressional rules.
    --Barbara Crossette, "Pakistan Jet Deal backed by Panel," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 November 1981
    The Commerce Department rules that the Manhattan-based exporter Albert A. Goldberg and the Pakistani company S.J. Enterprises cannot export goods until the charges against them involving the shipment of zirconium are resolved. Mr. Goldberg and several of his companies are charged with violating export regulations by attempting to export zirconium to Pakistan. The Pakistani company S.J. Enterprises is penalized for attempting to procure zirconium in the United States and export the metal to Pakistan. The shipment of zirconium was seized by US officials at the Kennedy Airport on October 31.
    --"Charges made in Export Case," New York Times, 21 November 1981, Section 2, Pg. 30, Col. 5, Metropolitan Desk; Leslie Maitland, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq, when asked to comment on reports on Pakistan's efforts to build an Islamic bomb, says that "we are proud to say that Pakistan can make the bomb ... they think that if we lay our hands on this toy we might use it irresponsibly." President Haq comments that developing countries need to possess nuclear technology and he says that Pakistan is determined to acquire nuclear technology.
    --"Other Reports on Korea; Turkish Leader's Visit to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 26 November 1981, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6890/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 November 1981
    A Pakistani official statement issued in Islamabad states that President Zia ul-Haq's answer to a question on the Islamic bomb has been misinterpreted by several foreign media organizations. The statement clarifies that the President's statement that Pakistan has the right to acquire nuclear technology has been misinterpreted as indicating that Pakistan intends to make an atomic bomb. The statement says that the President was responding to a question on published reports about the Islamic bomb; and had categorized such reports as propaganda spread by hostile powers.
    --"Turkish Leader's Visit to Pakistan; Pakistan Denies it Intends to make Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 27 November 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6891/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1981
    US officials investigate the seizure of a shipment of zirconium metal at Kennedy Airport. The exporter of the shipment is Albert A. Goldberg of the Manhattan-based National Tronics Company. The shipment is bought by Dr. Sarfaz Mir, a retired Pakistani Army officer who owns a firm S.J. Enterprises in Pakistan. The zirconium metal is manufactured by Oregon-based Teledyne Wah Chang. The Commerce Department, the Customs Services, and the office of Edward R. Korman, US Attorney for the Eastern District of New York are investigating the specific roles of Mr. Goldberg and Dr. Mir. Mir is believed to have left the United States after US Customs officials failed to find him on the Pakistan Airlines flight when the shipment was captured. Mr. Goldberg did not apply for an export license for the shipment and states that he is not aware of such a procedure for shipping the metal. Mr. Goldberg says that the shipment was ordered by the Government of Pakistan through Dr. Mir. Mr. Goldberg says that he has previously shipped electrical capacitors to the Pakistani government after acquiring the necessary export clearances. Sharon R. Connelly, head of the compliance division of the Commerce Department's Office of Export Administration, comments that a license to export zirconium to Pakistan would have been rejected since Pakistan is not qualified to obtain such material. US authorities are deciding on presenting the issue to a Federal grand jury or to deal with the issue within the Commerce Department which might lead to the imposition of civil sanctions including fines and withdrawal of exporting rights. Mr. Goldberg has been penalized twice before for irregularities in exporting controlled items and had his export right revoked for three years in 1976. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission states that 50,000 lbs of zirconium is needed for a reactor and states that the 5,000 lbs of zirconium is not sufficient for a reactor. Dr. Charles Till, Associate Director for reactor research and development at the Argonne National Laboratory, says that zirconium is used to make tubes for holding uranium fuel. James Barrett, spokesperson for Teledyne Wah Chang, indicates that zirconium is used in several applications including aircraft and submarines. James Benham, a lawyer for Teledyne Wah Chang, refuses to comment on reports that Teledyne Wah Chang had alerted the Commerce Department about the zirconium shipment.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1980
    The Commissioner of Customs William von Raab announces the start of Operation Exodus. The operation is designed to control the flow of illegal technology from the United States. Raab says that teams of customs agents, inspectors, and patrol officers are being trained on the mission's objective.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 December 1981
    Israeli sources indicate that the Kahuta enrichment plant in Pakistan is operating with 1,000 spinning metal "cascades" or cylinders. The United States and other sources, however, believe that Pakistan's enrichment effort to be less advanced and point out to the long periods of time needed by West Germany, the Netherlands, and Britain to master the enrichment technology. A well-placed Indian diplomat reveals that "we have evidence of short burns at KANUPP now." Ever since Pakistan announced in September 1980 that it could produce nuclear fuel indigenously, arms control officials have feared that Pakistan can use its own fuel, irradiate it for a short period of time in the Canadian supplied Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor, withdraw it, and reprocess the spent fuel rods to extract plutonium. Dr Munir Ahmad Khan of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) however, denies any such short irradiation of fuel rods.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1981
    According to latest Western intelligence estimates, Pakistan can conduct a nuclear explosion by the end of next year. Earlier reports that Pakistan will conduct a nuclear test in fall 1981 are now considered premature. Pakistan is considered to be two years from conducting a nuclear test and report suggest that the nuclear program has run into unexpected technical problems.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "US Aid as Deterrent; Potential seen for Pakistan A-Blast by '82," Washington Post, 8 December 1981, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1981
    The House Foreign Affairs Committee votes to provide Congress with greater powers to reject aid to countries believed to be developing nuclear weapons. An amendment to the foreign aid authorization bill, sponsored by Rep. Stephen J. Solarz (D-NY) would allow the Congress to override a Presidential waiver to the Symington amendment by a concurrent resolution that only requires simple majorities. The proposed amendment cannot be cancelled by a presidential veto.
    --William Chapman, "Reagan, Haig ask Bipartisan Support on Foreign Aid," Washington Post, 9 December 1981, First Section, A10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 December 1981
    The House-Senate conference approves the $11.4 billion foreign aid bill. The bill includes $100 million in economic assistance to Pakistan. The aid is permissible after a waiver of the required Presidential assurance that Pakistan is not participating in the transfer or receipt of a nuclear device, or a detonation of a nuclear device. The Presidential waiver expires after 30 days, after which the Congressional action is needed to extend it further. A second waiver allowing the President to declare that Pakistan is not involved in the receipt or transfer of equipment for uranium enrichment is subject to Congressional veto by both Houses.
    --Martin Tolchin, "House-Senate Conferees Approve Foreign Aid Bill," New York Times, 15 December 1981, Section A, Pg. 29, Col. 1, National Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 December 1981
    Speaking at his first press conference, the new Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Hans Blix says that some positive developments can be expected with regard to negotiations for increasing the safeguards mechanisms at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in Pakistan. Director-General Blix says that "The negotiations with Pakistan are continuing, but it is just one of several countries we would like to see improvements in."
    --Lynne Reaves, "The new Director General of the IAEA says all Member Nations Must," Nucleonics Week, 17 December 1981, Vol. 22, No. 50, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 December 1981 - 2 January 1982
    Saudi Arabia's Minister of petroleum & Mineral Wealth Ahmad Zaki Yamani visits Pakistan. During the visit, Pakistan discusses the financing of a 600 MW nuclear power plant with Mr. Yamani. A two-day hunting trip by Yamani to Kalabagh, close to the proposed site for the nuclear power plant raises doubts that he visited the nuclear power plant now under construction. At the conclusion of the trip, Yamani promises that Saudi Arabia will finance any energy related projects in Pakistan.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981 - January 1982
    Pakistan agrees to implement certain additional surveillance measures requested by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. Pakistan agrees to the relocation of some cameras at the facility. However, Pakistan refuses to install additional equipment at the facility, especially bundle counters. The bundle counters can be used to track the flow of fuel bundles in and out of the reactor. Recently, the IAEA has indicated its inability to verify the number of bundles at the plant.
    --"Pakistan has Agreed to some Upgraded Safeguards Measures, but the Larger," Nucleonics Week, 7 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 1, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    Pakistan concedes to certain demands made by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regarding surveillance at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). Pakistan agrees to the application of silica gel treatment on the surveillance cameras in order to enable them to withstand the high heat and humidity at Paradise Point (the location of the KANUPP facility). Pakistan also agrees to install extra dosimeters that are used to measure gamma radiation and installs a closed-circuit video camera system surrounding the spent-fuel bay. In addition, it also agrees to allow more number of inspections. Pakistan, however, has only agreed to talk regarding IAEA's other key demands, namely, installing extra 8mm cameras, relocating cameras to different positions, installing bundle counters, and increased number of inspections. Pakistan still insists that developed film from the surveillance cameras will not be allowed to be taken out of the country for fear of revealing industrial secrets. Pakistan also indicates that spent fuel rods will not be arranged according to the IAEA's demands. Pakistan says that the issue of bundle counters will be analyzed "in the light of our agreements with the agency [IAEA]."
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    Western sources believe that Pakistan is using the Fauji chain of nonprofit import enterprises to clandestinely buy sensitive nuclear equipment from foreign countries.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) prepares an analysis titled 'Special National Intelligence Estimate 31-81" and concludes that Pakistan will possess the ability to test a nuclear device within the next three years. The analysis describes that Pakistan is partly deterred from conducting a nuclear test by President Reagan's military and economic package which will be withdrawn once Pakistan tests a nuclear device. The analysis predicts that Pakistan will not stop its efforts to develop and stockpile fissile material for a nuclear device. Such efforts by Pakistan, according to the report, will increase the risk of a pre-emptive strike by India against Pakistan's nuclear installations.
    --Judith Miller, "US Says Pakistan's Nuclear Potential is Growing," New York Times, 24 January 1982, Section 1, part 1, Pg. 6, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  11. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1982

    First Two Weeks of January 1982
    Owing to acute power shortages, Pakistan is likely to invite bids for the construction of a 600 MW nuclear power plant in the next fiscal year that begins in July. Apart from contacting Muslim countries, Pakistan is also requesting the World Bank to finance the nuclear power plant. The Pakistani government is expected to discuss the issue with the new World Bank President A.W. Clausen when he visits Pakistan for a week-long visit beginning on January 15. Western sources indicate that World Bank's involvement in Pakistan's nuclear program will help in strengthening the implementation of stringent safeguards, especially at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The World Bank usually does not finance nuclear power projects.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 January 1982
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi says that Pakistan did not provide any assurance to the United States over its nuclear program in return for the $3.2 billion military and economic aid. Shahi says that Pakistan is aware of the U.S. law that will result in a cut-off of aid to any country that explodes a nuclear device. However, he also states that the Reagan administration might not adopt such a hardline even if Pakistan conducts a nuclear explosion since Pakistan is crucial to U.S. strategic plans in the region. Shahi also elaborates, "we [Pakistan] make a distinction between an explosion and weapons. We do not rule out the possibility of a detonation if it is necessary for our programme."
    --Alain Cass, "Pakistan Denies giving Pledge on N-Testing," Financial Times (London), 15 January 1982, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 January 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq includes a trip to France as part of his European tour. The trip to France is only announced on the eve of his departure. The Pakistani President provides a non-committal answer in response to a question whether Pakistan will discuss the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with France. A deal between Pakistan and France for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant was cancelled owing to France's decision to back out of the deal in the late 1970s.
    --"Revival of French Nuclear Deal?," Christian Science Monitor, 18 January 1982, The News Briefly, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq denies that his trip to France will include discussions for the French supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. General Haq further states that Pakistan does not have the intention nor possess the ability to explode a nuclear device. President Haq also states that Pakistan would be "two steps ahead" in implementing international safeguards in its reprocessing plants if other nations also implement the same safeguards mechanisms.
    --"Pakistani Denies he will hold Talks in Paris on Atom Plant," New York Times, 20 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 January 1982
    The CIA publishes its report 'Special National Intelligence Estimate 31-81" which mentions that Pakistan will be able to explode a nuclear device within the next three years.
    -- Judith Miller, "US Says Pakistan's Nuclear Potential is Growing," New York Times, 24 January 1982, Section 1, part 1, Pg. 6, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 January 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Frank J. Prial, "Pakistani Repeats Nuclear Pledge," New York Times, 26 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 January 1982
    Speaking at a news conference after his luncheon meeting with the French President Francois Mitterrand, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq reiterates that Pakistan does not possess the capacity or the intention to produce nuclear weapons. President Haq also states that his discussions with the French president did not include any references to nuclear issues. President Haq also indicates that he did not attempt to renew the French contract for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan.
    --Frank J. Prial, "Pakistani Repeats Nuclear Pledge," New York Times, 26 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; David Housego, "Pakistan not to build N-Bomb, Zia tells French," Financial Times (London), 26 January 1982, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 January 1982
    India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi says that India is willing to sign a friendship treaty with Pakistan and also indicates that India will not object to Pakistan's development of a peaceful nuclear program. Gandhi adds that India is willing to accept Pakistan's promises that its nuclear program will be intended only for peaceful purposes. Commenting on the non-aggression pact put forward by Pakistan, Prime Minister Gandhi states that "pact or no pact, we will never attack Pakistan." Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi is in New Delhi to discuss a non-aggression pact with India's Foreign Minister Narasimha Rao. An Indian foreign ministry spokesperson states that "some progress" was made in the first rounds of talks.
    --Richard S. Ehrlich, "Gandhi says India willing to sign Friendship Treaty with Pakistan," United Press International, 30 January 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 February 1982
    Hans Blix, the Director General of the IAEA, says that the agency has not made any progress in its six-month efforts to implement increased surveillance at Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The IAEA made the request to increase surveillance measures after it detected anomalies and irregularities at the reactor. Blix, however, says that there is no evidence that Pakistan is diverting spent fuel from the reactor. Blix also says that the agency has presented two reports to its Board of Governors indicating that existing surveillance measures are not adequate to provide reliable assurances that Pakistan is not diverting spent fuel from the reactor. IAEA officials privately confirm that Blix will provide a similarly worded report to the Board of Governors during the February 23rd meeting. The Director General also praises the efforts of the Reagan administration to renew economic and military aid to Pakistan.
    --Judith Miller, "UN Aide sees Little to Curb Spread of Atom Arms," New York Times, 18 February 1982, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 February 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 - 19 February 1982
    IAEA and Pakistani officials hold discussions on increasing the IAEA's monitoring capability at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The IAEA has been requesting such increased surveillance measures since summer'81.
    --Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1982
    Hans Blix, the Director General of the IAEA, issues a report indicating that the IAEA had "productive discussions" with Pakistani officials on February 18th and 19th over the issue of implementing increasing surveillance measures at the KANUPP reactor in Karachi. Blix says "Some of these proposals for improvements have already been implemented and I hope that the present discussions will lead to the implementation of the remaining proposals."
    --Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 March 1982
    U.S. officials welcome the report by the IAEA Director General as a welcome sign. Archelaus R. Turrentine, acting assistant director for nuclear and weapons control at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, describes the report as a "positive development." Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) expresses skepticism and says that "Pakistan remains on the brink of a nuclear test." Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) calls for the safeguards measures to encompass Pakistan's entire nuclear activities.
    -- Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 March 1982
    In replying to a question regarding Libya's financing of Pakistan's nuclear bomb, Libya's ruler Colonel Qadhafi says "No, it is not true at all, I heard about this propaganda, one of the bad propaganda to defame us." The Libyan ruler was speaking at an interview broadcast by Vienna television.
    --"Qadhafi on the "Pakistan Nuclear Bomb"," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 15 March 1982, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, IV(A) - The Middle East, ME/6978/I; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1982
    Speaking at an Arab conference, Munir Ahmad Khan Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that oil-producing nations should acquire nuclear technology to conserve petroleum reserves. Mr. Khan says that some industrialized nations are unwilling to share nuclear technology citing the potential proliferation dangers associated with such transfers. Khan says that implementing international safeguards will contain the dangers associated with such technology transfers. Mr. Khan says that tight controls on the sharing of nuclear technologies and reluctance to provide long-term commitment to supply nuclear fuel and equipment will lead to a further increase in the world's energy problems.
    --"Arab Oil should be used as a Bargaining Tool to get Nuclear Technology," Nucleonics Week, 8 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 14, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late March - Early April
    The Spanish firm Sener completes its study on the financial and technical aspects for a 900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma and submits a report to the Pakistani government. Sener suggests building 6 units of approximately 1,000 MW each for the project.
    --Pearl Marshall, "Pakistan hopes LWR Fuel Supply Capability will Stem from 'R&D-Size' Enrichment Plant," Nuclear Fuel, 16 August 1982, Vol. 7, No. 17, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March - December 1982
    The United States believes that Pakistan is attempting to acquire components that could be used to produce several nuclear bombs. The components sought by Pakistan are identified as finely machined hollow steel spheres measuring approximately 13 inches in diameter, and concave metal plates. Pakistan is believed to have sought these metal spheres from Britain and Argentina. The spheres are important components of an implosion type nuclear device in which uniformly placed explosives compress a sphere of highly-enriched uranium or plutonium to produce a fission reaction. The concave metal plates, known as "driver plates" are attached to the explosive and are used to produce a powerful blast. The shipments of these spheres are stopped using U.S. diplomatic interventions. Pakistan's pursuit of these components forces the U.S. President to send a special envoy, General Vernon Walters, to Pakistan on two occasions. During General Walter's visit to Pakistan in October, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq rejects the report that Pakistan is pursuing the nuclear weapons option.
    --Simon Henderson, "Anxious U.S. could Probe Zia over N-Plans," Financial Times (London), Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Kim Rogal and William J. Cook, and Jane Whitmore, 'Worries about the Bomb," Newsweek, 20 December 1982, International, Pakistan, Pg. 50; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 April 1982
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan says that the construction of the basic services for a second nuclear power plant has been completed at Chashma. Ishaq Khan does not provide information whether the Pakistani government is already conducting negotiations with various firms for the construction of the plant or whether it plans to invite tender bids for the plant. Khan states that Pakistan needs a number of nuclear power plants to address its energy requirements and mentions that the government is currently formulating a comprehensive strategy to construct the needed plants. He discloses that the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) operated at 61% of its capacity using locally produced parts and fuel. The Finance Minister states that "As the position of local fuel, critical materials and spares continues to improve, the plant will operate at a higher capacity." According to calculations by the magazine Nucleonics Week, the KANUPP facility operated at 19.2% of its original capacity.
    --"Approval for a 937 Mw Nuclear Unit at Chashma came Tuesday from Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 15 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 April 1982
    The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council of Pakistan approves the construction of a 937 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma. The project is expected to be completed in mid-1988 and is believed to cost $1.5 billion. The allocation for the project is expected to be made in the next fiscal year that begins in July. The Spanish firm Sener completed a feasibility study for the plant last year and estimated the cost to be $988 million. The estimate was revised this year and the current estimate is not available.
    --"Pakistan to Build Nuclear Power Plant," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 14 April 1982; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; "Approval for a 937 Mw Nuclear Unit at Chashma came Tuesday from Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 15 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 June 1982
    In his address to the UN Disarmament Conference, Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Khan states that "Pakistan will not develop or acquire nuclear weapons." Yaqub-Khan also states that Pakistan is committed to the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --John Usher, "Yugoslavia Condemns Soviet-US Rivalry," United press International, 10 June 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of June 1982
    Addressing a press conference after a meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors, Director General of the IAEA Hans Blix says that "talks" with Pakistan will continue over the issue of increasing the safeguards measures at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) facility. Blix hopes that all the required measures will be agreed to by Pakistan by the time he makes his report to the Board of Governors again in September. He also states that the IAEA and Pakistan differed on the "technical arrangements" for the enhanced safeguards at the KANUPP facility. The IAEA inspections at the KANUPP facility are not part of the NPT, which Pakistan has not signed. The inspections are part of the original sales agreement between Canada and Pakistan for the Canadian supply of a CANDU-type reactor.
    --"IAEA was not in a Position to Perform Adequate Verification," Nucleonics Week, 17 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 24, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 June 1982
    The IAEA's annual Safeguards Implementation Report for 1981 states that the agency cannot adequately determine whether there was any diversion of nuclear material for military purposes in two countries. The report does not state the two countries, but U.S. nuclear policy officials identify the two nations to be India and Pakistan. The agency report also states that the nuclear material regulated by the agency was not diverted for military use. The IAEA states that negotiations to improve monitoring measures are proceeding well in one case, which is identified as India by U.S. officials. The IAEA does not provide any comment on the status of negotiations with the other country, i.e., Pakistan. The report mentions that four countries with unsafeguarded nuclear facilities possess the capability to produce weapons grade fissile material. The report does not mention the names of the countries, but they are believed to be India, Pakistan, Israel, and South Africa.
    --"International Atomic Agency says it had Inspection Problems in '81," New York Times, 16 June 1982, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Richard Johns, "Atomic Energy Agency Warns on Nuclear Material Safeguards," Financial Times (London), 17 June 1982, Section 1, European News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 June 1982
    The United States attempts to convince the major suppliers of nuclear power plant technology not to supply such technology to Pakistan until Pakistan accepts full-scope IAEA safeguards on its nuclear facilities. Pakistan has decided to build a 850-900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma and is expected to issue tenders for the plant's construction in a few weeks. Sources indicate that the United States has somewhat succeeded in convincing the major suppliers of nuclear technology to accept its nonproliferation policy but doubts exist whether small licensees will comply with U.S. requests. The United States indicates to major suppliers that supply of nuclear equipment or material to Pakistan will result in a suspension of U.S. nuclear aid.
    --"US Forging United Front to deny Pakistan a Second Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 17 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 24, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 June 1982
    Pakistan allocates $72 million for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) in its national budget for the year 1982-83. A major portion of the allocated amount is for the proposed 850-900 MW light water reactor (LWR) at Chashma in Mianwali district in Punjab. According to the budget document, for the fiscal year'81 ending on June 30, $47 million was spent on a reprocessing plant and on civil work for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Other completed activities included radioactive minerals survey, uranium exploration in Dera Ghazi Khan, and a nuclear power generation training project.
    --"Pakistan's National Budget for 1982-83 Earmarks $72 Million," Nucleonics Week, 24 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 25, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 June 1982
    The U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Security Affairs James W. Culpepper informs the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee that U.S. export control regulations will be tightened following an extensive review of current controls followed by the Departments of State and Energy. The tightening of U.S. export controls follows complaints by Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) that U.S. nuclear exports undermined the U.S. nonproliferation policy. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration Bo Denysyk agrees that the U.S. Commerce Department has allowed the sale of nuclear technology to countries like Pakistan, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, and other countries that are suspected of developing nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, 'US to Tighten Atomic Export Rules," New York Times, 25 June 1982, Section D, Pg. 1, Col. 3, Financial Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 July 1982
    The United States is conducting a review of its export control regulations and revising those export control rules. As part of the efforts, a new list is being prepared by the U.S. special trade representative and the Department of Energy that lists five countries that are ineligible to receive nuclear materials and technology for financial and safeguards reasons. The five countries in the list are Pakistan, India, Israel, Argentina, and Kuwait. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also updating its nuclear export regulations and is expanding its list of nations that are not allowed to receive non-sensitive equipment and nuclear material under a general license. Pakistan, India, Argentina, Israel, and Kuwait are included in the revised NRC list.
    --Sandy Cannon-Brown, "Tightening of US Nuclear Export Controls Looming," Nucleonics Week, 1 July 1982, Vol. 23, No. 26, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 July 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1982
    The Departments of State and Energy propose to expand the list of nations that would need specific authorization from the Department of Energy and other specific agencies in order to import sensitive technology from U.S. companies. Countries that might be added to the list include Pakistan, India, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, and Argentina.
    --'DOE Moves to Expand List of Nations Needing Special OK for Nuclear Deals," Inside Energy/with Federal Lands, 2 July 1982, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 August 1982
    In an interview, the Director of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Shamim Ahmed Chaudhri hopes that Pakistan will be able to indigenously produce enriched uranium fuel for the proposed 900 MW Chashma nuclear light water reactor (LWR). Chaudhri indicates that it would require Pakistan 20 years to reach that capability. Currently Pakistan is producing nuclear fuel using uranium mined in Bagalchore. Pakistan's actions were necessitated when Canada, the supplier of nuclear fuel for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), suspended its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan in December 1976. He also says that the fuel is produced at the Kundian plant located at the Chashma site; but that Pakistan's indigenously produced fuel is going through a testing process and the PAEC is "quite happy" with the results. Pakistan's Water & Power Development Authority develops a plan to build two more 900 MW nuclear power plants and hopes to operate them by 1994 and 1997. Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq emphasizes that the Chashma nuclear plant will be placed under stringent international safeguards. Reiterating that Pakistan possesses the right to acquire the latest nuclear technology, President Haq states that "If the advanced countries are a bit stingy then we will acquire it ourselves ... even if we have to beg, borrow or steal ... And stealing is something we have already been labeled with." Some European countries express interest in the Chashma contract. A Western diplomat in Islamabad says that he would make a strong plea for his government's participation in the project based on Pakistan's energy needs."
    --Pearl Marshall, "Pakistan hopes LWR Fuel Supply Capability will Stem from 'R&D-Size' Enrichment Plant," Nuclear Fuel, 16 August 1982, Vol. 7, No. 17, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 August 1982
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) sets September 15 as the deadline for reactor manufacturers to indicate their willingness to submit bids for a 900 MW LWR nuclear power plant at Chashma. A communiqué from PAEC informs the manufacturers that bid documents must be obtained from Islamabad. The timetable presented in the communiqué sets four months for preparing the bid, five months for bid evaluation, and six years for completing the contract from the date of signature of the letter of intent. Bidders are also allowed to propose a second unit that must be completed within 36 months after the completion of the first unit. The communiqué welcomes a number of options for the bidding including a total turnkey package, or nuclear island, or a nuclear steam supply system. All the cases are expected to include fuel supply. The United States is initiating efforts to prevent the reactor manufacturers in other countries to bid for the contract unless Pakistan accepts full-scope safeguards and abandons its efforts to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan Solicits Vendor Interest in Proposed LWR," Nucleonics Week, 19 August 1982, Vol. 23, No. 33, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 August 1982
    The U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental & Scientific Affairs James Malone indicates that one of the factors obstructing the completion of a bilateral nuclear accord between China and the United States is China's relationship with Pakistan regarding nuclear issues. Malone indicates that China supplied Pakistan with material other than fuel-related items. However, he declines to mention the items specifically. Malone also indicates that the United States is making progress in restricting the supply of nuclear components to Pakistan's nuclear facilities.
    --Rob Laufer, "Interview with Malone: Defense Policy and Assessment of 'Hot Spots'," Nucleonics Week, 19 August 1982, Vol. 23, No. 33, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  12. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    8 September 1982
    U.S. Deputy Energy Secretary W. Kenneth Davis informs a House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee that the Reagan administration plans to create a new list of 63 countries that would need specific U.S. approval to receive any American technology for their nuclear program. U.S. administration officials decline to name the countries in the list until the list is finalized, but sources indicate the list to include Pakistan, India, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, Argentina, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, and Syria. Davis indicates that the criteria for approving the sale has not been changed, a stand that is criticized by Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) as a shortcoming in the new policy. The new measures are announced by the Reagan administration as efforts to strengthen the 1978 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. The Assistant Secretary of State James B. Devine indicates at another Subcommittee hearing that a Spanish licensee of Westinghouse Electric Co. would have to obtain a special approval from the Department of Energy to export a reactor to Pakistan. Devine notes that the Spanish firm can provide Pakistan with a Westinghouse Electric Co. reactor without special approval under existing regulations. Some Congressmen expressed concern earlier this year over the sale of a Westinghouse Electric Co. reactor to Pakistan by a Spanish licensee of the U.S. Company.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Administration will List 63 Countries Subject to Nuclear Export Restrictions," Washington Post, 9 September 1982, First Section, A4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 September 1982
    The Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou charges that Turkey is building a nuclear bomb in cooperation with Pakistan.
    --"Around the World; Papandreou says Turks Build Nuclear Arms," New York Times, 9 September 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 September 1982
    A Turkish foreign ministry spokesperson Nazmi Akiman indicates that Turkey does not wish to build nuclear weapons and rules out any cooperation between Pakistan and Turkey over this issue.
    --"In Brief: General; Turkish Denial of Nuclear Arms Link with Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 13 September 1982, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, C. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, ME/7129/C/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 September 1982
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson refutes the claims by the Greek prime minister that Turkey and Pakistan are cooperating to produce a nuclear bomb. The spokesperson states that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes and reiterates that Pakistan does not intend to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan denies Greek Charge over Atomic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 17 September 1982, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/7133/A4/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of September 1982
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan expects that many nuclear reactors manufacturers will participate in the Chashma nuclear power plant project owing to the depressing state of the current nuclear market. Khan states that "there is considerable interest in the Chashma project," and that the United States will find it difficult to prevent firms from participating in the project. One U.S. firm Westinghouse Electric Co. informs Pakistan of its decision to bid for the project, even though doubts exist over the firm's participation since U.S. laws preclude direct participation. In a conference paper delivered at the IAEA, Khan indicates that Pakistan's energy needs necessitate the development of nuclear energy. He also states that Pakistan's nuclear projects needs foreign financing and enhanced personnel development. Khan mentions that the outward flow of skilled personnel from Pakistan to wealthier Middle Eastern nations has adversely affected Pakistan's nuclear power program and outlines a training program developed by the PAEC to build a skilled workforce in all fields of nuclear construction operation and maintenance.
    --Rob Laufer, "While Hesitant to Discuss US Policy, a Top Pakistani Official," Nucleonics Week, 16 September 1982, Vol. 23, No. 37, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 September 1982
    The United States places a hold on bilateral nuclear cooperation with China because of intelligence reports suggesting that China helped Pakistan in its efforts to produce weapons-grade uranium. China is also believed to have provided nuclear aid to South Africa, Argentina, and possibly India. Some U.S. officials believe that China provided assistance to Pakistan in its efforts to enrich uranium.
    --Judith Miller, "US is Holding up Peking Atom Talks," New York Times, 19 September 1982, Section 1, Part 1, Pg. 11, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 September 1982
    According to a restricted staff report submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors, the IAEA inspections at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor suffer from two deficiencies. The first is the lack of surveillance equipment at an emergency hatch leading out of the containment and the second is the absence of backup monitors attached to the cameras covering various critical areas of the reactor. The existing surveillance cameras monitor the core exit, the canal between the reactor and the fuel storage pond, and the fuel storage pond. The monitors manage the surveillance cameras' operation and record the images. The IAEA wants to have backup monitors in the plant control room since the existing monitors are susceptible to malfunction. The IAEA wants to have an extra camera at the emergency hatch even though it is difficult to remove the fuel rods using this outlet. Pakistan refuses to accept the demand for the backup monitors as well as an extra surveillance camera. However, the IAEA is not extremely worried about the KANUPP reactor since talks are continuing at a slow pace, if not at a rapid and smooth pace, and importantly, assessment by knowledgeable sources indicate that Pakistan is a long way from diverting enough plutonium for a nuclear bomb. Pakistan's indigenous fuel production capacity is believed to be limited and the sporadic operation of the KANUPP reactor will make it difficult for Pakistan to extract sufficient plutonium for a nuclear bomb.
    --"The Two Primary Deficiencies in IAEA Safeguards at Pakistan's KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 23 September 1982, Vol. 23, No. 38, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1982
    The United States bans U.S. companies from selling reactor equipment to Pakistan. However, Westinghouse Electric Co., a U.S. company, plans to build a light water reactor (LWR) for the proposed Chashma nuclear project in Pakistan through its Belgian licensee. A U.S. State Department official indicates that that the government will make efforts to block such a sale. Westinghouse Electric Co. is expected to accept the government's demands.
    --Eric Gelman, "No US Nuclear Help for Pakistan," Newsweek, 20 November 1982, Periscope, Pg. 23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1982
    U.S. Secretary of State George P. Shultz makes a private request to Western European allies to deny permission for the sale of a new reactor to Pakistan until Pakistan accepts international safeguards on all its nuclear facilities. Shultz's request follows private attempts by Pakistan to invite bids for the new nuclear power project at Chashma.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 October 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that he will attempt to revive Canada's nuclear cooperation with Pakistan during his trip to Canada in December. President Haq says that he "would not make an issue" of the supply of nuclear fuel for the KANUPP reactor and indicates that "if they agree to help us in our peaceful power program, it would be welcome." Canada suspended its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan in 1976 following Pakistan's refusal to abandon its efforts to obtain a nuclear reprocessing plant from France. Canada insists that it will renew its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan only after Pakistan signs the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. A Canadian delegation of investors and businessmen are visiting Pakistan and the team does not include any member from the nuclear industry.
    --"Pakistan is Trying to Revive Nuclear Cooperation with Canada," Nucleonics Week, 14 October 1982, Vol. 23, No. 41, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1982
    Speaking at a press conference in Beijing, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that China is not involved in Pakistan's peaceful nuclear energy program. President Haq reiterates that Pakistan's nuclear program is completely indigenous and peaceful in nature.
    --"Pakistan President's Peking Press Conference," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 21 October 1982, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/7162/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1982
    A joint-communiqué issued at the end of Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq's visit to Malaysia reaffirms Malaysia's support for Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Malaysia and Pakistan Issue Joint Communiqué," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 November 1982; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 November 1982
    U.S. military analysts, quoting a recent U.S. intelligence report, state that 31 nations will be able to produce nuclear weapons by 2000. The report, Defense Guidance, includes Pakistan as one of the countries capable of producing nuclear weapons within 20 years.
    --Richard Holloran, "Spread of Nuclear Arms by 2000 is Seen," New York Times, 15 November 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of November 1982
    More than 10 nations from the Eastern and Western bloc meet in Vienna to strengthen the export control list relating to gas centrifuge enrichment equipment and materials. The list of items in the expanded list includes centrifuge parts like rotors and scoops, spin-forming, flow-forming, and balancing machines. The list is also expected to include specific materials like ultra-high strength aluminum, maraging steel, and some kinds of carbon fiber. The objective of the current effort is to close the existing loopholes in the Zangger List of 1974 and the London Suppliers Group list of 1978. The gaps in the existing trigger lists were revealed by Pakistan's purchase of centrifuge components in Europe. Sources indicate that Pakistan is still attempting to procure trigger list items almost every week.
    --"Centrifuge Suppliers Meeting Privately to Shore up Trigger List," Nucleonics Week, 25 November 1982, Vol. 23, No. 47, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 November 1982
    Pakistan agrees to implement most of the additional monitoring mechanisms requested by the IAEA. IAEA Director-General Hans Blix states that Pakistan has already agreed to readjust the cameras that were installed by the agency two months ago and has agreed to install a new "bundle counter" next month to facilitate better monitoring of the insertion and extraction of fuel bundles. Dr. Blix also states that Pakistan has agreed to double the frequency of inspections and let inspectors visit the facility once a month to "service our surveillance equipment, develop the films [and] determine the movements [of equipment]." Blix however indicates that the IAEA has to finalize at least one more issue with Pakistan before the IAEA could give assurances that Pakistan is not diverting plutonium for its weapons program. According to U.S. sources, one issue that the IAEA is discussing with Pakistan is the placement of an inspection seal on an access hatch that could be used to covertly remove material from the containment around the reactor. Currently the "port" is not sealed since it was not part of the original plant design. Dr. Blix indicates that the resolution of the remaining issue will allow him to state in the February IAEA board meeting that "we will soon be in a position to give assurance" over the non-diversion of nuclear material in the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. U.S. sources indicate that by February, Pakistan would have obtained enough fissile material for one or two nuclear bombs because Pakistan has been operating the KANUPP reactor at a reduced power level, which according to these sources, is ideal for producing weapons-grade plutonium. U.S. sources estimate that Pakistan would be able to produce 10 to 20 kg of plutonium by February 1983.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 November 1982
    Pakistan President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan will be willing to accept tougher nuclear inspections if the United States requests such inspections on all countries. President Haq says "but if the pressure is only on Pakistan, then we will resist." President Haq is visiting Canada and the United States in December.
    --Albert E. Kaff, "Zia Criticizes US Nuclear Inspection Demands," United Press International, 20 November 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fourth Week of November 1982
    The U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Nonproliferation Richard T. Kennedy meets French officials to request them to stop the sale of a nuclear reactor to Pakistan until all nuclear facilities in Pakistan are placed under international safeguards. According to an official source, the French officials respond that they see no reason to halt the sale of a reactor if Pakistan is willing to accept international safeguards on that reactor.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 November 1982
    In an interview, Pakistan President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan's uranium enrichment effort is a "modest, humble program" aimed at using the technology for its nuclear power reactors. President Haq states that Pakistan is forced to acquire nuclear technology since Pakistan has exhausted all other available means of generating energy. President Haq further states that Pakistan does not need to import yellowcake from Niger since it possesses uranium. President Haq firmly also rejects allegations that Pakistan is developing a nuclear weapon capability. He discloses that that the uranium enrichment program is being managed by the military and claims that the enrichment project is "part and parcel of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission." President Haq further states that Pakistan has not accepted international safeguards owing to their discriminatory nature; and that the Kahuta facility will not be placed under safeguards since it was built through "beg, borrow, and steal" and is not "intended to be covered by international safeguards." President Haq states that Pakistan will sign the NPT provided India signs it.
    --Mary Anne Weaver, "Zia; Pakistan's Military Ruler, Before US Visit Talks about Drugs, Arms Buildup, India Elections, Afghanistan, and 'the bomb'," Christian Science Monitor, 30 November 1982, Monitor Interview, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1982
    The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), comprising the United States and other nuclear exporting countries, secretly submits a new enhanced export control list to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Exporters Committee, also known as the Zangger Committee. The participating countries also decide to hold another Zangger committee meeting in late January 1984 to resolve the legal and technical issues regarding the new list. France and China are not part of the Zangger committee since both the nations are not signatories to the NPT. France, however, is holding bilateral meetings with the United States over the new list and promises to adhere to any new guidelines adopted in the new list. France is part of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "More Curbs sought on A-Materials; Nations Widening List of Exports Subject to Controls," Washington Post, 3 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    First Week of December 1982
    U.S. and Pakistani officials settle a dispute over the equipment to be included in the F-16 fighter aircraft to be supplied to Pakistan. The U.S. State Department agrees to upgrade the avionics package in the fighter aircraft.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 3 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 - 9 December 1982
    Pakistan invites bids for the proposed 900-1,000 MW nuclear power plant and issues tenders to "over a dozen qualified suppliers." The bidders were selected based on their interest in the project which is estimated to cost about $1.5 billion. The bids have to be submitted in five months and the project is expected to begin in December 1983.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 - 10 December 1982
    Major reactor suppliers obtain the technical specifications for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. The suppliers include Kraftwerk Union, Framatome, Westinghouse, and General Electric. The firms that picked up the specifications for the conventional part of the plant are Ansaldo, Hitachi, Toshiba, and Alsthom-Atlantique.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 December 1982
    Pakistan begins to solicit bids for a new reactor for its proposed nuclear power plant at Chashma. The reactor's capacity is mentioned as 900 MW and companies also can bid for a second reactor to be constructed later. The formal invitation to participate in the project is also sent to U.S. companies Westinghouse Electric Co. and General Electric. Spokespersons from both firms, however, state that the firms will not be participating since the U.S. government will not provide the necessary approval. The United States has appealed to European countries to prevent the sale of the nuclear reactor until Pakistan accepts international safeguards for all of its nuclear facilities. Britain, the Netherlands, and other countries that normally require monitoring of nuclear facilities express agreement with the U.S. request. France, West Germany, and Italy do not agree with the U.S. request.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 December 1982
    The U.S. and Pakistani officials differ over the nature of Pakistan's nuclear program. A senior Pakistani official claims that "The United States and others think we are developing nuclear weapons. We say we are not and we say your evidence is wrong." The Pakistani official says that the pattern of Pakistan's nuclear program and a threat of massive Indian nuclear retaliation make it illogical for Pakistan to pursue nuclear weapons. A U.S. official, however, states that the absence of safeguards at certain facilities raises suspicions over Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 3 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 December 1982
    The Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan announces the government's decision to proceed with the 900 MW nuclear power plant project at Chashma. Khan announces that the bidders are welcome to collect the necessary documents before December 15 and says that the project will begin in about 12 months and take six years to complete. According to Khan, the civil work and infrastructure facilities at the Chashma project site have been completed. The project is estimated to cost about 17,000 million Pakistani rupees. He indicates that the final cost of the project will be based on the submitted tenders and that the Chashma nuclear plant, upon completion, will contribute to 10% of the total capacity of Pakistan's power grid which he estimates to be 11,000 MW. Khan also indicates that IAEA safeguards will be implemented at the facility. He further asserts that the location of the nuclear power plant was evaluated using stringent safety standards and states that risk of pollution is non-existent. The rationale for choosing a light water reactor (LWR) was that the technology is available from six to eight sources and hence there are less chances of an embargo like the one imposed by Canada in 1976. Furthermore, Pakistan will insist on certain conditions in the Chashma contract like manufacturing spare parts in Pakistan, mandatory supply of nuclear fuel for five years followed by a 15-year agreement for enrichment supply. Khan expresses confidence that Pakistan will be able to supply its own fuel for the Chashma plant using the fuel fabrication plant. A study by a Swedish company, Asea-Atom, concludes that Pakistan's domestic industry can contribute to the construction of the Chashma nuclear plant. Khan indicates that Pakistan will need between five to eight nuclear power stations before 2000.
    --"Energy; Nuclear Power Station," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 8 December 1982, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan, FE/W1214/A/27; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 December 1982
    In a briefing to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Reagan administration officials indicate that Pakistan is continuing its nuclear weapons program. Administration officials inform the Foreign Relations Committee that China is assisting Pakistan to build a nuclear bomb and estimate that Pakistan is about a year away from producing fissile material that could be used to make a bomb.
    --Bernard Weinraub, "Zia tells Reagan he won't Build Atomic Weapon," New York Times, 8 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 5, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 December 1982
    According to a senior U.S. administration official, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq meets U.S. President Ronald Reagan and provides assurances that Pakistan is not interested in developing nuclear weapons.
    --Suzanne F. Green, United Press International, 7 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of December 1982
    In an interview, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq denies the existence of the New Labs reprocessing plant and insists that "we have no reprocessing facility whatsoever. Pakistani scientists are experimenting with how to reprocess one ounce of plutonium as scientists." U.S. analysts, however, believe that the New Labs reprocessing facility is not currently reprocessing plutonium but believe the facility to possess greater capacity. U.S. analysts note that Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan has indicated to European scientists that the New Labs facility can reprocess about 6kg of plutonium. President Haq also says that the enrichment facility in Kahuta is "a humble, modest program." U.S. sources, however, insist that the Kahuta facility is built to house 10,000 ultracentrifuges. U.S. intelligence sources also point out that the reprocessing and enrichment facilities are handled by the PAEC and the procurement of equipment and construction of nuclear plants is supervised by the Pakistani military.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "India said to Eye Raid on Pakistani A-Plants," Washington Post, 20 December 1982, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 December 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq is expected to seek resumption of Canada's nuclear fuel shipments for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. President Haq will begin his Canadian visit on December 14. Canadian officials indicate that talks between President Haq and the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau will include a request from the Pakistani president for nuclear fuel. Canadian officials, however, indicate that Canada is unlikely to accept Pakistan's request due to proliferation concerns. Canada insists on implementing full-scope safeguards as a condition for the renewal of nuclear cooperation and Canadian officials indicate that Canada is unlikely to change its nuclear policy, for the fear of nuclear proliferation, even if Pakistan accepts full-scope safeguards.
    --Andrew P. Hutton, United Press International, 10 December 1982, Regional News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 December 1982
    During his meeting with the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq raises the issue of nuclear cooperation but does not seek any assurances on the resumption of nuclear cooperation between Canada and Pakistan.
    --Andrew P. Hutton, "Canada's Aid to Pakistan without "Strings"," United Press International, 17 December 1982, Regional News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 December 1982
    Director-General of the IAEA Hans Blix states that the existing safeguards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor are not sufficient to ensure that diversions are not taking place at the facility. Dr. Blix says "we are not satisfied with the arrangements and we cannot ensure that the diversion is not taking place... At the same time we cannot also say for certain that they were diverting material for manufacturing weapons." The IAEA has been requesting to place an inspection seal on an access hatch that would prevent Pakistan from secretly opening the hatch and diverting nuclear material from the reactor. Pakistan has so far refused to accept the measure.
    --"IAEA Criticizes Pakistani Nuclear Safety," United Press International, 19 December 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 December 1982
    In a news conference, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that he did not ask Canada for the supply of nuclear fuel.
    --"President Zia Discusses his Canadian Visit," BC Summary of World Broadcasts, 21 December 1982, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1.General and Western Affairs, FE/7214/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 December 1982
    According to a well-informed source, the French government decides to allow Framatome to bid for the supply of the 900 MW Chashma nuclear reactor. The French government authorizes Framatome to accept the invitation to participate in the bidding process. The deadline for the submission of the bid was December 15. The initial French proposal is expected to only cover the reactor without any financial attachments. The French bidding consortium will be headed by Framatome and will consist of Alsthom-Atlantique and Spie-Batignolles. Certain French officials believe that the current reactor bid will serve to resolve the dispute over the reprocessing plant that France cancelled in 1978. It is not clear whether France will insist on full-scope safeguards for Pakistan as requested by the United States as a condition for the supply of a new reactor. A senior French administration official says that the denial of a nuclear reactor by the nuclear suppliers might force Pakistan to turn to Brazil or South Korea. The French official calls this situation a "worst thing." The French official also professes surprise that the United States is denying peaceful nuclear technology to Pakistan while supplying it with advanced F-16 fighter planes.
    --'Framatome can Bid on the," Nucleonics Week, 23 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 51-52, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1982
    According to U.S. intelligence sources, Indian military planners have prepared a plan to conduct pre-emptive strikes on Pakistani nuclear installations. U.S. sources indicate that the plan was presented to India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who decided not to pursue the option for concerns over a retaliatory strike by Pakistan on India's nuclear facilities. According to U.S. sources, the completion of the New Labs reprocessing facility raised India's concerns over Pakistan's nuclear program. The military plan called for strikes on Pakistan's enrichment facility at Kahuta and the small New Labs reprocessing plant at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). India's Ambassador to the United States K.R. Narayanan rejects the report as a "figment of the imagination." The report is also rejected by a spokesperson for India's foreign ministry Mani Shankar Aiyer. Bilateral talks between India and Pakistan are proceeding and certain U.S. sources believe that India will not launch a preemptive during the talks.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "India said to Eye Raid on Pakistani A-Plants," Washington Post, 20 December 1982, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1982
    Pakistan appoints the Geneva-based International Energy Development Corp. as a consultant to the Pakistani government. The company is tasked with preparing a five year energy plan for Pakistan.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  13. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1983

    Early 1983
    Pakistan conducts a uranium survey of over 60,000 km and discovers significant quantities of uranium ore in the Tharparkar desert in the Sind province and between Mansehra and Thakot in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). The sampling of the uranium ore in the NWFP indicates ore with 0.2% uranium. Exploration in Sonmiani indicates the presence of 4 Mt of heavy minerals including uranium. Uranium bearing regions are discovered in the Eastern Potwar region, on both sides of the Indus River. The places include Isa Khel, Mir Ali Thal, Khisor Ranges, Shanwah, Karak, Taman, Mindi Shariqi, Larimar, Kakhad, Pir Fatehal, Tabbiser, Massan and Soan river area as well as the Hazara district and Rajanpur.
    --"Pakistan's Moving Plans," Mining Journal, 14 October 1983, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Early 1983
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) invited bids for the architect-engineering component of the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP). The deadline for the bids is April 1.
    -- Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 January 1983
    Diplomatic sources indicate that the United States and the major nuclear supplier countries are developing new trigger lists of high technology equipment and materials that would produce a strong, common nonproliferation policy among nuclear supplier nations. An initial list of 26 items needed for building an ultracentrifuge plant is created and includes items like electrical inverters, scoops, and rotors. The United States is pushing to control the export of materials like ultra-high-strength aluminum and maraging steels, nickel-iron alloys of extremely high strength. The new list is under consideration by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Exporters Committee and a final decision is expected to be reached by late spring this year. Upon successful implementation of the list, the participant countries are expected to devise similar lists for reprocessing plants and other sensitive nuclear facilities. The new list is expected to provide a consensus on export controls and prevent nations from claiming that they did not know about the utility of their exports in assisting nuclear weapons programs. The Reagan administration has been working on this effort for about two years.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "More Curbs sought on A-Materials; Nations Widening List of Exports Subject to Controls," Washington Post, 3 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25-28 January 1983
    Pakistan agrees to prepare a bundle counter for tests and operation, install a second camera system, and put IAEA seals on an emergency airlock. Pakistan indicates these measures to a visiting IAEA team.
    --David K. Willis, "Nuclear Proliferation: Who's Nest to get the Bomb," Christian Science Monitor, 25 February 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 January 1983
    US intelligence officials indicate that China has provided sensitive nuclear weapons design information to Pakistan. The Chinese assistance removes the need for Pakistan to conduct an early nuclear test. A nuclear test by Pakistan will lead to a cut-off in American military aid. Unlike Israel, Pakistan is not believed to possess the technical sophistication to build a nuclear arsenal without testing a nuclear device. The US Secretary of State George P. Shultz is expected to raise this issue with the Chinese during his trip to China next week. Mr. Shultz is expected to indicate that any bilateral nuclear cooperation between China and the United States will be possibly only if China provides assurances not to assist other nations' nuclear weapons programs. Reports of Chinese assistance to Pakistan emerged from the British authorities several months ago. Initially, the reports were not considered seriously by the analysts. Recently, however, a consensus has emerged over the issue. Recently US State Department officials have backed away from claims that Pakistan will be testing a nuclear device in the near future, pointing it as evidence that the US aid is working as a deterrent. Other sources point out that Pakistan's decision not to conduct a test might arise from the assistance provided by China that removes the necessity to conduct a test.
    -- Milton R. Benjamin, "China Aids Pakistan on A-Weapons," Washington Post, 28 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 January 1983
    China denies a news report that it provided information and blueprints for a nuclear weapon to Pakistan.
    --Washington Post, 30 January 1983, First Section, World News, Around the Nation, For the Record, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1983
    A US official informs a Congressional Committee that the CIA has definite proof that Pakistan and China had discussions on developing nuclear weapons.
    --Simon Henderson, 'Why Pakistan May not Need to Test a Nuclear Device," Financial Times (London), 14 August 1984, Section I, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of February 1983
    The IAEA places a conditional seal over the opening of an emergency airlock that leads out of the containment. The airlock opening provided a possibility for diverting fuel bundles from the reactor.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "IAEA Completes its Desired Upgrading of Safeguards at KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 3 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 9, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fourth Week of February 1983
    The Director General of the IAEA Hans Blix reports to the IAEA Board of Governors that the Agency can properly safeguard the KANUPP reactor. IAEA sources indicate that the placement of a conditional seal over an emergency airlock provides the IAEA a "high level of confidence" to verify the IAEA safeguards. The Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 1982 is expected to emphasize the new development. An IAEA source points out that certain electronic equipment do not possess a backup, but indicates that existing measures are sufficient under normal circumstances. Earlier, Bundle counters were installed between the reactor and the spent fuel holding pool. An IAEA source indicates that the Agency still cannot verify the number of fuel bundles entering the reactor, since Pakistan can insert fuel from its un-safeguarded fuel fabrication plant, but indicates that the bundle counters can ensure tracking of the number of bundles leaving the reactor. The issue over the re-distribution of closed-circuit TV cameras was also resolved recently.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "IAEA Completes its Desired Upgrading of Safeguards at KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 3 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 9, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1983
    US sources indicate that Pakistan is encountering problems in its nuclear weapons program. Sources reveal that recently 5,000 "cascades" bought by Pakistan were impounded by the Swiss authorities in Zurich. Cascades are barrel-like containers that are used to enrich U-238 by separating U-238 and the fissionable U-235.
    --David K. Willis, "Nuclear Proliferation: Who's Nest to get the Bomb," Christian Science Monitor, 25 February 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1983
    India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi claims that Pakistan's nuclear program is not intended for peaceful purposes. Indicating that India does not fear Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program, Prime Minister Gandhi says that "I don't think they are going to use it for peaceful purposes." Prime Minister Gandhi will be meeting Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq in 2 weeks.
    --Alain Cass and John Elliot, "India Fears Pakistan Nuclear Intentions," Financial Times (London), 25 February 1983, Section I, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 March 1983
    In response to India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's comments about Pakistan's nuclear program, the Information Minister from Pakistan's Embassy in London issues a statement that "Any suggestion from any quarter that Pakistan has plans to make nuclear weapons, overtly or covertly, is baseless."
    --"Pakistan's Nuclear Policy," Financial Times (London), 2 March 1983, Section 1, Letters to the Editor, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    First Week of March 1983
    The head of the Power Department in the Spanish architect-engineering firm Sener, Francisco Albisu, says that the evaluation procedures for bids on the Chashma nuclear power plant is in the closing stages of completion. Mr. Albisu claims that, following the discussions with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the bids will be finalized to meet the May 1 deadline for the submission of bids. Mr. Albisu states that the initial 600 Mw capacity for the power plant was revised to 900 Mw and claims that the bid also includes a provision to build a second 900 Mw plant that will be decided 12 months after the completion of the first unit. The first unit is expected to cost $1.5 billion. Mr. Albisu states that Sener began work for the second part of its contract following the completion of a feasibility study in June 1981. The second part involves exchange visits by technical personnel from Sener, PAEC, and Nespak, a Pakistani civil engineering firm. According to Sener, about 100 Pakistani engineers are involved in the Chashma project. According to Mr. Albisu, 12 to 25 Pakistani engineers were trained in Bilbao, Spain during the first half of 1981. Following the completion of the training, 10 Sener personnel moved to Pakistan and remained in Islamabad and 2 Sener personnel commuted between Pakistan and Spain during this period. Mr. Albisu indicates that a complimentary Sener team will join the existing team in Pakistan to assist the bid evaluation process.

    Nuclear industry sources indicate that Pakistan might extend the deadline for the bids in order to accommodate the resolution of political problems in major nuclear supplier countries. The PAEC had requested three options for the Chashma nuclear power plant: a turnkey contract for the entire plant; a multi-component contract, with separate bids for nuclear steam supply system, turbine-generator, and other major components; a two-part contract, with separate bids on the nuclear island and the conventional island. Any supplier submitting a turnkey bids is also expected to submit components bids. France's Framatome and Alsthom-Atlantiaque are preparing turnkey bids. Sources also indicate that the companies bidding for the architecture-engineering component of the nuclear plant are atomic-energy firms in Switzerland, Belgium, and Spain. The Swiss firm is identified as Motor-Columbus.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 March 1983
    Pakistan and Niger sign a bilateral agreement for creating a joint ministerial commission for trade promotion. The two sides decide to increase nuclear cooperation in the future. Pointing out Pakistan's extensive research program in nuclear medicine, agriculture and generation of electricity, Niger's President Seyni Kountche informs the newspersons that Niger is interested in training its personnel in the nuclear industry in Pakistan so that Niger can emulate Pakistan in using its own resources. The impact of the new agreements on the uranium trade between Pakistan and Niger is not clear. A Pakistani official, while pointing out that in the past Niger has provided uranium to Pakistan with IAEA's knowledge, refuses to clarify on the present status of the uranium trade between the two nations. The Pakistani official further points out that in the event of cooperation between the two countries in the field of uranium mining technology, Pakistan, with its experience in the field, will be able to assist Niger. Pakistan has recently begun to exploit its uranium reserves in Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab. Pakistan has recently begun to exploit its uranium reserves in Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab. Pakistani engineers began work at Dera Ghazi Khan in December and Pakistani officials refuse reveal the mine's production capacity. The Pakistani government also denies the involvement of any American company in uranium exploration activities in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan and Niger Step up Nuclear Trade," Nuclear Fuel, 14 March 1983, Vol. 8, No. 6, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 March 1983
    The head of the Libyan delegation to the Non-Aligned summit in New Delhi, Abd as-Salam Jallud, denies that Libya is assisting Pakistan's efforts to produce an Islamic bomb. Mr. Jallud terms news reports describing such assistance as false propaganda against Libya.
    --"Libya Denies Reports of Nuclear Weapons Aid to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 March 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/7283/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 March 1983
    The French Foreign Minister Claude Cheysson indicates that France is discussing the possibility of supplying a $1 billion 900 Mw pressurized water reactor of Westinghouse design for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Pakistan is currently conducting negotiations with the IAEA over the plant's safeguards. Mr. Cheysson indicates that France will not supply a reactor to a country that does not implement safeguards on the supplied reactor. Mr. Cheysson, however, indicates that France will not require the same level of stringent full-scope safeguards as demanded by the United States and states that France's position on the issue of safeguards differs from the position adopted by the United States. The United States is demanding the implementation of full-scope safeguards on all Pakistani nuclear facilities as a condition for the supply of a nuclear reactor. Mr. Cheysson indicates that every country possesses equal rights to access technology and says that France will not deny nuclear technology aimed for peaceful purposes. Mr. Cheysson states that France's position regarding safeguards is in conformance with the Nuclear Supplier Group's agreements which do not require full-scope IAEA safeguards for the supply of reactors. Mr. Cheysson also discusses possible compensation for the French cancellation of a contract to build a reprocessing plant. Pakistan has large debts and is expected to face difficulties in financing the Chashma project.
    --"Around the World; France and Pakistan Discuss Nuclear Deal," 30 March 1983, Section A, Pg. 7, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Alain Cass, "France set to Sell N-Plant to Pakistan," Financial Times (London), 30 March 1983, Section I, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Laurent Belsie (Editor), "France may Supply Pakistani A-Plant," Christian Science Monitor, 30 March 1983, The News Briefly, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Preliminary Program; Nuclear News Briefs, Pg. 25A," Nuclear News, April 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, April 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "US Officials are Privately Furious over French Foreign Minister," Nucleonics Week, 7 April 1983, Vol. 24, No. 14, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
  14. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    7 April 1983
    US officials are reported to be privately angry with the French Foreign Minister's statement regarding the supply of a nuclear reactor to Pakistan. US officials indicate that Mr. Cheysson's statement will be a setback for UN nonproliferation efforts and US-French relations. US officials also add that the French position over the project is objectionable owing to the doubts regarding the finances and for the project and its implementation. The officials also point out that, for the same doubtful financial reasons, Mr. Cheysson might have made the statement believing that the project is unlikely to succeed and hence France will not have aided proliferation, while at the same time signaling its commitment to provide nuclear technology to other countries.
    --"US Officials are Privately Furious over French Foreign Minister," Nucleonics Week, 7 April 1983, Vol. 24, No. 14, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 May 1983
    In a joint communiqué issued by King Birendra of Nepal and Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq on the conclusion of a 4-day state visit by President Haq, the two leaders pledge their support to the declaration of Indian Ocean as a zone of peace and creating a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia and other regions.
    --"Nepal, Pakistan Issue Joint Communiqué," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 May 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 May 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 June 1983
    A new export control list for centrifuge enrichment equipment is under review by members of the 21 nation Zangger Committee and the list is expected to come into effect this fall. The new list is more comprehensive than the existing list and contains detailed descriptions of items used in centrifuge plants and includes specifications and threshold performance standards set from a nonproliferation standpoint. The current list contains only 7 items involved in various enrichment processes. The new list contains information on the materials needed to manufacture gas centrifuge assemblies. The new list also contains describes items like feed autoclaves and desublimers that are respectively used in feeding and extracting Uranium-hexafluoride (UF6) gas in and out of the centrifuges. Information on pressure and throughput specifications is also included in the new list. The original list did not contain detailed descriptions of items and materials used in a centrifuge system due to proliferation concerns. Officials indicate that Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear technology from Switzerland in 1979 led to the efforts to strengthen existing current export control lists. The items that were exported form Switzerland were not prohibited under existing export control regulations and the Swiss government called for an expanded list of export control items to prevent future nuclear commerce in sensitive items. A smaller list of export control items for reprocessing plants is expected to be completed by the end of this year. Other ideas in the pipeline are to create working groups for heavy water production and other advanced fuel cycle technologies.
    --"Agreement Nearing on more Comprehensive Trigger List Covering Centrifuge," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 24, No. 23, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 June 1983
    A seismic monitoring station at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center near Bangalore records a seismic event at 8 am IST in Southwestern Pakistan. The seismic event is believed to be an earthquake.
    --S.G. Roy, "India Investigates Reported Nuclear Test," United Press International, 25 June 1983, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistan Adamantly Rejects Accusation it Tested Bomb," Washington Post, 26 June 1983, First Section, World News, A24; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1983
    Pakistan's budget for 1983-84 allocates $30 million for the Chashma nuclear power project. The project is estimated to cost $1.3 billion and the deadline for the bids is the end of July. The nuclear plant is expected to be commissioned in 1990. The budget document, for the first time, does not provide information on allocations for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) projects, even though $28 million is believed to have been spent on a reprocessing plant during 1982-83.
    --"Pakistan's Budget for 1983-84 Earmarks $30 million for the Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 16 June 1983, Vol. 24, No. 24, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 June 1983
    India investigates whether the source for the seismic activity recorded on June 13 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center is in fact a secret underground nuclear blast. The Indian government states that the epicenter of the seismic event was south of Quetta in the Ras Koh Mountain range. An Indian foreign ministry spokesperson, Mani Shankar Aiyer, comments "it could be or may not be" an atomic test. The spokesperson adds that the issue is being discussed with Pakistan. The report about the nuclear explosion was carried in a news report in a pro-Soviet newspaper, The Patriot, which reported that "Pakistan has exploded a nuclear device in the range of 20 to 50 kilotons on June 13 in the mountain ranges near Quetta." A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson terms the news report as "totally false and baseless." New Delhi's Meteorological Office Seismology Director S.K. Nag confirms the observation of a seismic event but indicates that available data does not provide sufficient information to point to a nuclear explosion. Mr. Nag indicates that the event is recorded as a natural earthquake. Western diplomatic sources indicate that they have no indication of a nuclear explosion in Pakistan and point out that The Patriot has previously engaged in spreading disinformation on several occasions.
    --S.G. Roy, "India Investigates Reported Nuclear Test," United Press International, 25 June 1983, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistan Adamantly Rejects Accusation it Tested Bomb," Washington Post, 26 June 1983, First Section, World News, A24; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 June 1983
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) sources indicate that Pakistan is planning to raise money for the Chashma nuclear power plant by selling special "light up Pakistan" bonds to overseas Pakistanis in the Middle East. According to PAEC sources, the bonds might be used to finance the foreign exchange components for the project. Over 2 million overseas Pakistanis are believed to remit $3 billion to Pakistan every year.
    --"Pakistan hopes to Raise Several Hundred Million Dollars for the Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 30 June 1983, Vol. 24, No. 26, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 July 1983
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan has taken necessary measures to protect its nuclear installations after receiving information of a planned attack on the installations. President Haq indicates that his government seriously considered the January report in the British newspaper The Observer that mentioned a planned attack on Pakistan's nuclear installations by India and Israel. President Haq indicates that the safety measures were initiated based other sources apart from the report in the British newspaper. President Haq says "There has been categorical information there were countries who were suspicious, very apprehensive of Pakistan's nuclear program and has thought of taking an action similar to one Israel took in Iraq." President Haq adds that India is not involved.
    --"Shultz sees Little Hope of Lebanon Breakthrough," New York Times, 4 July 1983, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 July 1983
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq rejects news reports about Pakistan's testing of a nuclear device as a total lie and states that Pakistan will not conduct such a test, even for peaceful purposes.
    --Japan Economic Newswire (Tokyo), 5 July 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 July 1983
    Speaking at a news conference in Islamabad, Canada's Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary of State for External Affairs Allan MacEachean says that Canada and Pakistan discussed the issue of bilateral nuclear cooperation but were not able to reach a conclusion. Mr. MacEachean states that Canada will not resume nuclear cooperation with Pakistan until Pakistan signs the NPT or accepts full-scope safeguards.
    --"Canadian Foreign Secretary in Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 July 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7383/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 August 1983
    Pakistan delays the submission date of bids for the Chashma plant from 31st July to 30th September. Earlier Pakistan had postponed the submission date from 30th April to 31st July. Pakistan is facing financial difficulties in funding the project. Also, France and Germany have not given the political green signal to the French and German firms to proceed with the project.
    --"Bids for the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Project of Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 4 August 1983, Vol. 24, No. 3, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 August 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 October 1983
    A Pakistani named Nazir Ahmed Vaid contacts EG&G Electro-Optics of Salem, Massachusetts to buy 50 krytrons. EG&G Electro-Optics is a subsidiary of EG&G Inc, a large high-technology company based in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Mr. Vaid indicates his interest in the KN-22 model krytrons, costing $80 each, and can be used in nuclear weapons triggers. Mr. Vaid is asked to call again and speak to EG&G's customer manager John McClafferty.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 October 1983
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid calls EG&G and sets up a meeting with John McClafferty. During the meeting Mr. Vaid offers to pay amounts higher than the market price for the krytrons. Mr. Vaid's request is rejected owing to lack of documents necessary for export of sensitive technology. The firm EG&G also informs the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US Customs Service Agents in Boston over Mr. Vaid's request. But Mr. Vaid leaves Boston before any action could be taken against him.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 October 1984
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid visits a Houston electronics company Electrotex and places an order for 50 KN-22 krytrons and places a deposit of $1,000 for the order.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 November 1983
    Pakistan's Planning Minister Mahboob ul-Haq informs the Pakistani parliament that electricity from nuclear energy can be produced at half the cost of electricity produced from other sources. The Planning Minister declares that Pakistan will complete the Chashma nuclear project and will never submit to "nuclear colonization." The Planning Minister recently received a Cost and Economic study of the Chashma nuclear plant conducted by the Geneva-based International Energy Development Corp.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1983
    Pakistan postpones the submission date for the Chashma nuclear power project bids to December 31st. Pakistani officials do not provide any reasons for the delay, but informed sources indicate that the delay is caused by financial difficulties.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 November 1983
    A Dutch court in Amsterdam sentences Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan in absentia for stealing nuclear secrets during his period of employment the URENCO facility in The Netherlands. Dr. Kahn earlier ignored the legal summons issued for him to return to the Netherlands and stand trial. The summons was issued through the Dutch Ambassador in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistani Sentenced for Stealing Nuclear Secrets," Associated Press, 14 November 1983, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1983
    West Germany's ambassador to Pakistan Klaus Terfloth states that West Germany will supply nuclear power plants to Pakistan on the condition that Pakistan provides assurances over their peaceful application. West German officials in Bonn also confirm the statement as the official position. According to sources, Pakistan will also send e a purchasing delegation t Western Europe in the next few days. Originally, the delegation was expected to visit only France.
    --"Other Reports; FRG Willing to Supply Pakistan with Nuclear Power Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 28 November 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7502/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 November 1983
    According to a Pakistani newspaper report, Pakistan's Ministry of Law is working on a draft to appeal against the ruling of the Dutch court convicting Abdul Qadeer Khan of stealing secret blueprints relating to the uranium enrichment process. The Dutch court sentenced Dr. Khan in absentia to a 4 year prison sentence.
    --"Pakistan to Appeal against Scientist's Conviction," Japan Economic Newswire, 30 November 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 December 1983
    7 developed nations including Japan, Canada, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain, and the United States meet in Rome to conclude a new agreement to prohibit products related to nuclear weapons to specific countries. The countries likely to be included in the list are Pakistan, India, Brazil, Argentina, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Libya. The prohibited products long-range bombers and rockets, and possibly computers and other high-technology equipment.
    --"7 Nations to Ban Nuke-Related Product Sale to Developing Countries," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 1 December 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 December 1983
    According to Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, the Islamic Foreign Ministers' Conference accepts a resolution proposed by Pakistan to create a nuclear-free zone in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Minister Hails Success of Conference," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 December 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, Islamic Foreign Ministers Conference in Dhaka, FE/7514/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of December 1983
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan signs an agreement with the Soviet Union for the supply of a conventional power plant. Mr. Khan also requests Soviet assistance in the construction of the 937 Mw Chashma nuclear power plant.
    --"Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 December 1983
    The United Nations General Assembly adopts Pakistan's resolution for the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. India opposes the resolution citing that such a measure will not provide security to India.
    --"India Opposes UNGA Call for Nuclear-Free South Asia," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 17 December 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7519/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 December 1983
    The Soviet Union indicates that it will consider participating in the $1.7 billion nuclear power plant project at Chashma. The Soviet Union also indicates its willingness to participate in a thermal power project and the construction of a multi-purpose dam project. The new initiatives are announced by the Soviet Union as part of a program to expand trade and economic ties between the two nations.
    --Mohamed Aftab, "Moscow may Build Major Pakistan Power Projects," Financial Times (London), 21 December 1983, Section 1, World Trade News, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 December 1983
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan announces that Pakistan has requested Soviet assistance for the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant. Mr. Khan states that the Soviet Union will examine the project and provide a response. Mr. Khan also states that Pakistan has approached the Soviet Union for the first time regarding the Chashma project.
    --"Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
     
    • Thanks Thanks x 1
  15. Neo

    Neo RETIRED

    New Recruit

    Joined:
    Nov 1, 2005
    Messages:
    18
    Ratings:
    +0 / 3,905 / -0
    1984

    5 January 1984
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) postpones the deadline, for the fifth time, to submit bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. The previous deadline of December 31st is extended till March 31st. Industry sources however, indicate that it is less likely for Western nuclear suppliers will submit bids owing to Pakistan's refusal to implement full-scope safeguards on its nuclear facilities.
    --"The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission ha Again Postponed the Deadline for Bids," Nucleonics Week, 5 January 1984, Vol. 25, No. 1, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 January 1984
    Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang assures that China will not assist other nations in developing nuclear weapons. During a White House banquet, Premier Ziyang, assures that "We [China] do not advocate or encourage nuclear proliferation, nor will we ourselves practice nuclear proliferation or help other countries to develop nuclear arms."
    --Michael Ross, United Press International, 12 January 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 January 1984
    Pakistan renames the Kahuta nuclear facility as Abdul Qadeer Khan Research Laboratory in recognition of Dr. A.Q. Khan's contribution to Pakistan's nuclear program. Dr. Khan, in an interview with the magazine Qaumi Digest, states that he has achieved for Pakistan within 7 with minimum expenditure what countries like West Germany, Britain, and Holland took 20 years to complete at a cost of almost $2 billion. According to the magazine, Dr. Khan is allowed to recruit personnel to work at the Kahuta project. The magazine also states that two Major-Generals Akbar Khan and Anis Nawab are working for Dr. Khan.
    --"Pakistan Names Kahuta Facility for Khan," Nuclear Fuel, 16 January 1984, Vol. 9, No. 2, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 February 1984
    Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, in an interview with a Pakistani newspaper Nawa-i-Waqt, states that Pakistan has attained the capacity to enrich uranium. Dr. Khan states that "Pakistan has broken the Western countries' monopoly on the enrichment of uranium ... Pakistan is now among the few countries in the world that can efficiently enrich uranium." Insisting the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program, Dr. Khan also states that Pakistani scientists "would not disappoint the nation" if they are given an "important mission." Dr. Khan also indicates that Pakistan has gained a lead over India in uranium enrichment technology. Dr. Khan also mentions that uranium reserves in Pakistan are sufficient to meet the requirements for the Kahuta facility. Dr. Khan indicates that the Kahuta facility operates independently and thanks Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq and Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan for their support for the program.
    --"Pakistani Cites Nuclear Advance," New York Times, 10 February 1984, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 February 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Press Interview with Pakistan Nuclear Scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 February 1984, Part 3. The Far East, C. Pakistan's Nuclear Programme, FE/7568/C/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 February 1984
    In an interview with a newspaper, Jang, Dr. A.Q. Khan suggests that if all tests for the components of a nuclear device are conducted, then, a nuclear test is not necessary to attain nuclear capability.
    --"Zia Chastises Western media for Accounts of Khan's Remarks on Weapons Capability," Nuclear Fuel, 27 February 1984, Vol. 9, No. 5, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 February 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan does not have a plan to build an atomic device and indicates that Pakistan will not build a bomb in the future. President Haq's statement, however, does not contradict a statement by Dr. A.Q. Khan that Pakistan can build a bomb if needed.
    --"Zia denies Pakistan Building Atom Bomb," Japan Economic Newswire, 14 February 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 February 1984
    Pakistan's official news agency APP reports that the statement by Dr. A.Q. Khan suggesting Pakistan's ability to enrich uranium and also produce an atomic bomb has been deliberately misinterpreted. According to APP, Dr. Khan later issued a statement indicating that Pakistan possesses "a very limited research and development program solely for peaceful uses."
    --"Pakistani Nuclear Program," Washington Post, 14 February 1984, First Section, Around the World, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Zia Chastises Western media for Accounts of Khan's Remarks on Weapons Capability," Nuclear Fuel, 27 February 1984, Vol. 9, No. 5, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 February 1984
    The US Senate passes an amendment to the foreign aid bill to block the sale of nuclear components, materials or technology to countries that have not implemented full-scope safeguards stipulated under the NPT. The amendment is proposed by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (R-NM) and Senator William V. Roth Jr. (R-DE). The amendment is passed by voice vote. The countries affected by the amendment are Pakistan, India, Israel, Argentina, Brazil, and South Africa.
    --Clyde H. Farnsworth, "Senate Votes to Restrict Nuclear Exports," New York Times, 29 February 1984, Section D, Pg. 16, Col. 1, Financial Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February - 3 March 1984
    At a dinner for the visiting Director General of the IAEA, Hans Blix, PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan says that Pakistan cannot afford to be involved in a nuclear weapons race. Dr. Khan also states that nonproliferation policies must be fair to both developed and developing countries. Dr. Blix also meets with President Zia ul-Haq and Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub and discusses about future nuclear power projects in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan cannot Afford to Engage in the Nuclear Weapons Race," Nucleonics Week, 8 March 1984, Vol. 25, No. 10, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 March 1984
    The Director General of the IAEA, Hans Blix, states that Pakistan possesses the necessary organizational capacity and technical knowledge to manage large projects on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Dr. Blix indicates that Pakistan possesses the necessary manpower and safeguards mechanisms to undertake projects to explore the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
    --"Pakistan Capable of Developing Nuclear Energy, says IAEA," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 4 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 March 1984
    At a civic reception held in Lahore, the Chinese President Li Xiannian states that China endorses the proposal for the creation of an Indian Ocean peace zone and for the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Lahore Civic Reception in Honor of Chinese President," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 7 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1983
    Salim Ahmed Mohamedy, a Pakistani and an accomplice of Nazir Ahmed Vaid, issues a check to Electrotex to settle the balance amount for the 50 KN-22 krytrons ordered by Mr. Vaid.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 March 1984
    The Belgian firm Belgionucleaire waits approval from the Belgian government to resume operations on a fuel cycle laboratory project at the PINSTECH facility in Rawalpindi. The work is halted owing to pressure from the US government. Some sources are optimistic that the approval will be provided by the end of this year whereas other sources are skeptical that the United States will provide its consent for the project during its election year. The resumption of nuclear cooperation is linked to Pakistan's acceptance of full-scope safeguards on all its nuclear facilities. Recent Pakistani press reports indicate that Belgionucleaire has sold a laboratory-scale reprocessing unit to PAEC. The reprocessing unit, according to the press reports, has not made any "hot runs." Sources, however, indicate that Belgionucleaire is not involved in the reprocessing unit and that the firm's contract involves only the supply of other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle such as the fuel-cutting station, and plutonium and uranium preparation stations. Earlier in 1972, Belgionucleaire won the contract for the supply for a complete fuel-cycle reprocessing laboratory. However, the contract for the reprocessing unit was given to the French firm SGN as a condition for the supply of an industrial-scale reprocessing unit at Chashma. The French firm, later, withdrew from the contract in 1977. According to a source, Belgionucleaire maintains that its contract is still valid and is awaiting permission from the Belgian government to proceed with the partially-completed second phase of the project. The firm has already completed the first part of the contract that involved a detailed study of the fuel cycle complex. The firm has also completed the evaluation of bids received for equipment and services, which constitutes a portion of the second part of the contract. The third phase involves assistance in the construction of the laboratory. The PAEC has earlier attempted to complete the fuel cycle laboratory indigenously without success. A Belgionucleaire technical taskforce concluded in early 1983 that the facility cannot be completed by Pakistan since Pakistan does not have the necessary equipment like specialized electric cabling and also does not possess the necessary organizational workforce. Further, according to sources, PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan has declared that the laboratory will not be operated until all safety concerns are met. According to a source, Pakistan would need 3 or 4 experts from Belgionucleaire to ensure complete safety of the laboratory. The source denies any knowledge over the operational capability of the reprocessing unit that was contracted to SGN. SGN is believed to have supplied the necessary blueprints for the reprocessing unit.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "Belgians Awaiting Government Approval to Complete Pakistani Reprocessing Lab," Nuclear Fuel, Vol. 9, No. 7, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 March 1984
    An Associated Press report quotes a statement by the Indian Foreign Secretary that "Pakistan has manufactured an atomic bomb and China may have helped it to explode its first underground nuclear device." The Foreign Secretary's statement also indicates that Pakistan's Foreign Minister attended a 2-day meeting with nuclear experts at the nuclear testing site in China.
    --"Pakistan has no Atomic Bomb, says Pakistani Foreign Office Spokesman," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 28 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 March 1984
    India's Ministry of External Affairs rejects a news report quoting remarks by the Indian Foreign Secretary. A foreign ministry spokesperson Salman Haider states that "the Foreign Secretary categorically denies the remarks attributed to him."
    --"Indian Foreign Ministry Denies Statement on Pakistani A-Bomb," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 29 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 March 1984
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson refutes the statement made by the Indian Foreign Secretary alleging that Pakistan has conducted a nuclear test with Chinese assistance. The spokesperson also rejects that the Pakistan's Foreign Minister visited China to attend a meeting of nuclear experts.
    --"Pakistan has no Atomic Bomb, says Pakistani Foreign Office Spokesman," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 28 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 March 1984
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee adopts an amendment to the Foreign Aid Bill that requires a halt any assistance to Pakistan unless the US President certifies that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device, and is not acquiring, overtly or covertly, technology, material, or equipment for the purpose of manufacturing or detonating a nuclear explosive device." The amendment is proposed by Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) and co-sponsored by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). The amendment is adopted by a voice vote The Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance William Schneider says the amendment will undermine US efforts to convince Pakistan to accept nuclear non-proliferation agreements. Sen. Cranston and Sen. Glenn, however, argue that existing US efforts are inadequate to force Pakistan to accept non-proliferation standards.
    --W. Dale Nelson, "Committee Overrides Administration Objections," Associated Press, 28 March 1984, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 March 1984
    Niger's Minister for Education and Scientific Research Illa Maikassoua announces that Niger will send its scientists to Pakistan for training to operate a radio-isotope center. A nuclear cooperation agreement was signed between Niger and Pakistan in March 1983 during the visit of Niger's Prime Minister to Pakistan.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan will Help Malaysia in the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 April 1984
    The Reagan administration is considering dropping its efforts to pass the foreign aid bill. Administrations sources indicate that the amendments proposed to the foreign aid bill restrict the utility of the bill. Regarding Pakistan, administration sources indicate that it might not be possible to certify that Pakistan is not developing a nuclear device because of reports over its attempts to attain such a capability. An amendment proposed by Sen. Cranston (D-CA) and Sen. Glenn (D-OH) requires the US President to certify that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear device as a condition for transferring aid to Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Administration may Abandon Effort to Enact Foreign Aid Bill," Washington Post, 3 April 1984, First Section, A6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 April 1984
    Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad announces that Pakistan and Malaysia have agreed to cooperate in the nuclear field for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The Malaysian Prime Minister does not provide specific details of the proposed cooperation and states that Pakistan has agreed to train Malaysian scientists in Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan is also expected to assist Malaysia in setting-up a nuclear research center. A joint-communiqué issued at the end of Prime Minister Mohammad's visit to Pakistan does not include the agreement on nuclear cooperation. The communiqué mentions the two countries' support for the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan will Help Malaysia in the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 April 1984
    According to a source at the PAEC, Pakistan indefinitely postpones the submission date for bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Discussions are expected to be held with the supplier countries and no new deadline is announced.
    --"Pakistan has Indefinitely Postponed," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 April 1984
    Pakistan's Production Minister Lt. Gen. Saeed Qadir indicates that the government is seeking Soviet assistance for the nuclear power plant project at Chashma. The move is made following the failure of Western suppliers to submit bids for the project.
    --"Pakistani Leader says he won't Run for President," Christian Science Monitor, 11 April 1984, News in Brief, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 April 1984
    The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee reverses an amendment passed on 28 March that required a Presidential certification that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear device as a precondition for aid to Pakistan. By a vote of 9-8, the Committee reverses the earlier amendment that was passed by a voice vote. The amendment was sponsored by Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) and co-sponsored by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). According to sources, the reversal occurred after the US administration convinced some senators that a cut-off of aid due to the amendment might cause Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons for its security.
    --"The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has Reversed a Decision to Block," Nucleonics Week, 12 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 15, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1984
    US administration officials indicate that China is adopting a different strategy towards nuclear proliferation after the conclusion of a nuclear cooperation agreement with the United States. The nuclear cooperation agreement was reached during President Reagan's trip to China. US officials indicate that Chinese officials have pledged not to assist other countries in developing nuclear weapons.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "China's Signing of Atom Pact seen as a Major Policy Change," New York Times, 3 May 1984, Section A, Pg. 8, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 May 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 May 1984
    A Senate report submitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee recommends the Congress to require Pakistan to halt all efforts to acquire nuclear weapons as a pre-condition for sanctioning further US aid. The report is prepared by Peter W. Galbraith who is a member of the Committee's minority staff. The report concludes that US-Pakistan relations are "fragile" and relations between the two countries could be damaged, not necessarily by differences over nuclear policies. Mr. Galbraith, in his report, states that Pakistan might not respond negatively if further restrictions are added for the transfer of America aid. Mr. Galbraith recommends enacting legislation that would require Pakistan to cease its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons technology or open its nuclear facilities for IAEA inspections. Mr. Galbraith suggests that the United States should use the leverage, gained through the aid program, to promote non-proliferation, human rights, and narcotics control in Pakistan.
    --Daniel Southerland, "Senate Report says that Pakistan Still Working on A-Bomb," Christian Science, 4 May 1984, National, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 May 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of June 1984
    The US Ambassador to China Arthur W. Hummel Jr. is asked to meet Chinese officials to seek clarifications regarding China's pledge to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Mr. Hummel is instructed to seek information and not to accuse China of proliferation.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Pakistan Tie Imperils US-China Nuclear Pact," New York Times, 22 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11-15 June 1984
    The Congressional approval for the nuclear cooperation agreement between China and the United States is unlikely to be passed by the Congress. The current problem for the passage of the nuclear agreement is due to the additional assurances sought by US officials from China over its nuclear transfers. Chinese officials refuse to provide any additional assurances, arguing that the necessary assurances were provided during President Reagan's trip to China in April. The additional assurances are sought after US intelligence information indicates that China assisted Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. According to an official, China is believed to be supplying nuclear fuel and nuclear technology to Pakistan and other countries. The Chinese aid is believed to have continued even after Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang promised in January not to assist other countries in developing nuclear weapons. It is not known whether the request for additional assurances is made following new intelligence information. Some sources indicate that the intelligence agencies possessed the information for quite some time, rather, the information is being scrutinized only now in preparation for the Congressional approval of the nuclear deal. The visiting Chinese Defense Minister Zhang Aiping is believed to have expressed extreme displeasure over the request for additional assurances. Mr. Aiping says that he will verify the reports upon his return and respond. A senior official, however, denies that the United States is seeking additional assurances from China. China and the United States signed a nuclear cooperation agreement on April 30 during President Reagan's trip to China.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales Snags Pact with China; US seeks Promise on Proliferation for Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 15 June 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; United Press International, 15 June 1984, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Richard Halloran, "US-China Nuclear Pact hits Snags," New York Times, 16 June 1984, Section 1, Pg. 5, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 June 1984
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) announces that "Pakistan has now acquired all the capability necessary to produce nuclear weapons." Sen. Cranston plans to make the revelation on the Senate floor tomorrow. The Senator indicates that he received the information from a recently declassified study conducted by a team of more than 90 experts for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Sen. Cranston accuses the US State department and the Reagan administration of withholding information from the Congress over the issue. The State Department does not comment on Sen. Cranston's remarks. But, privately, officials indicate that China's past nuclear assistance to Pakistan was known for quite sometime. US officials also reveal that the United States had conducted serious discussions with Pakistan not to detonate a nuclear device.
    --"Cranston Says Pakistan can make A-Bomb," New York Times, 21 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 14, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 June 1984
    US Congressional sources and Reagan administration officials indicate that China might be continuing its assistance to Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Officials indicate that China might be assisting Pakistan in the development of centrifuges for enriching uranium. Many administration officials urge caution, suggesting that evidence of continuing Chinese assistance is far from conclusive. Some officials believe that China might gain from Pakistan's nuclear program since Pakistan has been involved in pilfering advanced western nuclear technology for the past few years. The officials indicate that "some evidence" reveals that, in 1983, China provided Pakistan with a bomb design based on the fourth type of bomb tested by China. Certain other officials believe the evidence to be speculative, but, nevertheless concede that China assisted Pakistan's nuclear weapons program until last year.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Pakistan Tie Imperils US-China Nuclear Pact," New York Times, 22 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 June 1984
    China informs the United States that it will not provide additional assurances apart from those already provided. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Affairs William A. Brown briefs legislative aides on the issue and tells that certain activities are continuing between Pakistan and China. According to Mr. Brown, both the nations are being questioned over the issue through diplomatic channels. According to sources, Mr. Brown indicates that information regarding the exact nature of Chinese assistance to Pakistan is not conclusive. Sources also indicate that in 1983 China transferred design for the fourth device detonated by China and not the design for the fourth nuclear device built by China.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Peking said to Balk at Nuclear Pledges," New York Times, 23 June 1984, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 June 1984
    Salim Ahmed Mohamedy and another Pakistani Ilyas Ahmed Mohamedy contact a Houston freight forwarding agent AEI to pick up a package for export to Pakistan. The package is labeled as "printed materials and office supplies" and AEI delivers the package to Houston Intercontinental Airport. The package is seized by US Customs agents upon arrival at the airport. US Customs officers arrest Nazir Ahmed Vaid for attempting to export 50 krytrons out of the United States. Krytrons are high-speed switches that can be used as triggers for nuclear weapons and can also be used for other applications like lasers. Mr. Vaid paid $4,000 for the krytrons.
    --United Press International, 29 June 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistanis Accused of Moving Nuke Parts," United Press International, 17 July 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1984
    US sources indicate that Pakistan and China might be cooperating in developing each other's nuclear weapons program. According to sources, China is assisting Pakistan in resolving engineering problems in building centrifuges for uranium enrichment. In return, Pakistan might be providing advanced centrifuge designs for uranium enrichment. China uses gaseous diffusion process for enriching uranium.
    --Michael Knapik, "White House Finds Questions but "No Smoking Gun" on China Agreement," Nucleonics Week, 28 June 1984, Vol. 25, No. 26, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 June 1984
    US Magistrate Calvin Botley orders Nazir Ahmed Vaid to remain in custody and sets a bond for $200,000 and refuses to lower the amount. Justice Botley says Mr. Vaid should pay the entire amount instead of the usual 10% in order to be released on bail. Mr. Vaid is charged with providing false customs declaration and conspiring to violate US Neutrality Act. US Attorney argues that Vaid is a Pakistani agent and says "we strongly suspect Mr. Vaid is acting at the instructions of the Pakistani government and that the purchase of the krytrons was for Pakistani use in obtaining a nuclear weapon." According to information provided by Customs agent Justice McCalley, Mr. Vaid first attempted to procure Krytrons directly from E.G. & G Electro-Optics, the only firm in the United States that manufactures krytrons. The firm refuses to sell the krytrons to Mr. Vaid when he indicates the final destination to be Pakistan. Mr. Vaid was asked to obtain US State Department authorization for the purchase. Later, the firm E.G. & G received an order for 50 krytrons from a electronics company in Houston and the firm informed the Customs agency regarding the new purchase order.
    --United Press International, 29 June 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.