Chinese Space Capabilities

Discussion in 'Chinese Defence Forum' started by Lankan Ranger, Dec 11, 2010.

  1. Lankan Ranger

    Lankan Ranger ELITE MEMBER

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    Chinese Space Capabilities (Strictly)

    The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of the People's Republic of China responsible for the national space program.

    It is responsible for planning and development of space activities. CNSA and China Aerospace Corporation (CASC) assumed the authority over space development efforts previously held by the Ministry of Aerospace Industry.

    CNSA was established as a government institution to develop and fulfill China's due international obligations, with the approval by the Eighth National People's Congress of China (NPC).

    The Ninth NPC assigned CNSA as an internal structure of the Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND).

    CNSA assumes the following main responsibilities: signing governmental agreements in the space area on behalf of organizations, inter-governmental scientific and technical exchanges; and also being in charge of the enforcement of national space policies and managing the national space science, technology and industry.

    Up to now, China has signed governmental space cooperation agreements with Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, India, Italy, Pakistan, Russia, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States and some other countries. Significant achievements have been scored in the bilateral and multilateral and technology exchanges and cooperation.
     
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  2. Lankan Ranger

    Lankan Ranger ELITE MEMBER

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    Kaituozhe 1 Launch Vehicle

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    Kaituozhe 1 (KT-1) series solid-propellant launch vehicle (LV) has been developed by the Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co. Ltd. since 2000. Allegedly based on China’s second-generation, solid-propellant ballistic missile technology, the KaiTuoZhe series was designed to provide a small-orbital launcher that can be launched from anywhere without complex fuelling and launch facilities required by conventional ChangZheng (Long March) series liquid-propellant LVs. The basic variant KT-1 is capable of placing up to 50kg payload into 600km low earth orbits (LEO).

    China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) established Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co. Ltd. in May 2000 as the primary contractor for its all-solid-propellant space launch vehicle programme.

    The company was responsible for the development and marketing of the vehicle, with the 6th Space Academy in Inner Mongolia responsible for the solid motors. The development programme officially entered the engineering phase in November 2000, with the third-stage successfully tested on 25 February 2001.

    Kaituozhe 1 solid-propellant launch vehicle (Chinese Internet)
    The KT-1 is a 13.6m, four-stage design. The 1.4m diameter first stage has four nozzles. The total launch mass is 20t. It is the first Chinese-made space launch vehicle to be equipped with a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS) for guidance.

    Capable of being launched from a mobile, truck-based platform, the KT-1 provides the fast deployment of a micro satellite into earth orbit. Without the need to rely on complex launch pad facilities, the vehicle can be launched from almost any location, increasing its survivability in time of war.

    So far the KT-1 has been launched twice, but none fully successful. In the first launch in September 2002, the LV failed to place a 35.8kg microsatellite into the 300 km polar orbit due to a second stage malfunction. A second launch in September 2003 sent a 40kg PS-2 microsatellite into the space but on the wrong orbit. Chinese space officials insisted that the LV guidance system, fairing separation and satellite-launcher separation all worked according to plan but also admitted that "not all objectives were achieved”.

    Improved Variants

    Space Solid Fuel Rocket Carrier Co. Ltd. also developed an improved variant, originally designated KT-2 and later renamed KT-1A. This is a four-stage orbital launch vehicle capable of sending 300kg payload into the Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) and polar orbit. With an estimated launch mass of 40t, the KT-1A consists of a new larger diameter first stage motor, topped by the first two stages of the basic KT-1 vehicles.

    A larger size KT-2A (later renamed KT-1B) was designed for polar orbits missions with greater payload capability (~400kg and up to three separate payloads). The vehicle consists of two solid boosters derived from the first stage motor of the KT-1, a larger-diameter core second stage motor like that of the KT-2, a new larger-diameter third stage motor, and an enormous new fairing.

    Kaituozhe 1 (KT-1) Launch Vehicle - SinoDefence.com
     
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  3. SpArK

    SpArK PDF THINK TANK: ANALYST

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    China to launch seventh navigation satellite soon


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    BEIJING (PTI): China will launch its seventh orbiter into space in "coming days" as part of its indigenous satellite-navigation and positioning network.

    A spokesman for the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, in southwest China's Sichuan Province said Thursday that the "Beidou" or Compass, navigation satellite will be launched on a Long March-3A carrier rocket.

    The satellite and rocket are now in good conditions, state-run Xinhua news agency quoted him as saying.

    The satellite is expected to join six other satellites already in orbit to form a network, which will eventually consist of 35 satellites.

    China started building its own satellite navigation system to end its dependence upon the US GPS system in 2000, when it sent two orbiters as a double-satellite experimental positioning system.

    Beidou, as the system is called, is designed to provide navigation, time and short message services in the Asia and Pacific region in 2010 and will be capable of providing global navigation services by 2020.

    China to launch seventh navigation satellite soon - Brahmand.com
     
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  4. pulsar220

    pulsar220 FULL MEMBER

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    China launches new satellite to rival US GPS

    BEIJING: China today successfully launched its seventh orbiter into space which would be a part of independent satellite navigation and positioning network to rival the United State's Global Position System (GPS).

    It was the seventh orbiter that China has launched for its independent satellite navigation and positioning network, also known as Beidou, or Compass system, state run Xinhua newsagency reported.

    The arbiter was launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in southwestern Sichuan Province early today.

    It is the 136th flight for the country's Long March series of rockets.

    The new satellite, launched on a Long March-3A carrier rocket, joins six other satellites already in orbit to form a network, which will eventually consist of more than 30 satellites.

    China started building its own satellite navigation system to end its dependence upon the US GPS system in 2000, when it sent two orbiters as a double-satellite experimental positioning system.

    Beidou, as the system is called, is designed to provide navigation, time and short message services in the Asia and Pacific region before 2012 and will be capable of providing global navigation services by 2020

    China launches new satellite to rival US GPS - The Economic Times
     
  5. webber

    webber FULL MEMBER

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    China to explore Mars with Russia this year

    BEIJING (AFP) – China's first Mars probe is expected to be launched in October this year in a joint operation with Russia after a two-year delay, state media reported Sunday.

    The probe, Yinghuo-1, was due to blast off in October 2009 with Russia's "Phobos Explorer" from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan but the launch was postponed, the official Xinhua news agency said.

    Quoting an unnamed expert at the China Academy of Space Technology, the report said the blast-off had been pushed back to October this year. It added that China planned to launch a Mars probe on its own in 2013.

    According to previous reports, the orbiter is due to probe the Martian space environment with a special focus on what happened to the water that appears to have once been abundant on the planet's surface.

    China has already begun probing the moon and this will be the next step in its ambitious space exploration programme, which it aims to be on a par with those of the United States and Russia.

    It currently has a probe -- the Chang'e 2 -- orbiting the moon and carrying out various tests in preparation for the expected 2013 launch of the Chang'e-3, which it hopes will be its first unmanned lunar landing.

    It also became the world's third nation to put a man in space independently -- after the United States and Russia -- when Yang Liwei piloted the one-man Shenzhou-5 space mission in 2003.

    always have to wait for the National Day, bureaucrat!
     
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  6. mil-avia

    mil-avia FULL MEMBER

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    Last edited: Jan 29, 2011
  7. Obambam

    Obambam SENIOR MEMBER

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    China tests unmanned spacecraft: Voice of Russia
    A small article that has been circulating the web yesterday:

    "China has successfully tested its first orbital unmanned spacecraft capable of staying in the outer space for at least 270 days and dealing with various defense tasks, including the destruction of communication satellites.

    This Chinese robotic space plane will most certainly challenge US air force’s X-37B unmanned spacecraft that performed its first mission last year. This elusive spacecraft is capable of striking any target on Earth at any time and cannot be tracked down using the existing ABM means."
     
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  8. qwerrty

    qwerrty FULL MEMBER

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    Construction of World's Largest Radio Telescope Begins in Southwest China
    2011-01-27


    Workers in southwest China's Guiyang Province have started leveling the ground upon which a five-hundred-meter aperture spherical telescope (FAST) will stand, local authorities said Wednesday.


    Located in Pingtan County, the telescope will be the world's largest, the size of 30 football fields.

    Its construction has begun after 14 years of preparation and two years of land surveys and resident relocations, Pingtang County government officials said.

    The telescope's main spherical reflector will be made up of 4,600 panels.

    Construction will be complete in 2016.

    The sparsely populated, underdeveloped region will provide the quiet environment the telescope needs to capture electromagnetic waves.

    The facility, at a cost of more than 667 million yuan (101.3 million U.S. dollars), will improve China's astronomical observation abilities.

    It will help Chinese and international astronomers discover some of the secrets of the universe.
    (Source: Xinhua)
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  9. qwerrty

    qwerrty FULL MEMBER

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    KAUFU
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    --
    SPORT
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    --
    SMESE
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    --
     
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  10. no_name

    no_name ELITE MEMBER

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    The mirror pieces of very large telescopes like these will require precise calibration system as they tend to distort under their own weight overtime, since glass is a form of liquid. (assuming that is what they made the reflectors out of).

    Also for the sun shinning at the middle of noon what would be the converged power?
     
  11. applesauce

    applesauce SENIOR MEMBER

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    glass does distort under its own weight but not because they are a liquid, i think i read this somewhere on wiki's common misconceptions page
     
  12. no_name

    no_name ELITE MEMBER

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    There is a difference between a thin window glass panel and lenses used in large telescopes:

    Lens sag is a problem that sometimes afflicts very large refracting telescopes. It is the equivalent of mirror sag in reflecting telescopes. It occurs when the physical weight of the glass causes a distortion in the shape of the lens because the lens can only be supported by the edges. A mirror on the other hand can be effectively supported by the entire opposite face, making mirror sag much less of a problem. One expensive solution to lens sag is to place the telescope in orbit around the Earth.

    There are structural problems involved in manufacturing and manipulating large-aperture lenses. Since a lens can only be held in place by its edge, the center of a large lens will sag due to gravity, distorting the image it produces. The largest practical lens size in a refracting telescope is around 1 meter[14]. In contrast, a mirror can be supported by the whole side opposite its reflecting face, allowing for reflecting telescope designs that can overcome gravitational sag. The largest reflector designs currently exceed 10 meters in diameter.

    Even though in reflecting telescopes the problem is less severe, it will still have an affect on any large lense with curvature.

    Random search on google came up with this bad quality pdf as an example:
    http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20000091030_2000123150.pdf
     
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    Last edited: Feb 1, 2011
  13. Brotherhood

    Brotherhood SENIOR MEMBER

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    China Mars probe to be launched in November - People's Daily Online February 21, 2011

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    China's first Mars probe will be launched from a Russian rocket in November, said local media on Monday.

    The Mars explorer, Yinghuo-1, marks the country's first attempt at deep space exploration after its sending a probe to the moon.

    The 110-kilogram micro-satellite was originally planned to be launched in October 2009 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan but the launch was postponed.

    The orbiter is due to probe the Martian space environment with a special focus on what happened to the water that are supposed to have existed on the planet. China is aiming to build a space exploration program on par with those of the United States and Russia.

    China currently has a probe -- the Chang'e 2 -- orbiting the moon and carrying out various tests in preparation for the expected 2013 launch of the Chang'e-3, which it hopes will be its first
    unmanned lunar landing.


    People's Daily Online
     
  14. Brotherhood

    Brotherhood SENIOR MEMBER

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    China achieves key aerospace breakthrough - People's Daily Online February 25, 2011

    On Feb. 24 it was is reported that during the 12th Five-Year Program (2011-2015), the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation will complete a number of key aerospace projects, which include a manned space program, a lunar exploration program, a second generation navigation system and a high-resolution of the earth observation system.

    Other major science and technology tasks will also be carried out, such as breakthroughs in space rendezvous and docking techniques, a lunar landing probe, a new type of delivery vehicles and a series of core technologies.

    China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation indicated that the group will go all out to complete the work of aerospace research and production test, which has successfully completed missile weapons experiments and 20 spacecraft launches in order to lay foundations for rapid development of China's space industry.

    By Zhang Qian, People's Daily Online
     
  15. Brotherhood

    Brotherhood SENIOR MEMBER

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    China to conduct over 20 space missions in 2011 - People's Daily Online March 02, 2011

    China plans to carry out more than 20 space missions this year, an acceleration of efforts to improve its space technologies, an expert said Tuesday.

    The figure would see a big increase from the 15 space missions China conducted in 2010, Qi Faren, former chief designer for Shenzhou spaceships said.

    Qi, a member of the 11th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, made the remarks before the annual session of the country's top political advisory body, which is scheduled to open Thursday.

    He said China would enhance its capabilities of space exploration, land observation and information technology in the next five years. The country would also seek breakthroughs in the innovation of space technologies and applications that are not advanced enough to meet the nation's needs, he said.

    China should intensify efforts to develop technologies for space exploration, he said, adding that the efforts aim for an effective and peaceful use of space resources.

    China would further step up international cooperation for manned space programs and open its future space station to foreign astronauts and scientists, Qi said.

    Source:Xinhua