History Of The Freemasons

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  1. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    Is there a Proven History?

    Empirical evidence supporting the history of Freemasonry prior to the 18th Century is hard to find. Theories vary wildly from the plausible to the sensational. Most masons believe that Freemasonry is derived from the early medieval stonemasons guilds and enquire no further. However, a well rounded study in Freemasonry should look more deeply at all possible roots, even if only to be able to dismiss most of them.



    There is no commonly accepted Ancient History of Freemasonry – even UGLE does not publish a house view prior to its own initial conception in 1717. This is curious because a resemblance of modern Freemasonry (judging from a corpus of medieval manuscripts) was already in place beforehand, even if its pedigree was lost.



    The Conventional Explanation

    Most historians concur that Freemasonry, in its current form, probably developed as an adjunct from medieval stonemasons through the ages leading up to the Operative Stone Masons Guilds. Just how or when the transition took place from Operative Guild Free-Stone Masonry to Speculative intellectual Freemasonry (using stonemasons tools, clothing and customs as allegorical aids to teach their precepts) is not clear, although Scottish Lodge Kilwinnings records showing non Operatives being admitted by at least 1672 and some Lodges in England were entirely non Operative by the time of Elias Ashmole in 1646.



    What was so special about stonemasons? They possessed great skill to create the castles, cathedrals and palaces and the necessary sculpted works and ornaments demanded of their masters. Such skill must have seemed almost magical to the vast illiterate masses. They were clearly the elite of the labour force, had secret customs and marks (as shown opposite) and would have attracted some of the brightest non-educated recruits. However, given the complexity and the emphasis on morality of the various Masonic rituals and teachings, this simple explanation of Freemasonry seems inadequate. To obtain a deeper historical appreciation, one could consider the various ancient and medieval legends with an open mind and then decide for yourself which ones are a better fit.



    Legend: The Ancient Scientific Perspective

    It has recently been suggested (by Knight and Lomas) that Freemasonry ultimately evolved from Megalithic tribes who, having discovered science and astronomy, constructed numerous astounding astronomical observatories including Newgrange on the river Boyne, Bryn Celli Ddu and Stonehenge between 7100 BC and 2500 BC. It is believed that these sites enabled those tribes to chart the seasons and years by observing the rotations of the sun and the third brightest object in the sky, Venus. These were essential skills as without such timekeeping, civilisation would be hopelessly unable to plan or progress beyond mere day to day subsistence.



    Indeed, the Book of Enoch, discovered amongst the Dead Sea Scrolls from the Qumran and from which many higher Masonic Orders draw their inspiration, explains the scientific principles by which those earliest observatories (or Uriels Machines) operate. It is then argued that this knowledge was shared and taken to the East prior to a predicted and devastating comet impact and subsequent world flood in 3150 BC.



    Many survivors maintained Enochian and Noachide customs and when the Enochian-Zadokite priests were expelled from Jerusalem in 70 AD by the Romans, having first hidden their scrolls and treasures deep under the ruins of Solomons Temple as recorded in the Qumran Copper Scroll, it seems possible that their alledged descendants, the founding Knights Templar families led by Hugues de Payens, would return in 1140 AD to dig them up and retrieve them. A great story, but it is doubtful whether this theory will take hold in serious academic circles.





    Legend: The Ancient Stone Mason Perspective

    Whilst Freemasonry draws much imagery from the history and construction of King Solomons Temple (@ 945 BC) by masons from the Phoenician city of Tyre, it seems fanciful to claim direct Stone-Mason links from that era. Nevertheless, skills in the manipulation of stone had been well established by then and had been handed down through the ages and through the hands of many peoples including craftsmen from the Greek, Byzantine and Roman eras.



    Certain present day Masonic words and meanings seem rooted from the time of the early Egyptians of this era: The virtues of truth and justice were said by them to be “on the square”. Confucius in 500BC referred to the squareness of actions; even Aristotle in 350 BC associates square actions with honest dealings. The square and its symbolism is very old and has maintained a remarkable consistency of meaning over the centuries. However, it does not necessarily follow that Freemasonry began in those eras any more than trying to assert that Euclid was a Freemason because his 47th Proposition (as shown on the WMs jewel) has relevance in modern Freemasonry!



    Legend next informs us that Athelstan, having subjugated most of the minor kingdoms of England, gathered together many skilled masons and established York Rite Masonry in 926 AD by granting them a Royal Charter. The charter enabled the stonemasons to meet in general assembly once a year and seems to have been a catalyst for a host of construction projects including numerous abbeys, castles and fortresses. Athelsans importance to Stonemasons is mentioned in both the Regius and Cooke Manuscripts. The Scottish Rite, by contrast, was established many centuries later by Chevalier Andrew Ramsay (Ramsays Oration of 1737) and other exiled Stuart Scots in France who were plotting the restoration of James II. This has led to a diversity of subsequent Orders following the three basic Craft Degrees. Click here to find a drawing depicting the York and Scottish Rite relationship.



    The Medieval Operative Masonic Guilds

    We have evidence that Operative Masonic guilds (or gilds) existed in Scotland as early as 1057 and possibly in England from 1220 when we know the Masons Livery Company was in existence. Those guilds, associations or Compagnonnage as they were known in France and mainland Europe, were conscripted to produce sufficient masons of all qualities to satisfy the aspirations of Kings and the Church in their respective building programmes.



    In days where travel and communication for all but King and Church was highly restricted, the guilds are believed to have developed their own methods of introduction and secret modes of recognition when working on various programmes around the country. These were essential in order to distinguish a skilled master from the aspiring apprentice. This was important because they were no written credentials in those days because only top Master Masons could read, let alone write letters of introduction on expensive parchment. However, some historians (chief among them John J Robinson) argue it is difficult to prove English stone masons guilds (unlike Scottish guilds) existed at all given the relative lack of evidence available to corroborate them.



    Box Club Charity Theory

    A more recent theory suggests modern Freemasonry developed from charitable beginnings. In the 1600s many trades operated what have become known as box clubs where their members would set aside earnings for the group or individual members to fall back on if they suffered hard times. Those without such assistance usually starved through lack of other reliable welfare support. Evidence indicates these box clubs began to admit members outside their trade and had many of the characteristics of early masonic lodges. Perhaps Freemasonry arose from an early and successful box club framework which was later taken over by the leading intellectual lights that emerged in the seventeenth century?



    The Knights Templar

    Masonic legend and some tradition is borrowed from the fanciful stories of the Knights Templar, an enigmatic and powerful military Order of fighting monks set up by Hugues de Payens in 1118. Their illustrious history has been the subject of numerous fascinating books and their effect upon the course of world history, religion and commerce is much greater than generally recognised. They were also responsible for the erection of many churches (eg Middle Temple on the Embankment in London shown on the left) and the assembly of numerous large estates and would themselves have employed a great many stone masons.



    Although their effect upon Freemasonry is very uncertain, they had amassed considerable wealth and influence in London, Scotland and throughout the United Kingdom that cannot be overlooked. Most serious historians dismiss a direct link to the Knights Templars for lack of evidence. However, is it possible that the Knights Templars might have shared some of their knowledge and rituals with their more senior stone masons with whom they employed who later incorporated them into their own traditions?




    The Knights Templars ostensible purpose was the protection of pilgrims on their journey from the coastal port of Jaffra to Jerusalem. Initially however, there were too few of them to be an effective escort. In any event, for the first nine years of their existence, they were far too busy purposefully digging under the ruins of King Solomons Temple to be offering any support to Pilgrims. It seems clear that during their excavations they discovered something of immense spiritual or material value for they swiftly became very rich and powerful and enjoyed this position for nearly two hundred years until the fall of the Holy Lands. Evidence of Templar excavations was found by Lieutenant Warren, Royal Engineers in 1867. The Knights Templars were effectively extinguished on Friday 13th October 1307 by King Philippe of France who, broke at the time, stole their lands and possessions (a fate he inflicted upon French Jews two years earlier) and with collusion from the Pope, instructed the Inquisition to torture any Templars he managed to round up to gain evidence to legitimise his grand theft. Many of the fit and able Knights (and their entourage) and most of their wealth managed to escape. It is from their exodus from France and other parts of Europe that much of Masonic folklore stems.




    Many Knights possibly settled in the comparative backwaters of Scotland, a land ruled by the excommunicated Robert The Bruce and therefore considered comparatively safe, being largely beyond the reach of the Pope and the Inquisition. No doubt they brought with them their treasures, relics, knowledge and ceremonies as depicted on the ground floor South West window stone carving at Roslin Chapel shown below. Some knights are believed to have travelled much further than the known lands of the times and even managed to find America. Certain corn carvings (see left) at Roslin Chapel appear to confirm this.



    Given a background of organised secrecy, could it have been possible that Stonemasons guilds became convenient, if not unwitting, conduits of social refuge through the ages? Templars, who required a degree of privacy from State or Church in their thoughts, discussions or travel arrangements would have found stonemasons guilds attractive. History however, contains virtually no written references linking KT and Freemasonry until the 18th C. Most serious historians believe that a link with the Knights Templars only came about through marketing skills displayed by Ramsay in his Oration in 1737 when he attributed (in error) the origins of Freemasonry to Crusaders and the Knights of St John. Ramsey, a talented self-publicist, would have known that such a pedigree was bound to impress the French audience whom he was addressing. Robert Brydon, in his book The Masons and the Rosy Cross, informs us that Alexander Duechar confused the issue still further by his attempts to revive Scottish Templarism and integrating it within the ambit of Freemasonry.





    Rosslyn Chapel

    No discussion on Masonic history would be truly complete without a reference to Rosslyn Chapel, situated 5 miles south of Edinburgh and built in 1446 by Sir William St Clair whose family had deep Templar ancestry and alledged family ties back to Hugues de Payens. Rosslyn Chapel took 40 years to build and is highly embellished with Templar, Enochian and possibly some Masonic imagery. Given that it was constructed in an age when books could be censored or burned, it seems that William St Clair was intent on leaving permanent and peculiar encoded messages in the fabric of the chapel for posterity.



    The chapel contains the astounding “Apprentice Pillar” and numerous other intriguing stone carvings – one, on an external window (the photograph is on this web page) even depicts some form of initiation. Curiously, the official Rosslyn Chapel guidebook states that the William St Clair, brother of Edward, was granted the Charters of 1630 from the Masons of Scotland, recognising that the position of Grand Master Mason of Scotland had been hereditary in the St Clair family since it was granted by James II in 1441, the original charter having been destroyed in a fire. Whilst the relevance of Roslin Chapel within Freemasonry is highly controversial, its architectural features and carvings are outstanding and well worth a visit.





    Proven History: Pre 1700

    So much for legend, what about the facts? It is acknowledged that the Regius Manuscript held in the British Museum is the oldest genuine record of Masonic relevance and was written in @ 1390. Its author was probably a priest and this MS takes the form of an historical and instructional poem. Interestingly, the phrase “So Mote it be” is first quoted from this text. Next, it is important to consider the Cooke Manuscript (also in the British Museum) written by a Speculative mason in 1450. This is an important document because many current Masonic usages (eg the Constitutions written by Anderson in 1723) have obviously borrowed heavily from its content, which includes reference to the seven Liberal Arts and Sciences and the building of Solomons Temple. There are approximately 100 manuscripts, collectively known as the Old Charges, grouped together in four families held by various museums worldwide.



    Next, we know that the London Company of Freemasons were granted Arms in 1473 and their coat included three castles and compasses and wer incorporated within Metropolitan Grand Lodge of London’s arms upon inauguration in 2003.



    In 1583, a William Schaw was appointed by King James VI (later James I of England) as Master of the Work and Warden General. In 1598 he issued the first of the now famous Schaw Statutes which set out the duties its members owed to their Lodge. It also imposed penalties for unsatisfactory work and prohibited work with unqualified masons. Such was the profound significance of these statutes that hey are found transcribed into the Minute book of Aitcheson Haven lodge, an ordinary operative Scottish lodge which has minutes going back to 9 January 1599.



    More importantly for Freemasons today, Schaw drew up a second Statute in 1599. The importance of this document lies in the fact that it makes the first veiled reference to the existence of esoteric knowledge within the craft of stone masonry. It also reveals that The Mother Lodge of Scotland, Lodge Kilwinning No. 0 existed at that time. His regulations required all lodges to keep written records, meet at specific times and test members in the Art of Memory. As a consequence he is regarded by some as the founder of modern Freemasonry as we know it today. On the right is a photo of the ruins of the Chapter House, the site of Kilwinnings first Lodge meetings.



    The earliest known record of a Masonic initiation anywhere is that of John Boswell, Laird of Auchenleck, who was initiated in the Lodge of Edinburgh according to the lodge minutes of 8 June 1600. That lodge was Operative and Boswell appears to be an example of one of the earliest Speculative initiations and adds weight to a case for the Transition Theory of Freemasonry, at least in Scotland. The earliest records of an initiation in England include Sir Robert Moray in 1641 and Elias Ashmole in 1646. Abroad, the first native-born American to be made a Mason was probably Jonathan Belcher, in 1704, who was then the Governor of Massachusetts.



    Ashmole was a renowned author and scholar and knew contemporary Great Thinkers of the day including Robert Boyle, Sir Robert Moray, Christopher Wren, Isaac Newton and Dr John Wilkins – all early members of the Royal Society, which began its life as the Invisible College, an organization at one time led by Francis Bacon, before securing a Royal Charter from Charles II in 1662. It is understood the Invisible College often met in the early years in the Compton Room at Canonbury Tower in North London, a room embellished with wood panel carvings of Masonic significance commissioned by Bacon like the one below.



    One can imagine the level of secrecy that must have surrounded the Invisible College in its early days and in the notoriously treacherous years before and after the Reformation – the consequences of taking the wrong sides or inviting criticism of any kind in those days was often fatal and is commented on frequently enough by Pepys in his famous diary. To get a flavour of the times in mid Seventeenth Century England, bear in mind that slavery was still universal and the gunpowder plot was in recent memory. Galileo was in deep trouble with the Catholic Church by insisting that the earth revolved around the sun, Bacon’s works were banned by Rome and The Inquisition and the Courts, at least in Scotland, were still burning witches and heretics. These were still times of fear, state control and comparative intolerance. Personal safety therefore probably demanded that discussion of anything with an esoteric, moral or scientific flavour take place underground.



    Despite the risks, Freemasonry was spreading quickly. Dr Robert plot, not a freemason (indeed, he was somewhat critical), but a secretary of the Royal Society wrote in his book “The Natural History of Staffordshire” in 1686, some forty years before Premier Grand Lodge was formed, that Freemasonry was “spread more or less all over the Nation and to persons of the most eminent quality …”.





    So why would Thinkers and educated classes quietly develop or promote the concept of Freemasonry? Might it be possible that those opposed to intellectual and political suppression went underground and retained their anonymity and safety by clothing themselves with the appearance of an operative organization afforded by an early masonic lodge structure? It is then easy to see that embellishment of that structure by the adoption of old stonemasons Manuscripts and a perceived pedigree dating back to King Solomon would have given their membership a certain degree of authenticity and appeal.





    Given that non stone-masons (Speculatives) were clearly being initiated from this time in England, some historians believe that Freemasonry was in transition at this point from pure Operative Masonry to Non Operative or Speculative Freemasonry. Equally, it could be argued that around this time, England copied the Scottish Masonic structure and set up an entirely Speculative form of Freemasonry which merely bore allegorical likeness to much earlier Scottish Operative lodges. This opinion has value when one considers that a disproportionate number of early Premier Grand Masters were Scottish and that the Constitutions were written by a Scotsman, Anderson.




    Proven History: Post 1700

    Little is known of Masonic activity for seventy years after Ashmole’s initiation in 1646 except that general London Club life became very popular. In 1717, four London lodges (the Apple Tree Tavern in Charles Street, the Goose & Gridiron Ale-house in St. Pauls Churchyard (pictured opposite), Crown Ale House near Drury Street and the Rummer & Grapes Tavern in Channel Row, Westminster) formed The Premier Grand Lodge of England. The date was St John The Baptists Day, 24 June 1717. The Inaugural Festive Board was held at the Goose and Gridiron, St Pauls (right).



    Anthony Sayer (left) presided over this feast as Grand Master and Premier Grand Lodge took on the Coat of Arms first granted to the London Company of Freemasons in 1473. Interestingly, those founding lodges had a very small membership of 15 Freemasons each except for “Rummer & Grapes which had 70 members. In 1723 the Constitutions were written by Anderson whose father was PM of a lodge in Aberdeen. Clearly, our Scottish brethren had a lot to contribute towards the initial development of English Freemasonry.



    Interestingly, it has been suggested that Premier Grand Lodge only came about as a result of the threat by the Scottish Jacobite revolt in 1715. Anti-Scottish sentiment in those days might have prompted nervous London Freemasons to disassociate themselves from their Scottish roots, hide their history and strategically create a governing body allied to the Hanoverian Crown. If so, little wonder that Freemasonry now prohibits discussion of religion and politics at meetings!



    In 1730, masonic ritual having been learned parrot-fashion up until then was widely published for the first time in Prichard’s exposure entitled Masonry Dissected. Ritual prior to that point followed a two-degree system and took the form of a combination of catechisms, some simplified symbolism and the Old Charges (see Jones and Hamer's The Early Masonic Catechisms edited by Henry Carr). Some historians (eg Murray Lyon) believe that this two-tier degree system was expanded when Desaguliers (Grand Master in 1719) wrote the Third Degree and grew again when Laurence Dermott (probably) introduced the Fourth (ie Royal Arch) Degree in 1752.



    It seems reasonably clear that by this time (ie the period between 1690 and 1725), owing to a spate of exposures, that numerous current Masonic usages, customs and ritual were already in practice: The words “hele” and “conceal” and “points of fellowship” are both found in the Edinburgh Register House Manuscript of 1696; the Square Compass and Bible are mentioned together in the Dumfries MS No. 4 of @ 1710, a London newspaper in 1723 salaciously described the five Noble Orders of Architecture and Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth, made its appearance in print in a pamphlet printed in London in 1724. The word Tyler probably came into usage around this time and is thought to be derived from the French Tailleur, ie one who cuts.



    The popularity of Freemasonry grew with great speed throughout the UK and around the world from 1717 following in the wake of British settlers, merchants and the military. In 1731 the first American Grand Lodge obtained its Constitution, The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, making it the first Grand Lodge in the United States of America. Over the next 100 years, Freemasonry attracted many leading lights forming the cream of the intellectual and scientific establishment including Sir Robert Walpole, Robert Burns, Mozart, Darwin, Frederick the Great and from the USA, Franklin, and Washington. Interestingly, the Duke of Wellington was initiated in 1790 at a cost of £2 5s 5d






    However, initial successes in the UK were followed by a bad patch. This was caused by Premier Grand Lodge making drastic changes to the ritual and passwords and the creation of a third degree out of the previous two-degree ritual system. The reason for this change is unclear. One explanation might be Premier Grand Lodge’s exasperation with increasing requests for alms from poor and distressed immigrant freemasons arriving in increasing numbers from Ireland and Scotland prompted by the Industrial Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Fraudulent claims exploiting Masonic charity from information gleaned from the recent media “exposures” probably also upset them. Either way, the changes in the ritual effectively barred most Scottish and Irish Freemasons because they no longer had the right passwords; however, what they saved in misappropriated charity was lost in the goodwill of the established membership. Some traditionalists were so upset, they broke away and set up splinter groups.



    The minor splinter groups included the “Grand Lodge of All England held at York”. They claimed roots from the Saxon King Edwin who supposedly presided over masons meeting at York. Other freemasons simply never recognised Premier Grand Lodge in the first place and remained on their own.



    The next and much more significant group broke away in 1751 and was called The Grand Lodge of England, nicknamed The Antients, Those whom they left behind in The Premier Grand Lodge of England were nicknamed The “Moderns”. The break-away group called themselves “Antients” because they felt they were adhering more faithfully to the old ritual, passwords and customs. They also welcomed and heard numerous charitable petitions from Scottish and Irish Freemasons which contrasts markedly with Premier Grand Lodge priorities.



    We know that Grand Lodge certificates were in circulation by 1755. UGLE’s oldest certificate (issued to Bro De Pinna in 1767) is shown below. Click HERE for a separate article about the history of English Grand Lodge Certificates



    The Antients met initially in the Turks Head Tavern, (in what is now Gerrard Street), Soho. Their Constitutions, predominantly written by their Grand Secretary, Laurence Dermott, in 1756 were entitled Ahiman Rezon and it is commonly believed that under his influential regime, the RA ritual was augmented to include new esoteric texts now delivered by the three Principals. In 1775, Freemasons Hall in London was first built by Thomas Sandby. Freemasons Hall as we know it today was built on the same, but enlarged site in 1932 and is dedicated to the Glorious Dead who fought in the Great War.



    The motto “Vide Aude Tace” made its first appearance in the Free-Masons Calendar from 1777. It is derived from a line of “leonine” verse (of a type much used in the Middle Ages) and in full is “Audi, Vide, Tace, Si Vis Vivere In Pace” meaning Hear, see and hold your tongue, if in peace you would live on.



    From this time onwards, new degrees and rituals proliferated which fuelled fierce argument between the “Antients” and the “Moderns”. Indeed, French Freemason, JM Ragon estimated that at one point, there were over 1400 separate Masonic degrees complete with additional invented or regionalised symbolism. Consequently, sixty years of bitterness followed after the Antient and Modern schism. An example of dispute between these two Grand lodges would be that the Antients worked a four-degree system whilst the Moderns only recognised a three Degree system. To the irritation of the Moderns, they often found their members sympathetic to the fourth or Royal Arch Degree, to the point where it became regarded as an extension to the Third Degree.



    Eventually a compromise was negotiated and on St John The Evangelists Day, 27 December 1813, United Grand Lodge of England was formed, largely though the combined efforts of the Earl of Moira presiding over the Duke of Sussex (Moderns Grand Master) and the Duke of Kent (Antients Grand Master). The unification of these two bodies had enormous consequences for the ritual which had to be hurriedly reconciled, mainly in favour of the “Antients”. Most of the regulations and ritual determined then still apply to this day, with the exception that in 1832, the Triple Tau and new banners were introduced into the Royal Arch degree as the symbols of that order.





    More recently of course, certain colourful parts of RA and Craft texts have been toned down to satisfy the politically correct lobby. Further modernisation was undertaken in 2003 with the Inauguration of the Metropolitan Grand Lodge of London. This enabled some 50,000 London Freemasons to have a separate identity from United Grand Lodge of England and enabled UGLE to concentrate on its worldwide affairs and duties.



    There is another aspect of the history of Freemasonry that should not be completely overlooked: The objection to Freemasonry by the Catholic Church. Freemasonry has been banned by the Catholic Church several times beginning in 1738 by the Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement 12th; this was followed by another Bull in 1751 and again in 1884. Finally these Bulls were rescinded in 1974 and the Vatican has since adopted a more tolerant stance towards Freemasonry.



    The reasons the Vatican gave for their objections were varied. However, according to Matthew Scanlan (Freemasonry Today issue 25, 2003), the reason for the first Papal Bull was not based on any ideological objection to Freemasonry as is often supposed. Indeed in the wake of the 1738 Bull, the Popes brother, Cardinal Corsini wrote stressing that Freemasonry in England was merely an innocent amusement. The main objection, according to Corsini, was that a lodge in Florence founded by Freemason Baron Von Stosch had become corrupt. Stosch, it should be noted, was employed by the Foreign Office in London and was possibly using Freemasonry as a cover to spy on the exiled Stuart cause in Rome, of whom Pope Clement was sympathetic. The ensuing ban caused widespread misunderstanding for centuries with the assumption being that it was based purely on theological grounds.



    Indeed, it is recorded that such was the ill feeling towards freemasons in some Catholic countries that in Portugal in 1810, for example, the Duke of Wellington had to curtail his officers public Masonic activities whilst stationed there for fear of public unrest (Yasha Beresiner MQ Magazine April 2004). In more recent times most dictatorships (including those of Hitler, Franco and Mussolini) and certain zealous politicians have shown aggression towards bodies of men, including Freemasons, who might frustrate their fanatical plans by upholding freedom of thought, law and order and tolerance for ones neighbour.



    In modern times, it is therefore somewhat gratifying that the EU has now drafted legislation that coincides with and to a degree protects Masonic principles, namely Articles 9 (right to freedom of thought), 10 (freedom of expression) and 11 (freedom of assembly and association) of the European Convention which are maintained by the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg.



    Conclusion

    So, on reflection, do we consider Freemasonry originated from Megalithic times, King Solomon, Athelstan, the Knights Templars, Medieval Stone Masons, Schaw, Box charities, the Invisible College or the Rosicrucians? Moreover, do we consider the roots of modern Freemasonry to be more vested in Scotland or England or perhaps France? We can only speculate. Whatever course Freemasonry actually followed, it has inspired millions of people across many countries for more than three centuries and has attracted famous personalities from Europe, United States of America and other Continents. Providing Freemasonry adapts to the times, explains its positive purpose more effectively (a task incumbent on each freemason) and learns how to handle media savvy opponents, it will doubtless continue to do so for several centuries more

    http://www.oelodge.uklinux.net/history.htm
  2. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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    THE KNIGHTS OF TEMPLER
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Templarsign.jpg

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    The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple (French: Ordre du Temple or Templiers), were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders.[3] The organization existed for approximately two centuries in the Middle Ages.

    Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church around 1129, the Order became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades.[4] Non-combatant members of the Order managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, innovating financial techniques that were an early form of banking,[5][6] and building many fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land.

    The Templars' existence was tied closely to the Crusades; when the Holy Land was lost, support for the Order faded. Rumours about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order, took advantage of the situation. In 1307, many of the Order's members in France were arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, and then burned at the stake.[7] Under pressure from King Philip, Pope Clement V disbanded the Order in 1312. The abrupt disappearance of a major part of the European infrastructure gave rise to speculation and legends, which have kept the "Templar" name alive into the modern day.
  3. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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    Eye of Providence

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    The Eye of Providence, or the all-seeing eye, is a symbol showing an eye surrounded by rays of light or a glory and usually enclosed by a triangle. It is sometimes interpreted as representing the eye of God keeping watch on humankind .

    Religious use of the Eye

    Imagery of an all-seeing eye can be traced back to Egyptian mythology and the Eye of Horus. It also appears in Buddhism, where Buddha is also regularly referred to as the "Eye of the World" throughout Buddhist scriptures (e.g. Mahaparinibbana Sutta) and is represented as a trinity in the shape of a triangle known as the Tiratna, or Triple Gem.

    In Medieval and Renaissance European iconography, the Eye (often with the addition of an enclosing triangle) was an explicit image of the Christian Trinity. Seventeenth-century depictions of the Eye of Providence sometimes show it surrounded by clouds or sun bursts.

    FREEMASONARY AND THE EYE OF PROVIDANCE

    Today, the Eye of Providence is usually associated with Freemasonry. The Eye first appeared as part of the iconography of the Freemasons in 1797, with the publication of Thomas Smith Webb's Freemasons Monitor.[3] Here, it represents the all-seeing eye of God and is a reminder that a Mason's thoughts and deeds are always observed by God (who is referred to in Masonry as the Grand Architect of the Universe). Typically, the Masonic Eye of Providence has a semi-circular glory below the eye—often the lowest rays extend farther down. Sometimes the Eye is enclosed by a triangle.

    Popular among conspiracy theorists is the claim that the Eye of Providence shown atop an unfinished pyramid on the Great Seal of the United States indicates the influence of Freemasonry in the founding of the United States. This was dramatised in the 2004 Disney film National Treasure. However, the first Masonic use of the Eye dates to 14 years after the creation of the Great Seal, and the Masonic version does not incorporate a pyramid, although the enclosing triangle is often interpreted as one. Furthermore, among the three members of the original design committee for the Great Seal (or any of the ones that followed it), only Benjamin Franklin was a Mason. Indeed, many Masonic organizations have explicitly denied any connection to the creation of the Seal.
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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    THE MASONIC SEAL OF AMERICA

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    way back in the Egyptian Times, as far back as 2,500 B.C. We know ancient Egypt had secret societies. As far back as then.
    A small little group called the Knights Templar, were formed and there was 9 of them. They supposedly went to Jeruselum fighting in a war for 9 years. But is fact they were searching for something, what? Nobodies quite sure but whatever they found out or discovered or went for, It appears as they found it and brought it back with them. Upon return they started allowing memberships into the "Knights Templar" secret society, and a membership fee? Entire estate's, Castle's, land all kinds of wordly goods. Within a very short time they became very very wealthy, and had alot of "pull" politically. This put off France. And they sent to capture these "Knights Templar" but they fled England and went to Scotland, changing their name to "Scottish Right of Free Masonry"

    This group which is essentially the "Knights Templar" under a new name; (Scottish Right of Free Masonry) proceeded to run it's secret society getting more powerful... And established the first offshoot of themselves tightled the "Free Masons" of London...They also established what are now called "Lodges" and within 3 years of this new London group the "Free Masons" being created it appeared in America. 1730 is the first year of recorded "Free Mason" meetings....and the establishment of the group here in America....

    Did you know that 50 out of the 51 signature's on the Constitution are from openly known "Free Mason's" ???

    Now around the same time period a group called the "Illuminati" formed in London and were the elite of the elite who liked to get together and discuss the politics of Governments. Well as you might see very clearly, most any country wouldn't allow that out in the open. They were basically the first version of "The Council of Foregn Relations"....They lasted for 8 years and are reported to not be a real group since.

    who-knows......

    We see later on down the road here a handfull of secret societies set up at the pristine elite college's.....Primarily "Skull and Bones" at Yale. Formed in 1832... About 100 years after Free Mason's appeared in America... And by "Free Mason" money and member's who founded it.

    The amount of people who were in the Skull and Bones society, almost every single member goes on to later hold a very important or powerful position in public and world affairs.

    "President's are not elected, but more chosen and selected based on Blood"

    I mean both the last choices Bush and Kerry were both in the Skull and Bones admittingly. Even across party lines these societies are all connected because the are all offshoots from the one before..... Almost like having a cup covering another cup that's covering another cup and so on and so on. Until you have many layers...

    These secret societies are the pecking order and structure of promoting "family names" and "old money" and preserving it. Also the control of the entire world.

    Which brings me to the dollar bill.



    Notice the eye on the pyramid? Well that is a "Free Mason" Symbol... And notice what's writtin under it?

    Novus Ordo Seclorum = The Latin motto "novus ordo seclorum" was suggested by Charles Thomson when he put together the final design for the reverse side of the Great Seal in June 1782: "Novus" means: new, young, fresh, novel. "Ordo" means: series, row, order. "Seclorum, a shortened form of seculorum (sæculorum), is the plural of seculum (sæculum), means: generations, centuries, ages.

    And...."The single eye was a well-established artistic convention for an 'omniscient Ubiquitous Deity' in the medallic art of the Renaissance. In 1614 the frontispiece of The History of the World by Sir Walter Raleigh showed an eye in a cloud labeled "Providentia" overlooking a globe." hmmm could be interesting.....

    But what I'm getting at is "The New World Order" The NWO, is real and in effect currently. And for that matter has been damn near controlling everything that happens since the Knights of Templar......There were 4 who worked on the design of the dollar bill...out of them. Only 1 was was a known free mason (Benjamin Franklin)
    And guess who signed and approved the dollar bill design? Have fun finding out who was the president in the year 1782.....I find it very odd that George Washington wasn't president until 1789-1797..... Yet someone and who approved the symbols on our American Currency in 1782.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Now I want to talk about a certain trait we all seem to have. And that is that "Birds of a Feather will flock together" People have been partitioning out and segregating themselves for a long time. We even see clique's form on a forum that has been around a while.... And it's a perfectly normal thing and we all do it. You feel more comfortable being around people who are like you or similar to you... We can all relate to this right?

    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    OK, Apply that principle to VERY VERY WEALTHY FAMILIES... Nothing has changed even since the days of ROME when you married according to "blood line" and "social class" We do it today ourselves.....Only not so methodically thought out. Imagine a select few people who had so much control and so much power they could pretty much do or effect anything to happen and they got together and organised against those who aren't in the "know" You'd always have a head start....to us. We are the Barbarians to them, believe that.

    In 1921 The Council of Foreign Relations (secret society) was formed by elite member's of the "Free Mason's" Group and was formed by a David Rockefeller.... They allow a place to have a "free forum thinking community were no-one is held accountable for whatever they say" even if it's treasonous. Going back to the Illuminati, see the resemblance now? Only this time it is formed as a secret society and allowed to be... They in return form the "Tri-Lateral Commision"

    It's important to note that some member's of the Tri-Lateral Commision and the Council of Foreign Relations are: British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Bill Clinton, the head exec of the World Trade, George Bush Sr. and Jr., Also people like Jimmy Carter and many many more, If asked I'll get a list of openly known Tri-Lateral Member's....

    These people at the Tri-Lateral Commision basically wrote the whole thing for the formation of the U.N. and handed it over to the president to sign it. He taking all the credit. And boom there's a UN.

    All of this builds up to the infamous "Bilderberg Group" And they are so secret we don't even have a name for them. They are the ultra super elite of the elite who meet up once a year at the ultra exclusive Bilderberg Hotel and Estates.... Now you tell me if I'm crazy but, I'm willing to guess that if you get 100-120 of the most powerful men on the planet who's names include and are not limited too:

    Henry Kissinger
    Peter Jennings
    Bill Clinton

    The entire royalty of all European Countries and alot more names, people like Bill Gates... Basically if you had to sit around and name 100 of the most wealthy and powerful people on Earth, (yes, they were there)

    And I bet the didn't have actual Military Forces on a shoot to kill with ultra supreme security surrounding all these people. This meeting is where all the business world wide happens...I am talking about people from England, Saudi Arabia, China, Russia, Japan, America, and pretty much the power player's.....Across party lines and political beliefs and government's. Yet they all meet up together.

    The media, well all the head of Washington Post, New York Times, USA Today, and all the major Networks (for TV) have an open invite to the meeting, but must first agree that they will not report about it. AT ALL......

    So here's who the man is......It's what 120 super elite rich people decide and that's what goes.

    "Whoever has the Gold, Makes the Rules".......live it, learn it, and realize what's going on around you!!!

    I believe in this 100% and it's not even a conspiracy, I have demonstrated how all the way back to Egyption Times people had secret societies that affected the Government's and World around them..........................

    If these people get what they are aiming for, I fear that we will have a

    (((Global Version of Nazi Germany)))


    Now i may have missed a few things but over all I think I nailed it on the head.

    The New World Order is here...........................


    THIS WAS A POST FROM ANOTHER FORUM.
    http://images.google.com.pk/imgres?imgurl=http://img260.imageshack.us/img260/1379/halfdollar7il.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.forumgarden.com/forums/conspiracy-theories/10196-man.html&usg=__PWvvzEzmIbfMnKrv1ssQDzKJehk=&h=384&w=367&sz=268&hl=en&start=5&tbnid=pktAQCkrTRiDOM:&tbnh=123&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3DFree%2BMason%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG
  5. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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  6. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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    I AM NOT SURE BUT SOME PEOPLE CONNECT FREEMASONARY WITH DAJJAL
  7. Owais
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    Owais SENIOR MEMBER

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    Thats true my friend. all of US Presidents were of Massonic order except John F. Kennedy who was assassinated by them. they created the NWO to force one eye agenda on the world.



    watch zaid hamid exposes the game of these followers of dajjal(Zionists) who controls world's economy



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  8. H2O3C4Nitrogen
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    H2O3C4Nitrogen SENIOR MEMBER

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    [video=google;-9023187359471101619]http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9023187359471101619"[/video]
  9. forcetrip
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    forcetrip PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    Please stop this time wasting nonsense propaganda .. They are nothing but things to distract you from real issues at hand .. They just make more money on your ignorance
  10. chindit
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    chindit FULL MEMBER

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    yawn, this is boring. is anyone even interested in this kind of stuff here?
  11. Owais
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    Owais SENIOR MEMBER

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    can u please tell us what do you mean by "real issues at hand"??
    the reality on ground is that USA is hijacked by these jews and christian zionists and they are using USA as a bulldozer to fulfill their objectives. see the Iraq, afghanistan, the greed to capture most of world's wealth (including oil and gold). is this not reality for you??
  12. Meesna
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    Meesna FULL MEMBER

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    You may want to see arrivals;

    The Arrivals - Complete Series (Part 1)

    The Arrivals - Complete Series (Part 2)

    The Arrivals - Complete Series (Part 3)

    The Arrivals - Complete Series (Part 4)

    The Arrivals - Complete Series (Part 5)

    Don't have to agree with everything but try to see at least an hour of it before making up mind.
  13. TexasJohn
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    TexasJohn SENIOR MEMBER

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    Owalis and others:

    I am a freemason and a Knights Templar. All US presidents were NOT Freemasons. All the signors of the US constitution were not Masons - most of them were.

    We have nothing to do with the Illuminati, or the Skull & Bones group..

    The history portion of the origins are mostly correct. The conspiracy portion starts @ post #5 and gets more and more hilarious!!

    Relax, we are not trying to take over the world!!:D
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  14. Patriot
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    Patriot ELITE MEMBER

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    I don't know anything about freemason .What exactly is freemason ?
  15. TexasJohn
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    TexasJohn SENIOR MEMBER

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    There you go. It's from a Lodge in Canada, it's sums it up.

    What is Freemasonry